Epistemology by the Muslims

Abstract

There is no special and comprehensive definition of knowledge, it refers to science in its wide meaning, and hence all the definitions are not real but verbal. Epistemology was presented as an independent science in Europe since three centuries ago, the first who wrote about it was the English philosopher June Luke in 1960, while, for the Muslims, it suffered from stability and inactivity for a long time, where imitation dominated thinking, and this theory was scattered within their philosophical research and did not appear as independent title or subject as what had happened in the West ،Epistemology occupies an important status within the mental and philosophical researches , it represents the foundation stone of philosophy as it the base of the thought that looks for truth realization and to obtain certainty to produce an integrated theory of the human knowledge، Epistemology in the Islamic philosophy is distinguished with certain characteristics in spite of its different directions, the Muslim philosophers deals with this theory in un independent sections within their writings, we may found it in the works of Avicenna, Al-Sahrwardy, Al-Shirazy Saderuldeen, Al-Sader MoHammed Baqhir and Al-Tabataba`y Mohammed Hussain،The division of Epistemology is not a restricted one, it could be subjected to more than one division according to different considerations, knowing its stages has a great effect on evaluating its different types that it shows how to reach the predicates which have important effects on the other sciences. The truth criteria do not go beyond the knowledge frame, where knowledge itself distinguishes the right knowledge and the wrong knowledge, the teal standard of distinguishing is the axiomatic knowledge.