Detection of C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) serum levels in healthy smokers and nonsmokers


Smoking is one of the major lifestyle factors influencing the health of human beings. In response to cigarette smoke, activated inflammatory cells produce a great variety of inflammatory mediators, such as CRP and TNF- α, also cigarette smoke affects the IgA levels in serum of smokers. We included in our study 40 healthy smokers (25 males and 15 females), and 16 healthy nonsmokers (10 males and 6 females) as a control group. Smokers group was classified into two subgroups: less than one pack (20 subjects) and more than one pack per day (20 subjects). The serum levels of CRP and TNF-α were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Otherwise IgA levels were assessed by Radial immunodiffusion (RID). The levels of CRP, TNF-α and IgA in serum were significantly higher in smokers group than non smokers (P< 0.05). CRP and IgA concentrations are significantly higher (P < 0.05) in serum of smokers with more than one pack per day compared with those with less than one pack per day. We also noticed an increased TNF- α concentration in the serum of smokers with more than one pack per day compared with those with less than one pack per day but the result was not significant. We did not found any significant influence of gender in smokers on TNF-α, CRP and IgA levels. On the other hand, the results shown significant increased in the levels of serum CRP with age increased. There was positive correlation between the levels of TNF-α and CRP, the levels of CRP with IgA and weak positive correlation between the level of TNF-α and IgA in the serum of our smoker subjects (r = 0.4), (r = 0.37) and (r = 0.29) respectively. The significant increased CRP and TNF-α serum levels could induce in smokers, suggest the imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors as a result of tobacco Smoke exposure. Serum levels of TNF-α and CRP might be useful biomarkers for the selection of heavy smokers with a risk of developing smoke induced diseases.