The Study Of The Surface Area Change Of Lake Al-Razzaza Using Geographic Information System (GIS) And Using Remote Sensing Technology

Abstract

Al-Razzaza, the second largest lake in Iraq and wider lower lakes being created at estimated surface area of 1810 km2 and is one of the important sources of wealth of fish, also; It described as being a blue dot surrounded by desert. Started the water level in the lake to decline starting from the eighties and became this decline accelerated since 1990 due to climate change and rising atmospheric temperature and evaporation process continuing and inadequate water contained the lake to compensate for the shortfall and also because of low water levels in the Euphrates River, which is one of the most important source the waters of the lake, all this led to a decrease in the water level and the surface area and increasing salinity of soil that threatened a real disaster for the lake. This study employed both remote sensing and geographic information systems to estimate the change in the ratio of the surface area to Al-Razzaza lake, starting from 1990 up to the year 2012. In addition, chromatic classified maps show the changes during that period of time based on satellite scenes of the Landsat ETM+, and Google Earth scene after registration process was made based on Landsat ETM+ image. Also, we present a table that clarifies the percentage of change of surface areas for above period of time that followed in 1990. Then we represent such a change through a graph gives an idea of the great loss suffered by this lake. Also, this graph gives an impression about what the lake shape will be in subsequent years. The results showed that the percentage change was significant during this period, such that the decreased surface area was from 1621 km2 in 1990 to 270 km2 in 2012.