The Modulatory Effect ofIraqi Propolis Extract onMitomycin-C Induced MicroneulcusFormation in Albino Male Mice


Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous hive product. It consists of exudate from plants
mixed with beeswax and used be bees as glue in general-purpose as sealer and
draught-exclude for beehives. Propolis, used in folk medicine, has attracted
researchers attention to elucidate its therapeutic properties, as antioxidant and
anticancer. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the role of propolis in
modulating effects of mitomycin C; MMC.
Ethanolic solutions of propolis were prepared and administered to albino male mice
(Mus musculus) through three types of experiments. In the first, the propolis was
tested alone, while in the second and third experiments, propolis was given orally
before and after MMC (pre- and post-treatments, respectively). All experiments
were paralleled by negative and positive controls. The investigated parameters were
total count of leucocytes, mitotic index, micronucleus formation and chromosomal
Fac Med Baghdad
In the first experiment, the results indicated that 10 mg/kg/day of propolis enhanced
the parameters investigated, and a significant increase was observed in the total
count of leucocytes and mitotic index. Also, there was no significant difference in
the rate of micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations as compared to
negative controls. In the second (pre-treatment) and third (post-treatment)
experiments, a similar picture was drawn. However, the dose 10 mg/kg/day was
more effective in this respect.
The results indicate that propolis may act upon the immunological system and has
the potential to inhibit the genotoxic effects of MMC. A further study will be
needed to determine the effects of compounds isolated from propolis and evaluate
the synergistic effects on MI and MN.