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Al-daleel journal

مجلة الدليل

ISSN: 26176912
Publisher: the Holy Shrine of Imam Hussein
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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A quarterly refereed journal for intellectual and doctrinal studies published by Al-Daleel institute affiliated to Imam Hussain Holy shrine

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Table of content: 2018 volume: issue:3

Article
Knowing the Creator between rational possibility and human inability
معرفة الخالق بين الإمكان العقليّ والعجز البشريّ

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Abstract

Summary There is a problematic entailing that the human perceptual system is not only limited but also unable to perceive the absolute and eternal issues; therefore, human intelligence is impossible to realize and perceive the absolute reality of God although human intelligence itself deems necessary to recognize the Creator, either because it is rationally obligatory to thank the munificent power or because of many other reasons. The current essay sheds light on the issue of the recognition of God between rational possibility and human inability, through disintegrating the ranks of the recognition of God, both the possible and the impossible, in order to remove this apparent contradiction that are appertained to the intelligence. The recognition of God is one of the central issues of the Islamic view of the world, since this issue stands for the foundation on which all other creedal and doctrinal issues are based, such as the issues of the recognition of the Prophet, the recognition of the Imam, and eschatology as well as all other secondary issues and laws that branch from these major ones, such as prayer, fasting, Hajj pilgrimage and so on. At the strength of this fact, the recognition of the Supreme Principle is the wellspring of all other recognitions and beliefs. This fact can easily be understood from the Holy Prophet who is reported to have said: “Recognition of God is the support and basis of the religion.” On the basis of this, the ranks of recognition directly reflect powerfully or weakly on the other beliefs, behaviors and lifestyle of man in this worldly life. Likewise, on account of man’s ranks of recognition, his situation in the Hereafter is decided. However, the validity of all these suppositions primarily depends on proving the possibility of man’s recognizing the Creator, since this issue is challenged by the problematic of human mentality’s inability to recognize the Absolute God, since man’s mentality and intellect are finite, restricted, and too failing to recognize the Infinite, Absolute Being. Thus, it is impossible for the finite and restricted intellect to comprehend the Absolute Fact. The current essay is an attempt to give adequate answers to this problematic by means of distinguishing between the ranks of recognition and disintegrating its circles. As a next step, the essay reviews the researches resulting therefrom, such as the necessity of recognizing the Creator and many other studies. الخلاصة ثمّة إشكاليّةٌ تقرّر محدوديّة جهاز الإدراك البشريّ، وعجزه عن إدراك القضايا المطلقة واللامتناهية، ومن هنا فلا يمكن للعقل الإنسانيّ إدراك حقيقة الله المطلقة، مع أنّ العقل نفسه يحكم بوجوب معرفة الباري، إمّا من جهة وجوب شكر المنعم أو غيرها. في هذا المقال نسلّط الضوء على موضوع المعرفة الإلهيّة بين الإمكان العقليّ والعجز البشريّ، وذلك من خلال التفكيك بين مراتب المعرفة الإلهيّة الممكنة منها والمحالة؛ لرفع هذا التناقض الْبَدْوِيِّ في أحكام العقل.


Article
The innate recognition of God; its reality and indication to the existence of God
المعرفة الفطرية... حقيقتها ونحو دلالتها على وجود الإله

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Summary In this article, we have tried to shed light on all important aspects of the innate recognition of God. After dealing with the subject historically, and looking into its evolution over ages, we study it from the viewpoint of religious texts and discuss the cognitive value of this kind of knowledge and different works by Muslim and western scholars on the existence of God, beside the objections aroused against them. According to the findings of this article, Western reports on the demonstration of nature suffer from some cognitive problems that Muslim thinkers have dealt with, studied them thoroughly, and then, offered studies without them. Thus, one can keep to nature as a way to knowing God and proving His existence. Religious texts emphasized on nativism of religion, especially nativism of monotheism, where some traditions (hadiths) suggest that if religion had not been innate, and the covenant had not been made between God and man (in the world of spirits), no one would ever know his Lord. However, nature is one of common topics that are concerned in studying of different branches of Humanities and Islamic sciences like Qur’an interpretation, theology, psychology, pedagogy, and sociology. Anyhow, the relation between the theory of nature and anthropology has a big impact on humanities. In this article, we try to shed light on the various dimensions of this important topic as possible as required in this article. الخلاصة حاولنا في هذا المقال أن نسلّط الضوء على أهم الجوانب لمسألة المعرفة الفطريّة بالله، وبعد معالجة الموضوع تاريخيًّا ورصد تطوّر المسألة مع مضيّ الزمان، تطرّقنا إليها من وجهة نظر النصّ الدينيّ وبحثنا القيمة المعرفيّة لهذا النوع من المعرفة، والتقارير المختلفة في دلالتها في إثبات وجود الإله عند المفكّرين الإسلاميّين والغربيّين والإشكالات الموجّهة إليهم. وبناءً على نتائج هذا المقال، فإنّ التقارير الغربيّة لبرهان الفطرة تعاني من بعض المشاكل المعرفيّة الّتي عالجها المفكّرون المسلمون بعد أن بحثوها بدقّةٍ، وقدّموا تقارير تخلو منها؛ ولذلك يمكن التمسّك بالفطرة بوصفها طريقًا إلى معرفة الإله وإثبات وجوده.


Article
The Role of the Intellectual Approach in the Recognition of God
دور المنهج العقليّ في معرفة الإله

Authors: Ayman al-Misri أيمن المصري
Pages: 79-109
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Summary The essay is focused on reviewing all the approaches that theorized the issue of recognition of God in order to define the most accurate and authentic epistemological approach from amongst these approaches and to identify the certain and realistic epistemological approach of the principle of the existence of God. Of course, all the other philosophical, ethical and social principles are founded on the recognition of God. The major issue to be investigated in the essay is to prove the evidential rational approach’s perfect scientific validity in the recognition of God in the face of other epistemological approaches. The essay is thus based on the analytic evidential rational approach in establishing and then criticizing the scientific topics. Besides, the descriptive narrative approach is also adopted in the essay in the process of quoting the scientific texts from their reliable sources, especially with regard to the epistemological schools that do not adopt the evidential rational approach. At the end, the writer of the essay proves the validity and authority of the evidential rational approach in the issue of the recognition of God. Before that, the writer proves that the logic-based validity of the approach as well as its epistemological limits and its authority over the other narrative, sentimental, and experimental epistemological tools. The writer also reaches at an explanation of the universal features of monotheism that is based on the evidential rational approach and proving the attributes and deeds of God in a way that is proper to Him. On the other hand, the writer sheds light on the disastrous consequences that arose from the irrational recognition of God, such as materialistic, theological, narrative, and mystic Sufi trends of atheism, irreligiosity, anthropomorphism, fatalism and indeterminism, and as well other creedal falsities. الخلاصة يدور البحث حول استكشاف المنهج المعرفيّ الصحيح والمعتبر في معرفة الباري تعالى، من بين المناهج المعرفيّة المتعدّدة؛ من أجل الوصول إلى المعرفة اليقينيّة الواقعيّة لمبدإ الوجود سبحانه وتعالى، الّذي تبتني على معرفته سائر المعارف الفلسفيّة، والأخلاقيّة والاجتماعيّة. والمسألة الرئيسة الّتي نسعى لتحقيقها في هذا البحث، هي إثبات الصلاحيّة العلميّة التامّة للعقل البرهانيّ في معرفة الإله، في قبال المناهج المعرفيّة الأخرى. وقد اعتمدنا في هذا البحث على المنهج العقليّ البرهانيّ التحليليّ في تأصيل المطالب العلميّة ونقدها، بالإضافة إلى المنهج النقليّ التوصيفيّ في اقتباس النصوص العلميّة من المصادر المعتبرة للمدارس المعرفيّة الّتي لا تعتمد على المنهج العقليّ. وقد توصّلنا في نهاية البحث إلى إثبات صلاحيّة المنهج العقليّ البرهانيّ وحاكميّته في معرفة الباري تعالى، بعد أن أثبتنا صلاحيّته المنطقيّة، وحدوده المعرفيّة، وحاكميّته على سائر الأدوات المعرفيّة النقليّة والقلبيّة والتجريبيّة. كما توصّلنا إلى بيان المعالم الكلّيّة للتوحيد العقليّ البرهانيّ، وإثبات صفاته وأفعاله - تعالى - بنحوٍ يليق بجنابه وجلاله، وفي المقابل بيّنّا العواقب الوخيمة الّتي نشأت من المعرفة اللاعقلانيّة للباري تعالى، من قِبل الاتّجاهات المادّيّة والكلاميّة والأخباريّة والعرفانيّة الصوفيّة، من الإلحاد، واللادينيّة، والتشبيه، والجبر والتفويض، والخرافات العقديّة الأخرى.


Article
Mental Arguments for the Existence of God A study of religious text
الأدلّة العقليّة على إثبات وجود الإله.. قراءة في النصّ الدينيّ

Authors: Aqeel Al-Bandar عقيل البندر
Pages: 113-148
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Summary This study deals with two main things: First, the seeking of mental arguments in the Islamic texts that prove the existence of God, and defining the essence and nature of these arguments. The second is the study of the relation between text and reason, and knowing the limits and dimensions of this relation. The study comes in an introduction, two main sections, and a conclusion. The introduction contains a general definition of the study, with reference to the history of discussing this subject and its first steps. The first section discusses the nature of the relation between text and reason, reviewing the most prominent views that define the essence and nature of that relation, while the second section reviews the religious texts to find out mental arguments for the existence of the Creator. In this section, the discussion comes in two fields: the first is to deduce mental arguments from Qur’anic verses, and the second is to deduce mental arguments from traditions (hadiths), and finally the talk about the arguments, whether they are pure mental arguments or like a witness of an unseen thing, or they represent a special way of nothing other than the text in dealing with the matter of proving the existence of the Creator, in an attempt to identify the nature of the arguments mentioned in religious texts. And then comes the conclusion to show the main points discussed in the study. Religious texts have tried to prove the existence of God since the beginning, and since the very advent of the Mission. The reasoning for the existence of Allah was clear through the Qur’anic verses in different ways. Proving the existence of the Creator is one of the most important matters that have occupied man’s mind in general, and religious philosophical mentality in particular. Choosing appropriate tools to prove this matter has become a great concern to sages and theologians, and the most prominent tools used by them to prove the existence of the Creator is religious texts, which have been deeply studied and interpreted in order to conclude what might lead to this matter. This study tries to show the nature of the arguments found in religious texts that prove the existence of God, and know the correlation between religious texts and reason for proving this matter. So have the religious texts - Quranic Verses and prophetic traditions - relied on reason to infer the existence of God or not? And what is the way that holy texts have followed to show that? الخلاصة مهمّة هذه الدراسة تقع في أمرين أساسيّين، الأوّل: التحرّي عن الأدلّة العقليّة المتعلّقة بإثبات وجود الله في النصوص الإسلاميّة، وتحديد هويّة تلك الأدلّة وماهيّتها، والثاني البحث في علاقة النصّ والعقل ومعرفة حدود تلك العلاقة ومدياتها؛ لذا وضعت خريطة البحث في مقدّمةٍ وفقرتين أساسيّتين وخاتمة، أمّا المقدّمة فقد احتوت على تعريفٍ عامٍّ بالدراسة، بالإضافة إلى الإشارة إلى تاريخ البحث عن هذا الموضوع وانطلاقاته الأولى، وأمّا الفقرة الأولى: فهي البحث في طبيعة العلاقة بين النصّ والعقل، واستعراض أبرز الآراء الواردة في تحديد طبيعة تلك العلاقة وماهيّتها، وأمّا الثانیة: فهي قراءةٌ في النصّ الدينيّ والبحث فيه عن الأدلّة العقليّة لإثبات الصانع، وسيدور البحث في هذه الفقرة ضمن حقلين: الأوّل: استنطاق الدليل العقليّ من الآية، والثاني: استنطاق الدليل العقليّ من الرواية، وأخيرًا الحديث عن ماهية هذه الأدلّة؛ هل هي براهين عقليّةٌ صرفةٌ فعلًا أو من قبيل شهادة الحاضر على الغائب؟ أو هي طريقةٌ خاصّةٌ انفرد بها النصّ في تناول موضوع إثبات الصانع؟ وذلك في محاولةٍ لتشخيص هويّة الأدلّة المذكورة في النصّ الدينيّ. وكانت الخاتمة استعراضاً سريعًا لأهمّ ما ورد في الدراسة من مطالب.


Article
A critical study on the views that deny the role of reason in knowing God ... Kant as an example
دراسة نقديّة للآراء النافية لدور العقل في معرفة الإله.. كانط نموذجًا

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Summary Kant is one of the scholars who focused on knowledge and through which they critiqued reason. Kant considered theoretical reason as useless and ineffective in knowing God. And since his view was a logical consequence of his cognitive theory, the author of this article sheds lights on his (Kant's) cognitive views in a descriptive-analytical approach. After that, the author talks about the role of reason for knowing God according to Kant. In this study, the author has followed an approach in which he critiques Kant's cognitive views on the role of theoretical reason in knowing God, regardless of his ethical arguments for knowing God, and his views on the philosophy of ethics. As for Kant’s secular rationalism, it has been discussed in two fields: A: general criticism to Kant's cognitive system B: Special criticism to Kant's own special reading of the arguments for the existence of God One of the basic questions asked by man -since the beginning of his creation- is the question about the beginning. Although man’s mind cannot comprehend the essence of the Creator, due to the limitedness of mind, he can, by using his mind, comprehend some of God’s attributes, such as that He is a Necessary Being, most Perfect, most Absolute, and that He is the Creator, the Designer, non-moving Mover, and so on. Through mind, and through reviewing of religious texts, one can apply those attributes to Almighty God. In fact, I have studied this probability in Islamic philosophy, theology, Islamic Gnosticism, and in Western Philosophy. Kant (1724-1804) is one of the most important Western philosophers in the last three centuries. Through his cognitive views, it seems clear that he sees pure reason incapable of demonstrating the existence of the Creator, and so he resorts to practical reason. Hence, we can consider Kant as one of the most prominent and influential scholars concerning the knowing of God in Western Philosophy. Although the schools of thought that deny the role of reason in the recognition of God have shown their views according to their own foundations and fundamentals, but given the apparent influence of Kant in the history of the new philosophy of the West and the importance of his philosophy in the field of epistemology, especially the role of reason in the knowing of God, this article has focused on Kant's ideas regarding the role of reason for knowing God, using the descriptive-analytical approach. الخلاصة يعدّ كانط من العلماء الّذين ركّزوا على مسألة المعرفة ونقدوا من خلالها العقل، وقد عَدّ كانط العقل النظريّ غير مجدٍ ولا فعّالٍ في معرفة الإله. ولمّا كانت رؤيته هذه، نتيجة منطقيّة لنظريّته المعرفيّة، فقد سلّط كاتب هذه السطور الضوء على آراء كانط المعرفيّة بالمنهج الوصفيّ ـ التحليليّ، ثمّ تطرّق في المرحلة التالية إلى دور العقل في معرفة الإله عند كانط. لقد سلك الكاتب في هذا البحث الّذي بين أيديكم منهجًا ينتقد فيه آراء كانط المعرفيّة في مجال دور العقل النظريّ في معرفة الإله، مع غضّ النظر عن برهان كانط الأخلاقيّ على وجود الإله، ورؤاه في فلسفة الأخلاق. وأمّا العقلانيّة العلمانيّة لكانط فقد بُحثت ونوقشت في مجالين: النقد العامّ، أي النقد الّذي وُجّه إلى النظام المَعرفيّ لكانط. النقد الخاصّ، أي النقد الّذي وُجّه إلى قراءة كانط الخاصّة لبراهين وجود الإله.


Article
The Teleological Argument (The argument from design)
دليل النظم بين البداهة وإشكالات الملحدين

Authors: Adil L-Ghreeb عادل لغريب
Pages: 181-215
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Summary The teleological argument has always been enjoying a very much interest by philosophers and scholars of Scholasticism, especially the Westerns, since the most ancient times and up to the present day. In fact, the answers to the questions aroused about this kind of argument is still widely preoccupying the minds of scholars and researchers of religious philosophy and neo-theology, such as questions about the essence of the teleological argument as a conception, the divisions and parts of this argument, and the method this argument provides overwhelming evidence on the existence of God. In its capacity as one of the most important and dexterous proofs provided by many people for proving the existence of God, the teleological argument is traced back to the deepest point in the history of humanity, since it is at least as ancient as man’s existence on the earth. Since the first day human beings witnessed the big variety of the well-designed and well-coordinated phenomena in nature, they started searching for the secret beyond such design and harmony, thus asking: Was it that these very parts created harmony amongst themselves and produced such well-designed order, or was there a universal designer who, out of an order that he created and fashioned, geometrized and designed these parts? After reviewing a number of the different opinions about an analysis of design as a concept, its different parts, and its method of argumentation and its distinctive features, the essay attempts to study the different opinions of the Western thinkers about the form and discussions of the teleological argument. الخلاصة يحظى برهان النظم باهتمامٍ كبيرٍ من قبل الفلاسفة وعلماء اللاهوت - خصوصًا الغربيّين - منذ زمنٍ قديمٍ وإلى اليوم؛ إذ لم تزل الإجابة عن المعضلات الّتي تُثار حوله محلّ اهتمام من قبل العلماء والباحثين في مجال فلسفة الدين والكلام الجديد، كالاستفهام حول ماهيّة مفهوم النظم، وأقسامه، وكيف يدلّ النظم على وجود الله تبارك وتعالى؟ تحاول هذه المقالة - بعد عرض بعض الآراء المختلفة حول تحليل مفهوم النظم وذكر أقسامه وبعض التقريرات عن برهانه ومميّزاته - دراسة وجهات النظر المختلفة لبعض المفكّرين الغربيّين حول برهان النظم ومناقشتها.


Article
A new perusal of Ibn Rushd(Averroes)’s Argument of Potentiality and Necessity
قراءةٌ جديدةٌ لبرهان الإمكان والوجوب عند ابن رشدٍ

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Summary This article studies the Sage Ibn Rushd (Averroes)’s affirmation of the argument of Potentiality and Necessity, an affirmation that has been classified by some sages to be among the affirmations of the Argument of Potentiality and Necessity, while ignoring Ibn Rushd's critique of Ibn Sina(Avicenna)'s affirmation the same argument. As for those, who have studied Ibn Rushd’s philosophy, they consider him as one the critics of the Argument of Potentiality and Necessity for his critique to Ibn Sina’s affirmation, while ignoring his own affirmation of the argument. The ambiguous question is how to reconcile between these two matters, especially with noting that some of his critiques to Ibn Sina's affirmation of the argument are strange to the way and principles that the sage follow in this concern. The purpose of this article is to give a new perusal of Ibn Rushd's affirmation of the Argument. It is a comprehensive perusal of his criticism, as well as his own affirmation, putting his rgument among the argument of theologians, known as the argument of potentiality of attributes, not the argument of the sage. The study also aims at opening the door to new studies for understanding some similar arguments in Western philosophy, such as the argument of Thomas Aquinas and others. In this perusal we have studied many other evidences and delved into many studies of Ibn Rushd’s philosophy. الخلاصة موضوع هذه المقالة هو دراسة تقرير الحكيم ابن رشدٍ لبرهان الإمكان والوجوب، وهو تقرير صُنّف من قِبل بعض الحكماء ضمن تقريرات برهان الإمكان والوجوب، مع إغفالهم نقد ابن رشدٍ لتقرير ابن سينا للبرهان، وأمّا الباحثون في فلسفة ابن رشدٍ، فهم يصنَّفونه ضمن الناقدين لبرهان الإمكان؛ وذلك لنقده تقرير ابن سينا، مع إغفالهم تقريره للبرهان. والمسألة الغامضة هي كيفيّة الجمع بين هذين الأمرين؛ خصوصًا مع ملاحظة أنّ بعض إشكالاته على تقرير ابن سينا للبرهان هي انتقاداتٌ غريبةٌ عن طريقة الحكماء ومبانيهم. وهدف هذه المقالة إعطاء قراءةٍ جديدةٍ لتقرير ابن رشدٍ للبرهان، هي قراءةٌ جامعةٌ بين نقده وبين تقريره الخاصّ له، وممّا يترتّب عليها إدراج برهانه ضمن برهان المتكلّمين المعروف ببرهان إمكان الصفات، لا برهان الحكماء، وفتح آفاق تحقيقاتٍ جديدةٍ في فهم جملةٍ من البراهين المشابهة له في الفلسفة الغربيّة أمثال برهان توما الأكوينيّ وغيره، وهي قراءةٌ استندنا فيها لدراسة جملةٍ من القرائن والأبحاث الأخرى في فلسفة ابن رشدٍ.


Article
Growth of Materiality and Atheism in the Modern Times An Introduction to Reasons and Mechanisms
تطوّر الماديّة والإلحاد في العصر الحديث.. مدخل إلى الأسباب والآليات

Authors: Mohammad Nasir محمد ناصر
Pages: 249-288
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Abstract

Summary The current essay is an attempt to shed some light on the way materialism in the human community developed itself from a limited and tiny trend into an integrated and widespread system that had a great impact on augmenting the attitude to atheism. The essay thus shows that this development and change first took place in the European west as a result of certain reasons and circumstances that had not been available anywhere else. Thus, from that very place, atheism began to invade other territories and times. Accordingly, the essay concentrated on two major points; first, the actual conditions that paved the way to the growth of materialism in the European west and granted materialists a golden opportunity to rise forcefully and to enlarge the circle of their approach. Second, the means employed by materialists for spreading and controlling. As an attempt to survey the state of atheism for all aspects in order to come across the best remedy and the most successful solutions needed by human communities so that they should be able to survive the dangers of atheism, it was necessary to check the matter from its very beginning; so, the essay studies the earliest stages when materialism began to change from a very limited and insignificant view into a perfect and widely known system and studies the reasons so resulting. Also, the essay investigates the basic issues that formed the substance of the sway of materialism and reviews that methods used by materialism for reaching at such a highly developed stage. The talk about the spread of materialism and atheism could be focused on the Islamic and Arab world and could be restricted to the West. Nevertheless, it seems impossible to understand the spread of atheism in Islamic and Arab world unless we understand richly how and why it had found its way in the West originally, because it came to the Islamic and Arab world from the West, where it had been originated. However, to understand this matter fully needs returning to the beginning and, more precisely, to the time when materialism and atheism were no more than unfamiliarly weird and shameful views that it was too disgraceful to express. Besides, accusations would be launched at any one who might express such unwanted views. The essay thus studies what took place and what changed to turn this weird view into such a widely known opinion that is embraced by a good number of people throughout the world. More exclusively, the essay pays much attention to the earliest stage of the emergence of materialism in order to introduce to a further study about the reasons of the spread of materialism and atheism in the Islamic and Arab worlds and to another study of finding solutions to this problem الخلاصة تسعى هذه المقالة إلى إلقاء بعض الضوء على كيفيّة تحوّل الاتجاه المادّيّ في المجتمع الإنسانيّ من اتّجاهٍ ضئيلٍ محدودٍ، إلى منظومةٍ كاملةٍ واسعة الانتشار، كان لها بالغ الأثر في تعزيز الموقف الإلحاديّ. وقد بان خلال الكلام أنّ بداية هذا التحوّل قد حصلت في الغرب الأوربّيّ؛ وذلك لأسبابٍ وظروفٍ لم تتوفّر من قبل في أيّ مكانٍ آخر، ثمّ منه بدأ الانتشار إلى سائر الأمكنة والأزمنة؛ ولذلك كان التركيز منصبًّا على أمرين رئيسين: الأوّل: الأسباب الحقيقيّة الّتي وقعت في الغرب الأوربّيّ ومكّنت المادّيّين من البروز وأعانتهم على الانتشار. الثاني: الوسائل الّتي استخدموها ويستخدمونها في نشر أنفسهم وبسط سيطرتهم.


Article
The Empirical Approach and Belief in God (physics as an example)
المنهج التجريبيّ وفكرة الإله.. الفيزياء نموذجًا

Authors: Mohammad Aal-Ali محمد آل علي
Pages: 321-355
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Abstract

Summary Noticeably the empirical approach that endorses the notion of atheism is epistemologically not concerned at all with discussing or opposing the rational, philosophical, and natural proofs adopted by the different rational and philosophical approaches, since the circle of accepting experiment as a valid argument is circumscribed by the tangibles. Hence, they may prove a law related to a tangible thing, but they can neither prove nor disprove anything that is outside the frame of tangibility. As a result of this natural inability of experiment, empirical physicists tried to surpass their tangible frame and discuss, or oppose, these rational and philosophical principles in order to controvert them and then refute them by use of their empirical method of explaining the origin of the world. By so doing, they tried to substitute the idea of the existence of a creator with the idea of the universe’s anomalous (or spontaneous) generation. Briefly, their theory is based on these two factors: 1. Refutation of the rational and philosophical principles on which the proofs of monotheism are based. 2. Natural interpretation of the method of the generation and rise of the world. The methodology of this essay is based on the following: 1. Revealing the most important intellectual principles and cornerstones in the words of the skeptic empiricists who doubt the principles and cornerstones of monotheism. The writer of the essay thus poses examples from the available books, essays, and writings of such empiricists. 2. Analyzing these principles and then weighing them up on the scale of good sense. In fact, the majority of such principles do not need more than necessarily true judgments. 3. An explanation of the most important terms used by the empiricists, since some of these terms might be reasons for falling into mistakes. Concerning the second factor (i.e. natural interpretation of the method of the generation and rise of the world), it is in fact one of the experimental and tangible issues that no one has the right to object to except through a purely experimental and tangible discussion. No matter what the result is for them, this idea does not seem to be opposing the notion of the existence of God if the acceptability and authoritativeness of the rational proofs are taken into consideration. This point will be proven in the essay under discussion. الخلاصة من الملاحظ أنّ المنهج التجريبيّ المتبنّي للإلحاد ليس من شأن تجربته من جهةٍ معرفيّةٍ مناقشة أو معارضة الأدلّة العقليّة والفلسفيّة والفطريّة الّتي اعتمدتها الاتّجاهات العقليّة والفلسفيّة؛ إذ إنّ دائرة حجّيّة التجربة محدودةٌ بالأمور المحسوسة، فلها إثبات قانونٍ ما متعلّقٍ بأمرٍ حسّيٍّ، وليس لها إثبات ما هو خارج عن دائرة الأمور المحسوسة أو نفيه؛ ولذا ومن باب هذا العجز التكوينيّ للتجربة حاول علماء الفيزياء التجريبيّون - بما هو خارجٌ عن مقدور معرفتهم - مناقشة تلك الأصول العقليّة والفلسفيّة أو معارضتها وإسقاطها؛ كي يتسنّى لهم بعد نقضها متابعة طريقتهم التجريبيّة لتفسير كيفيّة نشوء العالم، محاولين استعاضة فكرة وجود خالقٍ للعالم بفكرة التولّد الذاتيّ له؛ فلذا نستطيع القول إنّ بناء نظريّتهم متقوّمٌ بعاملين: أ ـ عامل النقض على الأصول العقليّة والفلسفيّة المبتنية عليها أدلّة التوحيد. ب ـ عامل التفسير الطبيعيّ لكيفيّة تولّد العالم ونشوئه. وطريقتنا في المقال تعتمد على: 1 ـ بيان أهمّ المصطلحات المستخدمة في كلماتهم، والّتي قد يكون لها أثرٌ في الوقوع في الغلط. 2 ـ بيان أهمّ المباني والمرتكزات الفكريّة في أقوال التجريبيّن المشكّكين بأصول المباني التوحيديّة، مستشهدين على وجودها من كتبهم ومقالاتهم وما وصل إلينا من آثارهم. 3 ـ تحليل هذه المباني وعرضها على الميزان المنطقيّ الصحيح، بل أكثرها لا تحتاج لأكثر من الأحكام ضروريّة الصدق. 4 ـ بيان مقدار الخطإ في ملازمات مبانيهم. وأمّا ما يتعلّق بالعامل الثاني - التفسير الطبيعي لكيفيّة تولّد العالم ونشوئه - فهو من الأمور التجريبيّة والحسّيّة، ولا يحقّ لنا معارضتها إلّا بأمرٍ تجريبيٍّ حسّيٍّ، وأيًّا ما كانت نتيجته عندهم فلا نراها معارضةً لفكرة وجود الإله بحسب حاكميّة الأدلّة العقليّة، وهذا ما سيتّضح في طيّات البحث في المقال.


Article
A Perusal into Sheikh Muhammad Jawad Mughniyah’s Book “God and Intellect”
قراءة في كتاب الله والعقل

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Abstract

One of the most prominent Lebanese authors and men-of-letters, Sheikh Muhammad Jawad Mughniyah was such a prolific writer who authored a very big quantity of books. His writings were so multifarious that contributed greatly to enriching the Islamic library with books on various Islamic sciences and fields of knowledge. The author wrote a series of books on some Islamic creeds. He thus explained, defended, and refuted the spurious arguments that were aroused about some Islamic beliefs and creeds, depending mainly on reason-based and rational points of evidence. This series included five researches, or booklets, that were first published independently under these titles: 1. God and Intellect, 2. Prophethood and Intellect, 3. The Hereafter and Intellect, 4. Imam Ali's Divinely Commissioned Leadership and Intellect, and finally 5. The Awaited Mahdi and Intellect. Later on, these five independent small books were gathered in one book and then published under the title: Islam and Intellect. An elaborate discussion of this all-comprehensive books requires very much time and effort; therefore, the writer of the current essay has decided to investigate, survey, and analyze one of the five topics of the book; namely, God and Intellect. The title of the book obviously demands that the author depended on the rational approach for proving validity and soundness of the basic beliefs of Islam. Moreover, the author even emphasized on this approach, declaring that he would not resort to any other approach. In his introduction to God and Intellect, the author wrote: “Upon my determination on writing this book, I took upon myself to commit to the judgment of reason, considering it to be my one and only pioneer; so, I entitled the book: God and Intellect, trying my best not to swerve even one inch from what this title suggests. In fact, we in the present day need more urgently than any other time for posing and discussing such an important topic, since the trend of atheism is now controlling over all things and extending irrepressibly to all corners.” [p. 11] The author’s stress on this approach was also declared in his introduction to the book: Islam and Intellect, which included his book under discussion: God and Intellect. In the introduction, Sheikh Mughniyah wrote: “The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: ‘The origin of my faith is intellect.’ Thus, the religion brought by Muhammad is based on three posts; belief in God, belief in Prophethood, and belief in the Hereafter. Imamate (i.e. the Divinely ordained leadership of certain persons) is a branch of the principle of prophethood, because it represents a general leadership of all mundane and religious affairs received from the Holy Prophet as succession to him… I have thus written a series of books in which I provide rational and reason-based points of evidence to prove the accuracy, validity, and authenticity of the principles and primary cornerstones of Islam… through easy-to-understand and obvious statements, thus trying to avoid whatever may intercept sound understanding and is rejected by good reason.” From this introduction, it is understood that the author’s methodology in the book is purely demonstrative and rational, although he elsewhere provided some texts, thus depending upon the narrative methodology. Yet, that was because certain issues required resorting to some narrations and reported texts. However, in his book: God and Intellect, the author committed absolutely to the pure rational methodology for proving his viewpoint.

Table of content: volume: issue:3