Table of content

Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
b- The researcher should fill a declaration form which states that he doesn't publish the research during the evaluation period. He must give his full address phone number and e-mail.

Firstly- The author should pay a fee of (ID55000) when he submits the research and a fee of (ID55000) when the research is accepted .These fees are obligatory for all. The sum cannot be reimbursed in any case.
Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Engineering and Technology Journal
Publication Ethics
The publication of science and technology include thorough, methodical and complete processes by publishers and editors which have to be handled efficiently and proficiently. To sustain high ethical values of publication, publishers attempt to work intimately at all times with editors, authors, and peer-reviewers. The ethics statement for the Engineering & Technology Journal is based on those issued by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Code of Conduct guidelines available at www.publicationethics.org. The basic publishing ethics involved in the publishing process can be summarized as follows:

Reviewers’ Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the reviewers can be identified as:
• To provide a detailed, effective, and unbiased evaluation in promptly on the scientific content of the work.
• To indicate whether the writing is relevant, brief and clear and evaluating the originality and scientific accuracy of the submitted paper.
• To maintain the confidentiality of the complete review process.
• To inform the journal editor about any financial or personal conflict of interest and reject to review the manuscript when a possibility of such a conflict exists.
• To inform the journal editor of any ethical concerns in their evaluation of submitted manuscripts; such as any violation of ethical treatment of animal or human subjects or any considerable similarity between the previously published article and any reviewed manuscript.

Authors’ Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the authors can be described as:
• To assure that all the work reported in the manuscript must be original and free from any plagiarism.
• To make confident that the submitted work should not have been published elsewhere or submitted to any other journal(s) at the same time.
• To explicitly acknowledge any potential conflict of interest.
• The author(s) must give proper acknowledgments to other work reported (individual/company/institution). Permission must be obtained from any content used from other sources.
• It is important to note that only those who have made any substantial contribution to the interpretation or composition of the submitted work should be listed as ‘Authors’. On the other hand, other contributors should be mentioned as ‘co-authors’.

Publishers’ Responsibilities
The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
• Engineering & Technology Journal is committed to working with journal editors, defining clearly their relevant roles, in order to ensure appropriate decisions regarding publication procedures and maintaining the transparency of editorial decisions.
• Engineering & Technology Journal guarantees the integrity autonomy and originality of each published article concerning:
o publication and research funding
o publication ethics and integrity
o conflicts of interest
o confidentiality
o authorship
o article modifications
o timely release of content.
____________________________________________
____________________________________________

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT

The following assignment of copyright, executed and signed by the Author, is required with each manuscript submission. If the article is a “work made for hire”, the employer must sign it. The Author warrants that he/she has full power to make this agreement on behalf of himself and all his co-authors.
To the extent transferable, copyright in and of the undersigned, Author’s article titled:
************************************************************************by: *************************************************Reference ID: ******* submitted to the Engineering and Technology Journal is hereby assigned for publication.
In consideration of the acceptance of the Article for publication, the Author assigns to the Journal with full title guarantee, all copyrights, rights in the nature of copyright, and all other intellectual property rights in the Article throughout the world (present and future, and including all renewals, extensions, revivals, restorations and accrued rights of action).
The Author represents that he is the author and proprietor of this Article and that this Article has not heretofore been published in any form. The Author warrants that he has obtained written permission and paid all fees for use of any literary or illustration material for which rights are held by others. The Author agrees to hold the Editor(s)/Publisher harmless against any suit, demand, claim or recovery, finally sustained, by reason of any violation of proprietary right or copyright, or any unlawful matter contained in this article:



Signature: Date:
Name of Author:
Institution or Company:

Loading...
Contact info

جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
____________________________________________
Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
____________________________________________
Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

Google Scholar Citations:
________________________
https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=w1aCAoMAAAAJ&hl=en

Table of content: 2019 volume:37 issue:1 Part (c) special

Article
Shortage Sanitation Services in the Outskirts of Baghdad and its Environmental Impacts

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- This study focuses on evaluation of the reality of wastewater services in the areas of outskirts of Baghdad which the responsibility of their implementation rests on the province of Baghdad and the ministry of construction and housing and general municipalities/ the General Directorate of Sewerage GDS, and to suggest the possibility to improve these services in light of the plans developed by the concerned authorities and the proportion of disability in the services suffered by those areas. The study concluded that the completion of the stopped project because of the financial crisis will raise the proportion of serves population to approximately 71.4%, and the construction of new projects will raise the proportion to approximately 100%


Article
Toxic Soil Contamination in Al Muthanna Storage Site Using Geospatial Analysis Technique

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- The Iraqi past chemical program was destroyed by the military operations or destructed by the UNSCOM/CDG teams during the early 90s. Both operations lead to a large number of scattered remnants of contaminated areas. The quantities of hazardous materials, incomplete destructed materials and toxic chemicals were sealed in two well-protected bunkers. Lack of appropriate destruction technology, led to spread the contamination around the bunkers .since 2009 the Iraqi experts have been working to develop a practical plan for decommissioning the contaminated area. This paper introduces the hazard contamination in the storage site using geospatial analysis technique. The contamination level of two main chemical compounds (Copper Cu and cyanide Cn) have been evaluated and analyzed, taken from different soil samples of the site, surrounding areas have investigated and analyzed compared to the reference points. The storage area divided into 30 sector major sectors level of soil samples from soil surface all samples collected from acquires 10 samples from each sector. The results showed The Cn level exceeds the permitted level by (55000) times and for copper by (1050) times over the permitted level very high Contamination activity was found in the storage area


Article
Criteria for Sustainable Planting Design Applications in Landscape Architecture Projects Under Arid Conditions

Authors: Abdullah M.F. Ghazal
Pages: 10-18
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract-Planting design is an important part of all Landscape Architecture projects (LAps). It needs new criteria in order to make it more sustainable. When arid conditions are dominant, these criteria will be more difficult. These limiting factors of harsh environment and aridity, such as high temperature and evaporation, low rainfall, poor and sandy soil, are largely diverse in many levels concerning water, soil, and climate. Thus they clearly appear in designing and impeding sustainable LAps. The planting design in LAps is governed by three major factors which are: plant species, water availability, and the control soil property and climate conditions. However, the designer can adjust and customize these designs aiming at satisfying sustainability principles by carefully selecting plant materials from native or exotic plants and dealing with new practices effectively within the landscape, such as managing water supplies, irrigation methods, plant water requirement (PWR), modifying soil properties to be more efficient, appropriate to hold water, and developing the planting design techniques to restrain aridity conditions. This study adopted field and environmental analyses of real projects to reach new criteria for planting design in LAps that are able, by increasing the functional and environmental compatibility to achieve sustainability under aridity conditions.


Article
Reducing Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon from Soil Polluted with Iraqi Crude Oil by Phytoremediation Technology

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- They used anew-green technology phytoremediation to reduce and remove pollutants from the soil. The purpose of the current research study was to survey the effect of soil pollution with a variety of doses of crude oil on the generation and growth of the plants. The study was made for 120 days from March to June in a control condition in the greenhouse and laboratory. Unpolluted soil near the Tigris River was taken and be polluted with varied doses of crude oil. They used alfalfa, Cotton and Grass in this research to reduce pollution. It made a comparison between the results of the three plants species to choose the best plant for total petroleum hydrocarbons removal from the soil. Grass plant gave the greatest result in total petroleum hydrocarbons removal, which gave up to 50.66% for Treatment 4, and cotton came in second place with 49.82% removal rate in treatment 2. Alfalfa came at the end with a removal rate of 31.78% for treatment 2 of the crude oil.


Article
Estimation of Water Balance for the Central Basin of Erbil Plain (North of Iraq)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract-Erbil city located, in the northern part of Iraq, within the central basin of Erbil plain which covers an area about 1400 Km2 where Erbil city area measures about 70 Km2, is located between latitudes (36ᵒ 08 30̋ - 36ᵒ 14 15̋) north and longitudes (43 ° 57 '30 "- 44 ° 03' 20") east, The rocks exposures at the central Erbil plain date back to the (Upper Miocene-Recent) and this includes Ingana, Muqdadiya, Bai Hassan formations as well as Quaternary deposits. Tectonically, the studied area is located within Chumchamal-Butma Subzone at the area of the foothills. The movement of the groundwater in the study area is from the east to the west. Depending on the climatic data recorded in Erbil station for the period (1980-2016) shows that the total falling rain was (418.0) mm, and the temperature (15.81 ° C), relative humidity (29.96%), wind speed (1.94 m / s), solar brightness (8.28 hours / day) and the total evaporation from free surfaces was (1674.8 mm) the prevailing climate in the region is moist-humid to moist. corrected potential evapotranspiration was calculated theoretically apply Thornthwaite method where she was value 734.58 mm, was also calculate the water surplus , which accounted for 79.18% divided into surface runoff and its value 39.36 mm and Groundwater Recharge 87.82 while the water deficit represents 20.82% of the annual rainfall as the annual recharge rate was calculated for Erbil Central Basin and is reached 122.94 × 106 m3/year.


Article
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Investigation of Desalination by Refrigerant Clathrate Hydrate Formation

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract-Gas hydrate is a crystalline solid compound form of water with hydrophobic gas at certain conditions (pressure and temperature). The hydrogen bond in water molecules constructs a framework as a host that entraps gas molecules (gust). Gas hydrate can be applied to many industries such as gas separation, cool storage, food concentration and desalination. Hydrate route looks a promising alternative technology compared to the conventional process, by utilizing a proper gas host, which can be held within water cavities composed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules. In this study the selected host gas was Refrigerant R134a, the work consists of an experimental and theoretical investigation dealing with hydrate formation for the ternary system (water, refrigerant gas, salt) at different initial pressures, the salts were NaCl, KBr and NaF. Method of isochoric pressure search method was used to measure the pressure and temperature for hydrate formation and conduction the three phases of (hydrate-liquid-vapour). The measurements were performed with pressure range (0.1 - 0.4) MPa and the temperatures about (275.2 – 283)K at the concentrations of (0.09,0.17 and 0.26)mol/kg for each salt. The kinetics of R134a clathrate formation for ternary systems (R134a, water and salt) at various types and concentrations of salts. Many objective functions were obtained from the kinetic model for hydrate formation, such as the amount of gas consumed, the growth rate, and the conversion of the water to hydrate. The results showed the effect of the initial pressure on the gas consumed, the rate of growth and water to hydrate conversion, that when the initial pressure increase the moles of R134a gas consumed was increased due to the increased driving force of hydrate formation, also other functions were increased. While the increasing in the concentration of salt for all types will be decreased gas consumed, whereas water to hydrate conversion, the growth rate is slightly decreased. And from the results noticed the presence of different salts in the ternary systems have an effect on the thermodynamics inhibition of refrigerant hydrates and the inhibition increases with the presence of NaCl salt in the ternary system more than other types of salt and also increases with increase the concentration of salt.


Article
Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar Made with Black Tea Waste Ash as a Partial Replacement of Cement

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Environmental pollution and the relatively high cost of waste disposal has been a major focus for scientists around the world, leading researchers to find a solution to reuse waste materials in different applications. Iraqi people consume hundreds of tons of black tea each year, which produce a large quantity of the used tea, leaves as waste. These large quantities go to landfills without any benefit or recycling. Additionally, landfills are considered one of the biggest crisis facing the Iraqi government. Therefore, this study aims to recycle the black tea waste ash (BTWA) by utilizing it as a partial replacement of cement. Cement mortar mixes containing five replacement levels of cement with BTWA (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight) were carried out. The compressive strength and flexural strength tests were adopted to show the effect of BTWA on mechanical properties of cement mortar. The flow rate of fresh mortar was also measured. Results indicated that, up to 7.5% replacement, the compressive strength values were improved. For 10% replacement, the compressive strength values were equal to that for control specimens. In contrast, the BTWA had a negative impact on the flexure strength of mortar at replacement levels 5%, 7.5% and10%. For 2.5% substitution, however, the flexure strength was enhanced slightly (about 2%).


Article
Restoring the Local Heritage and its Role in Sustainable Spatial Development the Great Market in Al-Najaf – a Case Study

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Regional and local changes in Iraq have led to an accelerated dynamic of comprehensive development without the preservation of local heritage, which caused the loss of many traditional buildings, changing their urban fabric, the emergence of contradictory architectural styles, and others without a clear and specific identity, causing visual deformation. The research problem was identified from the goals and principles of urban design that concerned with the conservation, restoration, and continuity of heritage context, activates their role in sustainable development programs and as a response to changes and radical shifts in spatial structures of city centers, and the social and economic changes, as; “the lack of clear indicators for the restoration of local heritage and its role in achieving spatial development”. The paper will present an analytical study of international and Arabic leading experiences, in the processes of preserving and restoring local heritage, as an important policy in the development and sustainability of places, and try to assess the local experience, according to the indicators derived from them, conduct recommendations for developing the methodologies and policies of restoring local heritage, that suit with the identity and privacy of historical and heritage contexts.


Article
Air Quality Assessment of Some Selected Hospitals within Baghdad City

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Hospitals are institutions designed to provide medical assistance to sick people have harm to their bodies, making them more likely to die than others, so indoor air quality (IAQ) of the various facilities of the hospital must be taken into account by providing an efficient Heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) systems with periodic maintenance and renewal for nonworking parts, and should appropriate with the health status of admissions, workers and visitors, the present study has been carried out to evaluate indoor air quality (IAQ) for three selected hospitals within Baghdad city. The study period included the summer and winter of (2017) and the pollutants considered are Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Fine particles (PM10), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). In addition to examining the airborne microorganisms by determination, both total count and diversity. The main objective of this paper is to assess the (IAQ) inside the hospital environment.


Article
Simulation of Mosul Dam Reservoir Operation for Irrigation and Hydropower Generation

Authors: Baraa Jebbo --- Taymoor A. Awchi
Pages: 64-69
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- The current research aims to build a simulation model to study the effect of Jazeera irrigation projects (North, East and South) water requirements on hydroelectric power generation from Mosul dam hydropower plant. The simulation was applied from January 1988 to December 2006 on a monthly basis. A simulation model was built utilizing (HEC-ResSim 3.0) Package, which showed high efficiency in representing and simulating the actual operation of the reservoir. Simulation model operation has been carried out through five scenarios with two cases of priority; the first was to maximize the hydroelectric power generation, and the second was to minimize the shortage in fulfilling the water requirements of Jazeera irrigation projects. The results showed that when the priority is given to meet the irrigation water requirements, the water deficit is decreased but the hydropower generation deficit is increased, and when the priority is to maximize the hydroelectric power generation, the hydropower generation increases, but the irrigation water is decreased. The study concluded that when the East and South Jazeera irrigation projects are completed and operated along with North Jazeera project, the reservoir would not be able to meet their requirements, in addition to an obvious shortage in hydroelectric power generation.


Article
Dynamic Study of Carbon Dioxide Absorption Using Promoted Absorbent in Bubble Column Reactor

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract-The most common process to remove carbon dioxide from natural gas and the flue gasses is absorption into suitable solvents. Absorption of carbon dioxide are studied experimentally in this work using bubble column reactor (glass cylindrical (QVF) of 7.5 cm i.d. × 140 cm height), where different types of absorbent (30%MEA, 30%K2CO3), promoter types (organic(piperazine)and inorganic(amino acids)) and concentrations were examined over a wide range of gas flow rate cover homogeneous to transition flow regime at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The results showed that the dissolved gas undergoes a pseudo-first order reaction, and the optimum superficial velocity of gas given a higher conversion and rate of reaction at Ug=0.025 m/sec, at this velocity the reaction rate of monoethanolamine with carbon dioxide (94.1% conversion and RA = 7.75*10-3 Kmol/m3.sec) is higher than reaction rate of potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide(29.3% conversion and RA = 2.73*10-3 Kmol/m3.sec). Furthermore, the addition of promoters to the 30%K2CO3 absorbents enhanced the reaction between potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide and increased the reaction rate when increasing the concentration of promoters to the critical concentration. The results show that the piperazine is a better promoter from other types of the amino acid promoter used was 52.1% increase in carbonate conversion with carbon dioxide.


Article
Application of Microwave Heating in the Demulsification of Crude Oil Emulsions

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- In recent times the formation of pre-processing water-in-crude emulsions in petroleum industries has led to some inherent challenges such as the reduction in the efficiency of oil recovery, high cost of operation and corrosion in pipes. Traditional ways of pulverizing the emulsions using heat and chemical approaches have many disadvantageous from both economic and environmental points of view. Microwave irradiation is an efficient method for the demulsification of the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, encountered in refinery industries. The microwave technology is a costeffective way of emulsifying water-in-crude-oil emulsion. Two methods were used for conducting the demulsification performance test, i.e. chemical and microwave. The method of chemical demulsification using octylamine was found to be the best water separation efficiency achieved at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine with (35-65%) W/O emulsion, the separation touched to 90% within 3 days and the greatest oil separation efficiency attained at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine at the same ratio of W/O emulsion, the separation reached 91% within 3 days. The demulsification process efficiency increased by microwave, where the water separation rate reached to (100%) at 4 minutes with (35-65%) W/O emulsion. Light crude oils were used. The fundamental principles of formation, formulation and breaking of O/W emulsions in the microwave heating process were adequately elucidated using some physicochemical characterization techniques This further helps in the development of a cost-effective method of demulsifying the W/O emulsion. Water-in-crude oil emulsions of volume percentage ranges, i.e. (25-75%) and (35-65%) were adopted


Article
Air Pollution Effects in Some Plant Leaves Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics within Baghdad City. Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- The present study examined the air pollutants effects in seven plant species leaves, Olea europea L., Zizphus spina-christi L. Desf., Conocarpus lancifolius Engl., Albizia lebbeck L. Benth., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Clerodendron inermis L. Graeth and Dodonaea viscasa Jacq., distribute within Baghdad city. The leaves sample were collected from May (2016) to April (2017) in five regions within Baghdad city, which are Karrada, Sadr City, Shoula and Mansur, as well as Baghdad tourist island as a control region. The Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbone monoxide (CO), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and Suspended particulate matter (PM) were measured in all study regions. The present study results showed an increase in concentration of all air pollutants in the four study regions compared to Baghdad tourist island, (SO2) average was (0.56) ppm, while (NO2) average was (0.80) ppm, (CO) average was (27.69) ppm, (VOCs) average was (5.99) ppm, while (PM) average was (480.80) μg /m3. The morphological and anatomical characteristics include length, width, area, number of stomata; the number of epidermis cells, and stomatal index were measured in plant leaves. E. camaldulensis leaves were recorded highest length rate (11.03) cm, while highest width rate (5.51) cm and leaf area rate (49.63) cm2 were recorded in A. lebbeck leaves. The highest number of stomata and epidermal cells were also recorded in A. lebbeck leaves (101.25 and 738.85) in respectively. But highest stomatal index value was recorded in D. viscasa leaves (14.21).


Article
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Seed Germination

Authors: Sahar Abd --- Soolaf A. Kathier --- Emad A. Mahmmod
Pages: 90-92
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract: The grain legumes are the second most important economic crops attacked by many of storage pests, one of these pests is Cowpea seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). Gamma radiation appears to be a potential alternative to chemicals control in stored products. Therefore, this research aims to study the effect of gamma radiation (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.18 and 0.21 (kGy) on eggs, larvae, pupae and seed germination. The results of this study showed that the irradiated eggs did not hatch. While the last larval stage was very sensitive to all doses of gamma rays, no adults emerged from larvae were exposed to 0.03 (kGy) or higher doses. In addition, the highest death percentages of pupae were 88% at 0.21(kGy). Finally, the results showed the same doses used in this study did not affect the rate of seed germination compared to control. This technique would help to improve using for other agriculture pests.


Article
The Influence of Recycled Crushing Strength of RC Beams under Repeated Loading

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- This paper describes a study of the effect of crashed (recycle) concrete on reinforced concrete beams. Three-dimensionally nonlinear finite elements analysis has been used conducted the numerical investigations of the general study of recycling-beam. ANSYS.11.0 computer-program using in this paper. Solid65 using as element of concrete, link8 for steel. The compression strength of the concrete mix decrease due to the strength of crashing concert. It’s weaker than gravel aggregate, that lower strength due to weak of old mortar cement around the aggregate and due to crashed process. The percentage of decrease of the compressive strength equal to (59.8) % and deflection of beam increase due to weak of concrete and the load of initial crack, it’s lower than traditional concrete contains natural aggregate


Article
Biofilm Inhibitory Potential of Westiellopsis prolifica Extract Against Some Pathogenic Microorganisms

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Resistance of microorganisms to many kinds of antibiotics push towards using natural products to eliminate the biofilm. In this study, 7 different species of algae were identified, 3 species of Chlorophyta and 3 of Cyanophyta. Westiellopsis prolifica is considered a potent organism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was determined 13 clear bands, and the main bands were carbohydrate (1200- 900 cm−1), protein (1660 and around 1540 cm−1) and lipid bands (1740 cm−1). Extracellular crude acetone extract from W. prolifica better than hexane extract and more efficient on negative gram bacteria than positive gram bacteria. Antibiofilm was conducted by Congo red Agar and Microtiter plate against bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp., Shigella sp., Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). The highest inhibition was against Streptococcus sp. and the remaining ratio of biofilm was 0.7 %, while lower inhibition 33 % against C.albicans. The GC-MS analysis of the purified extract has identified many active compounds, mainly were 4-Trimethyl-1-hexene, Octadecane, Ethylene-14-Pentadecane, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Octadecadienoic acid, Octadecadienoyl chloride, and Phytol


Article
Heavy Metals Content in Several Imported Rice Crops (Oryza sativa) from the Local Markets

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Rice crop may be subjected to several heavy metals contamination due to various causes such as contaminated irrigating water, fertilizers containing certain heavy metals and other agricultural applications. This work was designed to examine several heavy metals (Lead, Chromium, Arsenic and Copper) in rice crop imported from India, USA, Brazil, Thailand, Paraguay and Uruguay in addition to locally cultivated rice. Rice samples were collected from local markets and subjected to the examination of above heavy metal content using acidic digestive method and heavy metal ions were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. It has been found that these examined rice crops have shown significant variations in terms of heavy metal content and importing countries where in case of Lead ion, Iraqi rice had the highest mean (19.27 ± 0.25 mg/kg ) content while India 1 showed the lowest (9.51 ± 0.08 mg/kg) mean value. For rice Chromium content, it was found that USA rice gave the highest (4.02 ± 0.51 mg/kg) mean value and the lowest mean content (0.15 ± 0.02 mg/kg) was detected in the Iraqi rice. Regarding rice Arsenic content, all examined rice crops had As content varying from minimum mean value of 0.2 ± 0.012 mg/kg in India2 to a maximum value of 0.37 ± 0.021 mg/kg in India1. For Copper rice content, this study has found the Iraqi crop had the highest (4.50 ± 0.07 mg/kg) mean value while Thailand gave the lowest mean value of 2.66 ± 0.25 mg/kg


Article
Predictive Modeling of Multilayer Graphene Growth by Chemical Vapour Deposition on Co-Ni/Al2O3 Substrate using Artificial Neural Network

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- The uniqueness of multilayer graphene as extremely high carrier mobility, tune-able band gap and high elasticity has made it be considered as a high prospect engineering material that can be employed for several applications such as solar cells, field effect transistors, super-capacitors, batteries and sensors. In this study, the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for the predictive modeling of multilayer graphene (MLG) growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Co-Ni/Al2O3 substrate was investigated. Data comprises temperature, catalyst compositions, ethanol flowrates were generated using central composite experimental design and employed to obtain the MLG yield as the response. The data were subsequently used for predictive modeling using ANN. The findings show that the predictive values of the MLG yields were in good agreement with those obtained from the experimental runs having a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.988.


Article
Treatment of Crude Oil Spills in Water Resources by Using Biological Method

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Biological treatment has definite to be an effective and excellent method for the removal of aquatic oil spills. It is competent of being used as the best treatment method for cleanup of oil spills. Being a potential technology, significant work needs to be done to improve the capabilities of bioremediation for oil contaminated-aquatic environment. Novel application of combined solvent extraction and two-phase biodegradation processes using Two-Liquid Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TLPPB) technique was proposed and developed to enhance the cleanup of high concentration of crude oil from aqueous phase using acclimated mixed consortiums in an anaerobic environment. Silicone oil was used as the organic extractive phase for being a water-immiscible, biocompatible and non-biodegradable. An application of one phase bioreactor was used, then “TLPPB” two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor was sophisticated to decay hydrocarbons “crude oil” in this study) at concentration reach to 6000 mg/L. As the organic phase, Silicon oil was selected in TLPPB technique to hold the delivery of hydrocarbons in a liquid layer by absorbing method and after that transforming the pollution to the biological microorganisms. Based on TLPPB technique, the effectiveness of the organic layer “silicon oil” has been contrasted to the one-phase biological reactor. Then the result is completely treated of hydrocarbons pollutant to 100% was accomplished in the two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor “TLPPB” contrasted to 69-78% treated efficiency of crude oil in the one-phase traditional biological reactor. Thus, the interpretation of “TLPPB” technique for crude oil treatment was estimated in terms of the salinity influence by using Tigris river water, and sea water samples. The rising rate of salinity in liquid layer causing reduction the microorganisms-activity and prohibit the amount of crude oil decay. Thus, this research mentions the possibility of TLPPB technique for consolidate transmission and the biodegradation of immiscible crude oil.


Article
Evaluation of Water Treatment Residue as a Sorption Medium and its Application to Control Phosphate Level in Water

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- Wastewater treatment residual material, WTR, from a local drinking water facility in Baghdad, was evaluated as a potential medium for the removal of some unwanted species from water. The material was first characterized by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectral analysis prior to its use as an adsorbent. The x-ray revealed that the material is a calcium based water treatment residue mixed with silica and impurities of oxides like MgO and Fe2O3. The adsorption characteristics of the material were evaluated by studying the adsorption of methylene blue. The cation exchange capacity and the surface area had values of 10.5 mmol per100 g and 87.5 m2.g-1, respectively. The sorption capacity of the material was applied to control the phosphate concentration in water. Time and adsorbent amount have played significant roles in the removal of phosphate from water. An adsorption capacity had a value of 1.6 mg PO43-.g-1 of WTR


Article
Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete as Sustainable Solution for Defected Buildings

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Abstract- One of the new concrete technology applications that had to get increased importance as repairing and retrofitting technique is slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON). This research aims to investigate some of the mechanical properties of SIFCON and its role in improving the useful life of normal concrete. The research consists of two parts; in the first part, three mixes are prepared with 0%, 1.5%, and 6% volume fraction steel fiber content. Compressive strength, flexural strength, total absorption and apparent density tests are made for each mix. In the second part, a composite section of normal concrete and SIFCON mix with 6% steel fiber is prepared. Different thicknesses of SIFCON layer had been casted to assess its benefits in repair and/or to strengthen of defected buildings. Flexural strength, toughness, ductility and load-deflection curve are examined for the composite sections. The results showed that the flexural strength of SIFCON with 6% steel fiber content increased up to 600% and 200% compering to those recorded with the reference mix and 1.5% steel fiber concrete respectively. The results also indicated that the increase of SIFCON layer thickness would improve the mechanical properties of the composite section. Also, the maximum increase in flexural strength was greater than four times the reference mix. Better behavior is also recorded in load deflection and toughness of SIFCON composite section.

Table of content: volume:37 issue:1 Part (c) special