Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2010 volume:11 issue:1

Article
Separation of Bovine Serum Albumin Using Chromatographical Column: Parameters and Simulation

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Abstract

A liquid-solid chromatography of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) on (diethylaminoethyl-cellulose) DEAE-cellulose adsorbent is worked experimentally, to study the effect of changing the influent concentration of (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) at constant volumetric flow rate Q=1ml/min. And the effect of changing the volumetric flow rate (1, 3, 5, and 10 ml/min) at constant influent concentration of Co=0.125mg/ml. By using a glass column of (1.5cm) I.D and (50cm) length, packed with adsorbent of DEAE-cellulose of height (7cm). The influent is introduced in to the column using peristaltic pump and the effluent concentration is investigated using UV-spectrophotometer at 30oC and 280nm wavelength. A spread (steeper) break-through curve is gained at lean feed concentration of 0.125mg/ml, while the flow rate greater than (3ml/min) is almost the same. So it is butter to work at low volumetric flow rate between (1-3) ml/min. The equilibrium-dispersion model of liquid-solid chromatography for a binary mixture, related with Langmuir isotherm correlation is used in the modeling of this work. The resulting model is solved numerically by using MATLAB V.6.5 program.كروماتوكراف الصلب-السائل لمصل الدم الحيواني (Bovine Serum Albumin) على مادة (Diethyleaminoethiel-cellulose) او(DEAE-cellulose) قد تم اشتغاله عمليا. لدراسة تأثير التغير البتركيز الداخل الى العمود (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/ml) بثبوت معدل الجريان الحجمي (1ml/min) ثم دراسة تأثير التغير بمعدل الجريان الحجمي (1, 3, 5, and 10ml/min) بتبوت التركيز الداخل (0.125mg/ml). العمل التجريبي قد تم باستخدام عمود زجاجي نصف طول قطره الداخلي (1.5سم) وطوله (50 سم)، محشو بمادة (diethylaminoethyl-cellulose) DEAE-cellulose بطول (7 سم). السائل الداخل يدخل إلى العمود باستخدام مضخة من نوع peristaltic pump ، وتركيز السائل الخارج تم قياسه باستخدام جهاز الأشعة فوق البنفسجية UV-spectrophotometer بدرجة حرارة (30oC) بطول موجي (280 nm). كان تركيز السائل الداخل (0.125mg/ml) الأفضل لانه يعطي break-through point قليلة مع break-through curve منبسط. هذا التركيز (0.125mg/ml) استخدم في تطبيق تجارب أخرى لمعدلات جريان مختلفة. هنا، معدلات الجريان الحجمي التي هي اقل من (3ml/min) تكون تقريبا متطابقة لنفس الظروف التشغيلية. لهذا من الأفضل لهذا النظام أن يعمل على معدل جريان حجمي قليل يتراوح بين (1-3ml/min) بنفس الظروف. موديلات التوازن المتشتت للكروماتوغراف السائل_الصلب لخليط ثنائي المربوط بعلاقة لانكمور ايزوثيرم قد استخدم في اشتقاق الموديل الرياضي لهذا العمل. الموديل الناتج قد حل عددياً باستخدام برنامج MATLAB v.6.5 .

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Article
Minimization of Toxic Ions in Waste Water Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technique

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Abstract

In the present study, the removal of zinc from synthetic waste water using emulsion liquid membrane extraction technique was investigated. Synthetic surfactant solution is used as the emulsifying agent. Diphenylthiocarbazon (ditizone) was used as the extracting agent dissolved in carbon tetrachloride as the organic solvent and sulfuric acid is used as the stripping agent. The parameters that influence the extraction percentage of Zn+2 were studied. These are the ratio of volume of organic solvent to volume of aqueous feed (0.5-4), ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volume of aqueous feed (0.2-1.6), pH of the aqueous feed solution (5-10), mixing intensity (100-1000) rpm, concentration of extracting agent (20-400) ppm, surfactant concentration (0.2-2) wt.%, contact time (3-30) min, and concentration of strip phase (0.25-2) M . It was found that 87.4% of Zn+2 can be removed from the aqueous feed solution at the optimum operating conditions. Further studies were carried out on extraction percentages of other toxic metal ions (As+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Cd+2) by using the same optimum conditions which were obtained for zinc ions except for the pH of the feed solutions. The pH values for best extraction percentages of arsenic, lead, and cadmium were (1, 10, 10) respectively. Maximum extraction percentage of (98.5, 95.5 and 93.8) was obtained for arsenic, lead, and cadmium respectively, while mercury was completely removed from the aqueous feed solution within the acidic pH range.


Article
Diffusion kinetics of Furfural adsorption onto Activated Carbon

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Abstract

A range of batch experiments were carried out for the estimation of the key process parameters in adsorption of Furfural from aqueous solution onto activated carbon in fixed-bed adsorber. A batch absorber model has been used to determine the external mass transfer coefficient (kf) which equal to 6.24*10-5 m/s and diffusion coefficient (Dp) which equal to 9.875*10-10 m2/s for the Furfural system. The Langmuir model gave the best fit for the data at constant temperature (30oC). The pore diffusion mathematical model using nonlinear isotherm provides a good description of the adsorption of Furfural onto activated carbon.تم إجراء تجارب من النوع النمطي لإيجاد القيم اللازمة في تصميم عمود ذو الحشوة الثابتة لامدصاص الفورفورال بواسطة الكاربون المنشط. تم اقتراح موديل رياضي لمنظومة الامدصاص من النوع النمطي لاحتساب معامل انتقال الكتلة الخارجي(kf) و معامل الانتشار(Dp) للفورفورال في الكاربون المنشط. تبين أن استخدام موديل لانكماير هو الأنسب في وصف عملية الامدصاص عند درجة حرارة ثابتة 30 مئوي حيث وجد ان معامل انتقال الكتلة الخارجي (kf) يساوي 6.24*10-5 m/s و معامل الانتشار للفورفورال في الكاربون المنشط (Dp) يساوي9.875*10-10 m2/s ، وان استخدام الموديل الرياضي لمنظومة الامدصاص من النوع النمطي والذي يعتمد على وصف الانتشار داخل الكاربون المنشط من النوع الفجوي يعطي وصفا" صحيحا" و دقيقا" لعملية امدصاص الفورفورال على الكاربون المنشط.


Article
Numerical study of the mixed convection flow over a square cylinder

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Abstract

In this work, a numerical study is performed to predict the solution of two – dimensional, steady and laminar mixed convection flow over a square cylinder placed symmetrically in a vertical parallel plate. A finite difference method is employed to solve the governing differential equations, continuity, momentum, and energy equation balances. The solution is obtained for stream function, vorticity and temperature as dependent variables by iterative technique known as successive over relaxation. The flow and temperature patterns are obtained for Reynolds number and Grashof number at (Re= -50,50,100,-100) (positive or negative value refers to aidding or opposing buoyancy , +1 assisting flow, -1 opposing flow) and (102 to 105) , respectively. The results displaced that the recirculation length above the cylinder increases with the increase in Gr number and the average Nu number is the highest at the lower surface of the cylinder, while is the lowest at the top of the cylinder surface. A comparison between the obtained results and the published computational studies has been made and it showed a good agreement.


Article
PC-Based Controller for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Naseer A. Habobi
Pages: 47-53
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Abstract

PC-based controller is an approach to control systems with Real-Time parameters by controlling selected manipulating variable to accomplish the objectives. Shell and tube heat exchanger have been identified as process models that are inherently nonlinear and hard to control due to unavailability of the exact models’ descriptions. PC and analogue input output card will be used as the controller that controls the heat exchanger hot stream to the desired temperature. The control methodology by using four speed pump as manipulating variable to control the temperature of the hot stream to cool to the desired temperature. In this work, the dynamics of cross flow shell and tube heat exchanger is modeled from step changes in cold water flow rate (manipulated variable). The model is identified to be First Order plus Dead Time (FOPDT). The objective of this work is to design and implement a controller to regulate the outlet temperature of hot water that is taken as controlled variable. The comparison of the designed PI controller with the PC-Based controller performance (according to rise time, percentage overshoot and settling time) shows a good agreement for PC-Based to control the system.


Article
Removal of dyes from polluted water by adsorption on maize cob

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Abstract

This research aimed to examine the effect of concentration of dyes stuff, contact time, temperature and ratio of adsorbent weight in (gm) to volume of solution in (ml) on the percentage removal. Two dyes were used; direct blue 6 and direct yellow and the adsorbent was the maize cob. Batch experiments were performed by contacting different weights of adsorbent with 50 ml of solution of desired concentration with continuous stirring at various temperatures. The percentage of removal was calculated and the maximum percentage of removal was 80%. And as the concentration of solution, contact time, temperature and the ratio of adsorbent to volume of solution increase the percentage of removal increase.

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Article
The Effect of Operating Conditions of Urea Dewaxing on the Pour Point of Light Lubricating Oil.

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted for dewaxing of lubricating oil fraction by urea to reduce the pour point.In this study mixture of 45 % methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 55 % toluene was used as a solvent. The studied variables are mixing time (10-70 min), solvent to oil volume ratio (0.5:1- 2:1), urea to wax weight ratio (2- 6) and constant mixing speed 1500 rpm. By analysis of the experimental results, the best operating conditions achieved are mixing time 40 min, solvent/oil 2:1 volume ratio, and urea/wax 4:1 weight ratio. At these conditions the pour point of the lubricating oil decreases from 24 ° C to -13 °C.

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urea dewaxing --- adduct --- solvents --- pour point.


Article
The Inhibition Effect of Peach Juice on Corrosion of Low Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid at Different Temperatures

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Abstract

The corrosion inhibition of low carbon steel in1N HCl solution in the presence of peach juice at temperature (30,40,50,and 60)°C at concentration ( 5, 10, 20, 30, 40and 50 cm3/L)were studied using weight loss and polarization techniques. Results show that the inhibition efficiency was increased with the increase of inhibitor concentration and increased with the increase of temperature up to 50ºC ,above 50ºC (i.e. at 60 ºC) the values of efficiency decreases. Activation parameters of the corrosion process such as activation energies, Ea, activation enthalpies, ∆H, and activation entropies, ∆S, were calculated. The adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Maximum inhibition efficiency obtained was a bout 91% at 50ºC in the 50 cm3/L inhibitor concentration. The polarization curves show that peach Juice is a mixed inhibitor

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