Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2009 volume:10 issue:3

Article
Prediction of Effective Bed Thermal Conductivity and Heat Transfer Coefficient in Fluidized Beds

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Abstract

Experimental study of heat transfer coefficients in air-liquid-solid fluidized beds were carried out by measuring the heat rate and the overall temperature differences across the heater at different operating conditions. The experiments were carried out in Q.V.F. glass column of 0.22 m inside diameter and 2.25 m height with an axially mounted cylindrical heater of 0.0367 m diameter and 0.5 m height. The fluidizing media were water as a continuous phase and air as a dispersed phase. Low density (Ploymethyl-methacrylate, 3.17 mm size) and high density (Glass beads, 2.31 mm size) particles were used as solid phase. The bed temperature profiles were measured axially and radially in the bed for different positions. Thermocouples were connected to an interface system and these measurements were monitored by computer on line. Theoretical analysis has been carried out to solve the differential equation governing heat transfer in the gas-liquid-solid fluidized system with its boundary conditions. Finite difference technique was used as a suitable numerical method to find the solution. By applying the temperature profiles found experimentally in solved equation, effective thermal conductivity values were found.


Article
Recovery of Catalyst from Tar Formed in Phenol Production Unit

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Abstract

This work was conducted to study the recovery of catalyst and desirable components from tar formed in phenol production unit and more particularly relates to such a method whereby better recovery of copper salts, phenol, benzoic acid and benzoate salts from tar by aqueous acid solution was accomplished. The effect of solvent type, solvent concentration (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt%), agitation speed (100, 200, 300 and 400 rpm), agitation time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min), temperature (90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 oC) , phase ratio (1/1, 2/1, 3/1, 4/1 and 5/1) and number of extraction (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) were examined in order to increase the catalyst and desirable components extraction. Four types of solvent were used; hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid and butanoic acid with different concentration. The results of this work exhibit that the highest removal of copper 80.2 wt%, phenol 89.1 wt%, benzoic acid 90.7 wt% and benzoate salts 87.3 wt% were obtained under the conditions of Acetic acid-water of 15%, Agitation speed = 300 rpm, Agitation time = 20 min, Temperature = 120 oC, Phase ratio (A/O) = 4 / 1, and Number of extraction cycle = 4.

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Article
Risk Assessment Due to Population Exposure to Lead Particles Emittedfrom Domestic Electrical Generators

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Abstract

Portable and stationary electrical generators became quite popular in Iraq soon after the shortage in national electrical energy after 2003. Multi step risk assessment process is used in this study in the assessment of risks caused by contamination of indoor air by lead particles emitted from domestic electrical generators. Two portable electrical generators are tested under controlled indoor conditions (Radial LG (0.9 keV) fueled with benzene and oil and TigMax (3 keV), fueled with benzene only). Lead particles in air were sampled by using portable dust sampler (Sniffer, L-30). The atmospheric particulate sampling process is carried out in a flat located in the first floor of a three stories building located in Baghdad city, Al-Zafarania region. The lead concentration in the digested filter papers is measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Buck, USA). Dose-to-risk conversion factor is applied in this study to estimate the potential cancer risk to Baghdad’s population related to continuous inhalation of airborne lead at the mean observed concentrations. The results of toxicity analysis indicate that public exposure to airborne lead at the mean observed concentration of 4.991 mu g/m3 can increase the risk of cancer at a rate of 12 extra cancer cases in a group of million exposed individuals. Males are found to be at greater risk than females because of higher inhalation rates. Children are found to be the most sensitive group due to low body weight (about 101 expected additional cancer cases in a group of million exposed child).


Article
Extraction of medicinal compounds from botanicals using bulk liquid membrane in rotating film contactor: Recovery of vinblastine from catharanthus roseus.

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Abstract

The interest of application of liquid membrane (pertraction) processes for recovery of medicinal compounds from dilute ammoniacal leach solutions is demonstrated. Selectivity of the liquid membrane ensures a preferential transport of the desired solute from the native extract into the strip solution, vinblastine was successfully extracted from basic media (pH 9.2) and stripped by acidic media of sulfuric acid (pH= 1.3) applying continuous pertraction in a rotating discs contactor and using n-decane as liquid membrane. Transport of vinblastine in three-liquid-phase system was studied and performed by means of a kinetic model involving two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions. The kinetic parameters (apparent rate constants of the vinblastine extraction and re-extraction reactions (K1, K2), the maximum fraction of the vinblastine in the liquid membrane (XS.Max) and the time when this maximum is reached (TMax)) were calculated. Solute transfer into the LM is mainly diffusion-controlled.


Article
Effect of Additives on Rheological Properties of Invert Emulsions

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Abstract

This research deals with study of the effect of additives on rheological properties (yield point, plastic viscosity ,and apparent viscosity) of emulsions. Twenty seven emulsion samples were prepared; all emulsions in this investigation are invert emulsions when water droplets are dispersed in diesel oil. The resulting emulsions are called water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. The rheological properties of these emulsions were investigated using a couett coaxial cylinder rotational viscometer (Fann-VG model 35 A), by measuring shear stress versus shear rate. It was found that the effect of additives on rheological properties of emulsions as follow: the increase in the concentration of asphaltic material tends to increase the rheological properties of emulsions, the increase in the volume percentage of barite tends to increase the rheological properties of emulsions and the increase in the volume percentage of emulsifier has a little effect on the value of rheological properties, but in the same time it increase the stability of emulsions with temperature because it surrounded water droplets.يهتم هذا البحث بدراسة تأثير الاضافات على الخواص الريولوجية(نقطة الخضوع,اللزوجة اللدائنية واللزوجة الظاهرية)للمستحلبات. تم تحضير 27 نموذج مستحلب حيث كل المستحلبات المحضرة هي مستحلبات عكسية عندها تكون قطرات الماء منتشرة خلال زيت الديزل والنتيجة تسمى مستحلبات ماء-في-نفط. وجد ان تأثير الاضافات على الخواص الريولوجية للمستحلبات هي كالاتي:زيادة تركيز المادة الاسفلتية يزيد من الخواص الريولوجية للمستحلبات,زيادة النسبة الحجمية للبارايت يزيد من الخواص الريولوجية للمستحلبات ايضاً و زيادة النسبة الحجميةلعامل الاستحلاب له تأثير قليل على قيم الخواص الريولوجية ولكنه يزيد من استقرارية المستحلبات مع درجة الحرارة وذلك لانه يحيط بقطرات الماء.

Keywords

Rheology --- Emulsions


Article
Reducing the evaporation of stored Iraqi crude oil

Authors: Tahseen hameed khlaif --- G. A. R. rassoul
Pages: 41-49
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Abstract

In order to reduce the losses due to evaporation in the stored crude oil and minimizing the decrease in °API many affecting parameters were studied (i.e. Different storage system, namely batch system with different types of storage tanks under different temperatures and:or different pressures). Continuous circulation storage system was also studied. It was found that increasing pressure of the inert gas from 1 bar to 8 bar over the surface of the crude oil will decrease the percentage losses due to evaporation by (0.016%) and decrease the change of °API by (0.9) during 96 hours storage time. Similarly using covering by surfactant (potassium oleate) or using polymer (polyurethane foam) decreases the percentage evaporation losses compared with uncovered surface of the blend crude oil. In each surfactants and polymers the layer thickness was (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 cm), and increasing the thickness of the surfactant to 2.5 cm or of the polymer to 3 cm was found to be best required thickness. Surfactant gave lower percentage evaporation losses than polymer, for fixed roof tank (i.e. 0.299%, 0.383%) for 120 hours evaporation time. Different processed storage tanks namely (fixed roof, external moving roof, fixed and internal moving) were studied and fixed and moving roof was the best in reducing evaporation losses (0.453%) for 120 hours. In continuous circulation for proposed continuous storage system, the percentage evaporation losses for covered with surfactant, covered with polymer, and uncovered surface of blend crude oil were (0.328%), (0.378%), and (0.45%) respectively at 24 °C for 96 hours evaporation time.

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Article
A Study of Forward Osmosis Using Various Drawing Agents

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Abstract

This research was aimed to study the osmotic efficiency of the draw solutions and the factors affecting the performance of forward osmosis process. The draw solutions used were magnesium sulfate hydrate (MgSO4.7H2O), potassium chloride (KCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3). It was found that water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, and feed solution flow rate and decreases with increasing draw solution flow rate and feed solution concentration. And also found that the efficiency of the draw solutions is in the following order: CaCl2> KCl> NH4HCO3> MgSO4.7H2O


Article
Methanol Effect on color stability and shelf life of phenolic Resin compound under acidic conditions

Authors: Ammar Waadallah Ahmed
Pages: 57-63
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Abstract

The object of this work is to investigate the effect of the addition of methanol on the shelf life and color characteristics of novolak resin. Different percentages were added and two mechanisms were suggested for the addition. High ortho structure (1, 2-3) novolak resin was prepared and used in the above investigation. Experimental determination using FT-IR and UV-spectroscopy showed that on the addition of 30% of methanol and according to the second mechanism of addition novolak shelf life increased to 12 months without obvious decomposition and color change. It is suggested that methanol plays an important role in the inhabitation of the reactive sites on the resin that are responsible for the oxidation of the polymer when exposed to atmospheric or storage conditions.

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