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Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:8 issue:2

Article
Drag Forces under Longitudinal Interaction of Two Particles

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Abstract

Direct measurements of drag force on two interacting particles arranged in the longitudinal direction for particle ? numbers varying from 10 to are conducted using a micro-force measurement system. The effect of the interparticle distance and Reynolds number on the drag forces is examined. An empirical equation is obtained to dacribe the effect of the interparticle distance (l/d) on the dimensionless drag.


Article
الاسترداد الامثل لمذيب الزايلين المستخدم في تحضير سبيكة بولي اثيلين -بولي سايلوكسان

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Abstract

تناول البحث الحالي تحديد المسار التكنولوجي لاسترداد مذيب الزايلين المستخدم في تحضير السبائك البوليمرية نوع (بولي اثيلين-بولي سايلوكسان) باعلى نسبة ممكنة.وتم ذلك من خلال دراسة تأثير المتغيرات الحاكمة باعتماد اسلوبين في الاسترداد وهما الاسترداد بالهواء الحار والاسترداد بالتبريد والترشيح .اظهرت النتائج ان اعتماد اسلوب التبريد والترشيح يعطي نتائج افضل ,من حيث نسبة الاسترداد والتي بلغت 75 % ومن حيث مواصفات السبيكة البوليمرية الناتجة.وتضمنت خطوات العمل اجراء عملية الاذابة بدرجة حرارة 80 م بالنسب الوزنية التالية للمواد الداخلة : زايلين 75.8 %,بولي اثيلين 17.6 %,بولي سايلوكسان 6.6 % ولمدة ساعة واحدة, يلي ذلك تبريد المزيج الناتج لفترة 24 ساعة وصولاً الى درجة حرارة الصفر المئوي ثم ترشيح الخليط تحت ضغط مخلخل -0.4 بار لفترة 1 ساعة وتجفيف السبيكة الناتجة بدرجة حرارة 50 م لمدة ثلاث ساعات.


Article
Rise Velocity and Drag Coefficient of Collapsing Two-Phase Bubble Condensing in an Immiscible Liquid

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Abstract

Collapse of the vapor bubble condensing in an immiscible is investigated for n-pentane and n-hexane vapors condensing in cold water and n-pentane in two different compositions of glycerin- water mixture. The rise velocity and the drag coefficient of the Mo-phase bubble are measured.


Article
Predicting of Temperature Distribution in Direct Contact Heat Transfer

Authors: Najim A. Jassim
Pages: 11-22
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Abstract

An experimental and theoretical investigation of three phase direct contact heal transfer by evaporal ion of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid has been carried out Refrigerant R/2 and R134a were usedfor the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical analysis is presented to predict the temperature distribution throughout the circular test column radially and axially is achieved. Experimental measurements of the temperature distribution have been compared with the numerical results and are discussed .A comparison between the crperimental and theoretical results showed acceptable agreement and applicability of the derived equations. Comparison with other related work showed similar behavior.


Article
Determination of Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient in Fixed Bed Adsorption

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Abstract

This work was conducted to determine the volumetric mass transfrr coefficient (Ky.a) injixed bed adsorption using hexane-benrene mixture by adsorption onto a fixed bed of white silica gel.Benzene concentration was measured by gas chromatography. The effect of fred flow rate and initial concentration of benzene in hexane-benzene mixture on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient and on the adsorption capacity of silica gel was investigated. In general, the volumetric mass transfrr coefficient increases with increasing hexane flow rate, and with increasing initial concentration of beniene in the mixture. The ultimate value of (Ky. a) was at 53 mI/ of hexane flow rate with benzene initial concentration of (653 wt. %,), and it was (99.4 kg/m3.s). The adsorptive capacity of silica gel increases with decreasing hexane flow rate, as with increasing initial concentration of benzene in the mixture. The best adsorptive capacity of the imported silica gel (100 g of imported silica gel yielded 120 ml of benzene-free effluent) was achieved with the grade (1.18-5 mm) in size at a hexane flow rate 15 m


Article
Drag Reduction of Crude Oil Flow in Pipelines Using Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Surfactant

Authors: Ali A. A. Hadi --- G. A. R. Rassoul
Pages: 29-34
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Abstract

In the present worA a closed loop circulation system consist of three testing sections was designed and constructed. The testing sections made from (3m) of commercial carbon steel pipe of diameters (5.08, 2.54 and 1.91 cm) . Anionic surfactant (SDBS)with concentrations of (50 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm) was tested as a drag reducing agent The additive(SDDS) studied using crude oilfrom south of Iraq. The flow rates of crude oil were used 08 and 2.54cm ID. pipes are (1 — 12) m3/hr while (1-6) ra were used in 1.91 cm ID. pipe. Percentage drag reduction (%Dr) was found to increase by increasing solution velocity, pipe diameter and additives concentration (La increasing Renolds number). Also it was found that there is no change in apparent physical properties (viscosity) of crude oil after the addition of SDBS, The higher value of drag reduction of 54% in 5 cm ID. was observed using 250 ppm SDBS surfactant dissolved in the used crude oil at flow rate of 12 m Friction factor was calculated from experimental data. The friction factors values for pure solvent lies near or at Blasius asymptote suggestedfor flow of Newtonian fluids. Afier the addition of small amount of SDI3S, the friction factor values were positioned below Blasius asymptote toward Virk maximum drag reduction asymptote, &hich was never reached.


Article
Alpha-Alumina Extraction from AI-Ga’ara Bauxite

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Abstract

The bauxite produced from Al-Ga ‘ara area in Al-Enbar containing 50.4 W percentages A1 was used for a a! urn/na production. For a-alumina product ion bauxite was mixed with calcium carbonate in a ratio 1.3 and the mixture was burned at temperature range 1150- cooled to 500°C; crushed and ground. The powder produced treated then with 6% sodium carbonate solution using different temperature (60-100°C) for fifteen minutes. After filtration, the produced sodium alurninate solution was reacted with 2% of calcium hydroxide at 98 for thirty minutes. The filtrate was carbonated with pur(f led CO gas at 70°C for different times (30- and different flow rates (20-80 cm’/min). Alumina was precipitated as hydrate, then washed with water, dried at 110°C, and calcined at 1200°C. The produced a AL was ident?fied by X-ray diffraction.


Article
Anodic Polarization of Mild Steel in Saturated Ca(OH)2 Contaminated with NaCL in Presence of NaNO2

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Abstract

The corrosion behavior of mild steel in saturated aerated and dc-aerated Ca(OH)2 solution was investigated using electrochemical measurements. The work was carried out with small coupons immersed in soIw ions containing dWèrent quantities of MaC in presence of various NaNO concentrations w corrosion inhibitors. It has been found that:(I) In presence of NaCI the time required to reach °2 evolution potential in dc-aerated Ca(0h9 polarized at lOpA/cm is function of inhibitor concentration and it becomes lass as NaNO increases compared with zero presence indicating the effectiveness of PIaNO as anodic corrosion inhibitor. (2) In absence of NaC1, the time required to reach 01 evolution potential in de solutions is less that in aerated solutions when inhibitor increases from 0 to 0.3 wt%. (3) In presence of sufficient chloride in dc-aerated Ca(OI-i9, solution, the passive film m broken down locally.


Article
Zinc Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Electro-Coagulation Process

Authors: Nawras S. Sabeeh --- Ibtehal K. Shakir
Pages: 43-46
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Abstract

Electro coagulation treatment was used for zinc removal from electroplating -wastewater of the State Company for Electrical Industries, This wastewater, here consists zinc ions with maximum concentration in solution of 90 ppm. The parameters that influenced the wastewater treatment are: current density in the range 1—1.4 mA/cm, pH in the range 5-10, temperature in the range 25—45°C and time in the range /0—180 minute. The research is a laboratory experimental type using batch system for electrical process with direct current. The cell comprised of aluminum electrode as anode and stainless steel electrode as cathode. Thirty experiments and one hundred fifty sample lab tests were carried out in this research to study the effect of the mentioned paramet cr5 on the efficiency of the removal process. Experimental work of this research proved a higher efficiency about 95 % removal of zinc from wastewater at 1.4 mA! cm in alkaline media atpH equal and Mmperature 45°C.


Article
Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel under Two Phase Flow (Water-Petroleum) Simulated by Turbulently Agitated System

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Abstract

The corrosion of carbon steel in single phase (water with 0. IN NaCI) and two immiscible phases (kerosene-water) using turbulently agirated system is invest The experiments are carried out for Reynolds number (Re) range of 38000 to 95000 corresponding to rotational velocities from 600 to 1400 rpm using circular disk turbine agitator at 40 C. in two-phase system lest runs are carried out in aqueous phase (water) concentrations of) % vo 5 % vol., 8% vol. and 16% vol. mixed with kerosene at various Re. The effect of Reynolds number (Re), percent of dispersed phase, dispersed drops diameter, and number of drops per unit volume on the corrosion rate is investigated and discussed. Test runs are carried out using two types of inhibitors: sodium nitrite of concentrat ions 20, 40, and 60 ppm and sodium hexapolyphosphate of concentrations 485, 970, and 1940 ppm in a solution containing 8% vol. aqueous phase (water) mixed wi/h kerosene (continuous phase) at 40 °Cfor the whole range qf Re. It was found that increasing Re increases the corrosion rate and the presence of water enhances the corrosion rate by increasing the solution electrical conductivity. For two phase solution containing 8% vol. and /6% vol. of water the corrosion rate was higher than single phase (100 % vol. water). The main parameters that play the major role in determining the corrosion rate in two phase were concentration of oxygen, solution electrical conductivity, and the interfacial area between the two phases (dispersed ond continuous). Sodium nitrite and sodium hexopolyphosphate were found to be fflcient inhibitors in two phase solution for the investigated range of Re.

Keywords

corrosion --- two-phase --- kerosene --- water --- turbulent --- carbon steel.

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