Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2007 volume:8 issue:3

Article
Removal of Emulsified Paraffine from Water: Effect of Bubble Size and Particle Size on Kinetic of Flotation

Authors: Ahmed A. Mohammed
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

This paper studied kinetics of flotation of emulsified paraffine in water in a bubble column with sodium dodecylsuiphate as a collector agent. The effects of oil drops and air bubble diameters on the flotation rate constant were studied The removal rate for each oil drop size was first order with respect to oil drop concentration. An experimental procedure permitting determination of the first order rate constants for removal due to bubble/drop interaction was developed, decreasing bubble diameter by adding Naci and increasing oil drop diameter increased the rate constants. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical rate constants showed that the predicted mechanism of oil-droplet removed by bubbles less than 1. diameter is one of hydrodynamics capture in the wake behind the rising bubbles.

Keywords

f lotation --- emulsion --- kinetic


Article
Dynamics of a Single Condensing Two-Phase Bubble

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Abstract

The dynamics of a single condensing two-phase bubble of two different dispersed-continuous systems were studied. The systems were, CC - water and CCI - 100% glyceroL Cinephotography was used to determine the change in height, diameter and time. These results were used to determine the experimental rise velocity of the bubble, which was compared with a theoretical one based on some equations used It was found that the velocity of the first system remained almost constant while it decreased gradualy for the second system.


Article
Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide by Batch Distillation Column

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted to study the concentration of hydrogen peroxide by vacuum distillation. The effect of the process variables (such as vacuum pressure, pa lime of distillation and packing height of the column used in the distillation process) on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. During the third stage of distillation (95 wt. %)concentration was obtained. Box-Wilson central composite rotatable design is used to design the experimental work for the mentioned variables. It was found that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases with:Jncreasing vacuum pressure, decreasing reflux ratio, increasing the time of distillation and increasing the packing height. The second order polynomial regression analysis of the objective response (concentration of hydrogen peroxide).


Article
Estimation and Simulation in Batch Fermentation of Baker’s Yeast Producfion

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Abstract

Baker’s Yeast is an important additive among the substances, which improves bred quality, thus, a consideration has been made to study the conditions and parameters that affecting the production of the yeast in a batch fermenter experimentally and theoretically. Experimental runs were implemented in a 12-liter pilot-scale fermenter to predict the rate of growth and other parameters such as amount of additive consumed and the amount of heat generated The process is modeled and performed using a computer programming propped for this purpose, the model gave a good agreement comparing to the experimental work specially in the log phase.

Keywords

fermentation --- simulation --- yeast.


Article
A Study into the Dynamic Behaviour of Packed Distillation Columns

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Abstract

The study of the dynamic behaviour of packed distillation column was studied by frequency response analysis using Matlab program. A packed distillation column (80 mm diameter) (2000 mm height) filled with glass packing (Raschig Rings 10mm), packing height (1500 mm) has been mod for separation of methanol-water mixture (60 vol%). The column dynamic behaviour was studied experimentally under different step changes in, feed rate (*30%), reflux rate (+22%), and reboiler heat duty (+150%), the top and bottom concentration of methanol were measured. A frequency response analysis for the above step response was carried out using Bode diagram, the log modulus and the phase angle were used to analyze the process model. A Matlab program was used to study the dynamic model for continuous packed distillation to predict the transient response to a step change in feed rate, reflux rate and reboiler heat duty. It also used to find the frequency response analysis using experimental data and the results were compared with ARX7Auto Recursive) model, then the plot of Bode diagram was carried Finally the transfer function to step change in feed rate was found and represented by second order. For reflux rate change, it was found that for the top concentration, it can be represented by first order (lead — lag system). Finally a comparison between the experimental and theoretical response curves were made, it was found that the model obtained from Matlab program (Bode diagram) gave a good agreement with experimental data while the model obtained using process reaction curve method shows a deviation between the theoretical and experimental data.


Article
Quality Improvement of Spent Lubricating Oil

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Abstract

The acidity of spent lubricant was treated using sodium hydroxide solution. The effect of three variables on the treatment have been studied. These are mixing time ranging from 5-35 minutes, NaOH to lubricant weight ratio ranging from 0.25-1.25 and weight percentage of NaoH ranging from 2.6%. The experimental design of Box-Wilson method is adopted to find a useful relationship between the three controllable variables and the lowering in the acidity of the spent lubricant. Then the effective variables and interactions are identified using the statistical analysis(F-test) of three variable fractional design. The mathematical model is well represented by a second order polynomial. By the analisys of the experimental results, the best treatment conditions which achieved an acceptable acidity of the spent lubricant are 20 minutes mixing time, I weight ratio of NaOH to spent lubricant and 4.5 weight percentage of NaOH. At these condition the acidity of the lubricant decreases from 0.62 to 0.0602mg KOH/g oil.

Keywords

lubricating oil.


Article
Biotreatment Technique to Treat Oil Wells Drilling Wastes

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Abstract

The minimization, treatment and disposal of drilling wastes especially oily wastes are important environmental issues. In this research two fungal isolates named Pleurotuso streatus and Trichoderma harzianum were chosen carefully for the purpose of biotreatment of oily drilled cuttings which resulting from drilling oil wells using oil based muds (OBMs). A relationship of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in oily drilled cuttings with time has been obtained The results showed that Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum can be considered hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms and the used biotreatment is cost effective process since most of the materials used in the cultivation and growth of the present fungi were available and cheap agricultural wastes. The best hydrocarbon degradation was observed in case of using both fungi together with 5 % by weight microorganisms concentration ratio (MCR) and with the same ratio of nuirients expressed as C/N/P equal to 100/50/10 nutrients components ratio which gave average total petrol eum hydrocarbon degradation of about 205 ppm per day.


Article
Study of Catalysts Deactivation in Isomerization Process to Produce High Octane Gasoline

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Abstract

In this study the isomerization of desulfuerized light iraqi petroleum naphtha (Al-Dura Refinery) with boiling point range of 37 to 124 °C , 80.5 API specific gravity and 68.2 octane number has been investigated. Two types of catalysts were prepared (Pt/HX and Pt/SrX) by impregnation of 0.8 wt% Pt on 13X-zeolite. The catalyst activity and selectivity toward isomerization, and catalyst deactivation were investigated. The isomerization unit consisted of a vertical tubular stainless steel reactor of 2 cm internal diameter, 3 cm external diameter and 6 height The operating pressure was atmospheric for all experimental runs. The l(quidflow of light naphtha was 0.4 Lih, and the catalyst weight was 50 gm, H2/H.C ratio used was 4 for all experimental runs. The isomerization process was studied at different temperatures of 250, 270, 275, 300, 325, and 350°C. It was found that, the optimum isomerization temperature is 270°C. The isomerization activities and selectivities as afunction of time showed high activity at the beginning of the reaction and were deactivated rapidly. This indicates that the deactivation of Pt/HX and Pt/SrX results from the blocking of pore mouth by the deposited carbon. The following deactivation decreasing order, Pt/HX> Pt/SrX was found. On the other hand, Pt/FIX catalyst shows higher activity and selectivity than that of Pt/SrX. it was concluded that, only an average of 90 wt% of the carbon atoms fled into the reactor (light naphtha) is detected in the product strewn due to formation of coke deposits which leads to catalyst deactivation. The results clearly showed that hydrogen is necessary for the hydrogenation of olefins in order to prevent oligomerization reaction that leads to coke formation and catalyst deactivation.


Article
Electrochemical Behavior of Chemical Conversion Coated Aluminum ASA6061in Chromic Acid

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Abstract

The corrosion behavior of bare and chemical conversion coated (through anodizing) aluminum AS4 6061 in stagnant chromic acid solutions. Solutions of 2, 6 & lO wt% Cro3, at 45°C have been investigated using polarization ion technique. The anodizing experiments were conducted under fixed conditions of 35 minute exposure time and 30 volt supplied voltage. The most important feature achieved was the great d(fference in behavior between the anodic polarization curves for bare and anodized aluminum in different concentrations of chromic acid solutions.


Article
Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloy in 50% Ethylene Glycol Solution

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different inhibitors on the corrosion rate of aluminum in 50% (v/v) ethylene glycol solution at 80°C and pH 8.0 in which the electrochemical technique of linear sweep voltammetry was employed to characterize each inhibitor function and to calculate the corrosion rate from Tafel plots generated by a computer assisted potentiostat. It is found that both sodium dichromate and borax reduces the corrosion rate by polarizing the anodic polarization curve while sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, and sodium berizoate reduces the corrosion rate by polarizing both the anodic and cathodic polarization curve. When inhibitor concentration increases from 1 g/l up to 3 g/l. the inhibitor efficiency increases from 50% up to 85% for borax, from 64% up to 71%for sodium dichromate, and from 66% up to 82% for sodium phosphate, while constant inhibitor efficiency of about 55% and 50% for potassium phosphate and sodium benzoate were obtained respectively.

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