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المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية

ISSN: 18122388
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: التمريض
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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مجلة علمية تهتم بالبحوث التمريضية

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wadad_2005m@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2011 المجلد: 24 العدد: 1

Article
Assessment of Nurses' Practices Toward Infection Control Standardized Precautions in Azady Teaching Hospital in the City of Kirkuk

المؤلفون: Sana'a H Abdul Sahib --- Nazar A Mahmud
الصفحات: 1-10
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the practices of nurses towards standard precautions at Azady Teaching Hospital in the City of Kirkuk.
Methodology: A descriptive study, which uses the assessment approach and it was conducted on nurses from January 18th, 2009 to September 30th, 2009, using non-probability sampling a purposive sample of (37) subject (male and female nurses) who worked at surgical wards in Azady Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk city was selected. Two study instruments were utilized for proper data collection [questionnaire and observational checklist]; a questionnaire was developed for the purpose of the study. It was comprised of two parts which included the nurses' demographic characteristics and Information related to the setting of the sample (surgical wards). A pilot study was carried out for the period of January 18th, 2009, to February 2nd, 2009 to determine the observational checklist reliability through the use of (Inter–rater). A panel of (19) experts was involved in the determination of the observational checklist content validity. Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical data analysis approach (frequency, percentage, mean of scores and standard deviation), and inferential data analysis approach (chi-square).
Results: The study findings revealed that the majority (91.9%) of the nurses did not get training sessions regarding infection control and (83.4%) of them had not participated continuous learning about infection control. According to the level of practices towards standard precautions, it has revealed that poor practices of standard precautions by surgical wards nurses had shown in surgical wards.
Recommendations: The study recommended that special education programs can be designed and presented to the surgical ward nurses and to all the hospital staff in order to increase their awareness towards infection.
Keywords: Nurse; Standard Precautions

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Article
Assessment of Nurses’ Practices for Neurological Unconscious Patients in Intensive Care Units

المؤلفون: Ali A. Ghanim --- Batool A. Jaddoue
الصفحات: 1-9
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Objective(s): To assess nurses' practices for neurological unconscious patients in intensive care units.

Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted that included (50) nurse who are working in intensive care units in hospitals and departments of the nervous system in (4) hospitals (neuroscience hospital, teaching neurosurgical hospital, surgical specialist hospital, and sheck zaied hospital) in Baghdad city from March, 30th, 2009 to July, 30th 2009 for the purpose of assessing their skills towards unconscious patients. A purposive "non-probability sample" was selected that consisted of (50) nurse who are working in intensive care units. A questionnaire format and observational checklist were used which consist of (2) parts, the first part includes demographic information of the sample and the second part includes tools which consists of the observation (7) parts distributed to (64) items. Reliability and validity of questionnaire and observational checklist was estimated through a pilot study and a panel of expert. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical measures which included frequencies, percentages, and standard deviation, as well as the use of inferential statistical measures which include the correlation coefficient and coefficient of probability.

Results: The results revealed the inadequacy of skills of nurses towards unconscious patients' care in the field of airway care, observation and record level of consciousness, hygiene, stimulate the senses and care of urinary and digestive tract and the adequacy of skills of nurses in the field of measuring and recording vital signs, nutrition, and the environment.

Recommendations: Based on the results of research, the study recommends initiating training courses in the field of intensive care and care of for unconscious patients as well as to design a special mini-booklet for the purpose of care for unconscious patients.

Keywords: Nurses’ practices; Unconscious patients; Intensive care units

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Article
Assessment of Types of Violence among Adolescents

المؤلفون: Mohammed F. Khalifa --- Kareem G. Sajem
الصفحات: 1-11
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Objective(s): To assess the types of violence among adolescents in Baghdad City.
A descriptive study which was using the assessment approach was conducted on purposive sample of 60 parents of adolescent for identify types of adolescents violence in their families, was selected according to specific criteria for participating in health education program towards adolescents' violence control in Baghdad city.
Methodology: A questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study. It was consisted of two parts; the first part which included the parents' demographic characteristics for parents (sex, age, educational level and socio-economic status); the second part included types of adolescent violence that reported by parents. Data were collected through the interview technique with the parents in the homes, health care centers, and school, from November, 1st 2008 to December, 31st 2008. Data were analyzed through use of descriptive analysis (Frequencies and percentages).

Results: The results of the study indicated that the majority of adolescents had physical and psychological violence. So, there was no sexual violence. The study concluded that adolescents' violence is a problem, because it was definitely impacted on health of adolescents and their families.
Recommendations: The study recommends that studies and programs can be designed and implemented on the parents and adolescents or together for resolve conflicts, problem–solving approaches and how to prevent risk factors which contribute in adolescents' violence.

Keywords: Types of Violence, Adolescents

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Article
Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections in Baghdad Teaching Hospital

المؤلفون: Eman N. Najee
الصفحات: 1-12
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الخلاصة

Abstract:
Objectives: The objectives of the present study are to identify both, the rate of urinary tract infections (UTI) in medical and surgical wards in Baghdad Teaching Hospital and the common types of microorganisms that cause this type of NIs, study the resistance of isolated microorganisms to several types of antibiotic and the effect of some disinfection material like Iodine, chlorhexidine and septicin on the growth of these isolates.
Methodology: This is descriptive study carried out from 162009 to 1112009. A total of 200 patients were admitted to medical and surgical wards in Baghdad teaching hospital, patients were divided into two group 100 patients, in surgical ward and 100 patients in medical ward. Some of important information was recorded. Urine samples were cultured on different culture media in order to isolate different pathogenic bacteria. Then, the sensitivity of these isolates were tested against different antimicrobials, antibiotics (amikacin, ampicillin, cefixime, cefotaxime, cephalexin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, nitrofuranion, rifimpicin and vancomycin) and the effects of different disinfectant solutions with different concentrations; including benzalkonium chloride (septicin, commercial), chlorhexidine and povidoniodine (betadine, commercial), were tested as well on the growth of isolated bacteria.
Results: The results show that a high incidence of (UTI) as nosocomial infections appeared in medical and surgical wards in Baghdad Teaching Hospital and most of patients were male at age groups ranged from 46-55 years and 36-45 years in medical and surgical ward respectively. The highest rate of UTIs increased in patients who had needed catheterization procedures in both wards. Gram negative bacteria were commonly p. aeuroginosa and E. coli, less commonly gram positive bacteria like methicillin-resistant Satph aureus were isolated as etiologic agents of UTIs infections in both wards. Moreover, multi-drug resistance for common use antibiotics was observed in most virulent species like Pseudomonas aeuroginos and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nitrofurantion was the best drug for all bacterial isolates. It was obvious that 10-15% of povidione-iodine solution has more effect on the growth controlling of pathogenic bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeuroginos isolates. The results indicated significant differences (p˂0.01) between the effect of Septicin and Chlorhexidine on the activity of isolated bacteria.
Recommendations: The study recommends that the catheter should be changed every 2 days, especially if signs of urinary tract infections appear and using antimicrobial catheters and intelligent use of aseptic techniques, and limiting the use of antibiotics and the use of most effective disinfectant in the exact concentration specified by the manufacture, and the detection antibiotic resistance gene using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique.
Keywords: Nosocomial infections, urinary tract infections, pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic resistance, disinfectant

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Article
Assessment of students' knowledge regarding breast self-examination in Erbil City-Iraq

المؤلفون: Nazar A. Sheren --- Kareem F. Aziz
الصفحات: 1-9
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cause of death among women worldwide (1). Breast self-exam (BSE) is considered an important public health procedure; primary prevention should be given the highest priority in the fight against cancer.
Cancer is considered the second leading cause of death in developed countries there was some 6.2 million cancer related deaths, accounting for 12% of all deaths globally (5).Patients perception toward this disease and preference concerning the types and aims of their treatment are vary they may loss hopes and become devastated and crippled or even dies earlier, if told about the diagnosis (13). The study aimed to assess knowledge of female students regarding BSE, and to find out relationship between sociodemographic variables and breast self-exam.
One hundred of female students from, Medical technical institute in the first and second class were selected to participate in the study. The questionnaire was designed for data collection. The data were collection from January 1st, 2010 to March 20th, 2010.
The questionnaire it consists of two parts related to sociodemoraphic characteristics for study sample, and female student's knowledge about breast self exam. The study revealed that female student's knowledge about breast self- exam was reported poorly, and there were no significant differences among study sample about. The study revealed that female students' knowledge about breast self-exam was reported poorly according to their age, marital status, and economic status.
The study recommended to emphasizing to curriculum of Medical Technical Institute and should be included breast cancer knowledge and prevention, and Implementation of health education program for female students to raise breast cancer knowledge and awareness among female students.
Keywords: knowledge; breast self-exam; Cancer; Iraq

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Article
Quality of Life among Adult Patients with Peptic Ulcer in the City of Sulaimani

المؤلفون: Sana'a H. Abdulsahib --- Mohammad O. Mohammad --- Yasin M. Mussa
الصفحات: 1-10
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Objectives: To assess the quality of life for adult patients with peptic ulcers in the city of Sulaimani.
Methodology: A descriptive study, using the assessment approach was conducted on patients with peptic ulcer disease from January 12th, 2009 to September 30th, 2009. A purposive "non-probability" sample of (100) patients (males and females) with peptic ulcers who attended Kurdistan Center for Gastroenterology and Hepatology were selected for the study. A questionnaire was adapted from the World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire (1998) for the purpose of the study. It is comprised of (3) parts that included sociodemographic characteristics form, medical history form and adult peptic ulcers patients' quality of life (QoL) questionnaire. A pilot study was carried out on (10) patients for the period of January 12th through January 28th, 2009 to determine the study questionnaire's reliability through the use of stability (test-retest method). A panel of (14) experts was involved in the determination of the questionnaire's content validity. Data were analyzed through the application of the descriptive statistical data analysis approach (frequency, percentage, mean of scores) and inferential statistical data analysis approach (Pearson correlation coefficient and chi-square).
Results: The findings of the study indicated that quality of life was affected in physical domain and that age, gender, marital status, and monthly income had significant relationship with quality of life domains.
Recommendations: The study recommends that young adults, particularly Individuals with blood group (O) should be highly aware from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and avoids risk factors for the development of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Also, the study recommends providing health assurance and conducting further multi centers studies in order to demonstrate the differences in QoL issues for PUD patients.
Key word: Quality of Life; Peptic Ulcer

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Article
الدوريـات الطبيّة العربيّة الإلكترونيّةدراسـة تقويميـة

المؤلفون: إكرام محمد محمود
الصفحات: 1-11
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الخلاصة

المستخلص
الهـدف: التعرّف على عيّنة من المواقع الإلكترونيّة للدوريات الطبيّة العربيّة وفحص مدى تطبيقها لمعايير الجودة في مجال النشر على الإنترنت.
المنهجيـة: أتبع المنهج المسحيّ من خلال زيارة تسعة مواقع لدوريات طبيّة وتدوين المعلومات عنها بواسطة استمارة ضمّت التحري عن تواجد خمس معايير عالمية لجودة المواقع والمعلومات الإلكترونيّة.
النتائـج: بعد جمع المعلومات، توصلت الدراسة إلى النتائج الآتية:
1. من خلال فحص عناوين المواقع للدوريات لمعرفة الغرض من نشر الموقع، تبيّن الضعف في استعمال الامتداد الموحد للمواقع url إذ أخذت ستة من الدوريات امتداداً ينتمي لناشرين تجارين رغم أنّه ليس لها غرضٌ تجاريّ، بل علميّ لنشر البحوث الطبيّة. أمّا بقية الدوريات، فقد استعملته بشكلٍ يتلاءم مع غرضها وطبيعة عملها.
2. في معيار المصداقية، تمّ إعطاء قيم رقميّة لقياس مستوى التطبيق وتبيّن أنّ أربعة من الدوريات حصلت على (مستوى 5 من 6) وحصلت مجلة الطبّ السعوديّة على (6مستوى من 6) في مصداقية معلوماتها، في حين أنّ دوريتين قد انخفض مستوى مصداقيتها إلى (2).
3. في طريقة عرض المعلومات، وجدَ أنّ 4 من الدوريات تقدّم معلوماتها بأشكالٍ مختلفة وأنّ 5 منها تعرض المعلومات بشكل عناوين، ونصوص وأنّ 6 منها تصدر بشكل إلكترونيّ فقط.
التوصيـات: قدّمت الدراسة عدة مقترحات وجّهت إلى الجهات المسئولة عن نشر المواقع والمعلومات على شبكة الإنترنت.
الكلمـات المفتاحيـة: المواقع الإلكترونيّة للدوريات، الدوريات الطبيّة العربيّة، معايير جودة المواقع الإلكترونيّة، تقويم المواقع الإلكترونيّة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Quality of Life for Adult Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

المؤلفون: khalida A. Mansour --- Maryam H. Hamzah
الصفحات: 1-10
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الخلاصة

Abstract:
Objective(s): To determine the quality of life for adults with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out on (80) patients with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from December 2008 through October 2009 with special inclusion criteria (adult patients from 18 years and above exclude the patients who suffer complication related of disease and from psychological problems and other chronic illnesses. The data were analyzed through the application of descriptive data analysis approach and inferential data approach.

Result: The study indicated that the determination of QoL for COPD depended on the level of effect .The grades according to R.S are: "high" effect of disease in the physical, level of independence and environmental domain and "moderate" in the psychological domain, social domain and "low" in the spiritual domain. Finally the study revealed that there is significant association between (types of smoking, occupation after disease, family history) with total score QOL and no significance with sex, age, marital status, educational level, income.

Recommendation: The study recommended that the establishment of pulmonary rehabilitation centers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an educational programs and manual guide should be distributed to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

Keywords: quality of life; adult, domains; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Article
Magnesium and Drug Interactions: Review

المؤلفون: Asa'ad I. Ahmad
الصفحات: 1-13
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT: Unfortunately, hypomagnesaemia is the most underdiagnosed electrolyte deficiency in current medical practice, means of diagnosing clinical magnesium deficiency of a lesser degree than other electrolyte deficiency associated with overt signs, such as convulsions or cardiac arrhythmias or other electrocardiographic changes are not readily accessible. Plasma magnesium levels are unreliable as an index of its cellular inadequacy, because the means of evaluating magnesium status are complicated. Until magnesium clinical methodology is improved and made available, the importance of correcting magnesium deficiency in man’s diet and of preventing intensification of a deficit when needs are increased by physiologic or pathologic processes and drugs, it will have to be inferential-based on suggestion of experimental and epidemiologic observations. Because magnesium has pharmacologic activities that has been recognized for many years, demonstration of the correction of abnormal acute neuralogic and cardiac signs (even though such signs are characteristic of acute magnesium deficiency) are not readily accepted as evidence that magnesium deficiency can contribute to diseases in which such magnesium-responsive signs are seen. With notable exceptions, there has been clinical neglect of magnesium in most medical centers all over the world. This is unfortunate because many of the pathogenic changes produced by experimental magnesium deficiency or loss resemble many of those of chronic diseases that are responsible for intractable medical problems. This review is to emphasize that magnesium is essential in health and disease status, and to call the medical and scientific organization for the objective examination of the evidence, and for the exploration of the possibility that the prophylactic and treatment uses of magnesium might be effective, and this review also shows the mechanisms of interactions between some drugs and magnesium.

Keywords: Magnesium; Drug Interaction

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Article
The Influence of Ramadan Fasting on Some Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Adult Males

المؤلفون: Zahid J. Mohammed
الصفحات: 1-12
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الخلاصة

Abstract:
Objective(s): Ramadan is the Holy month of the Muslims, where they are required to abstain from food and drinks from dawn till the beginning of night. This study was conducted in Ramadan to investigate the effect of fasting on hematological incidences, lipid profile, renal and liver function tests among healthy adult males.
Methodology: The present study was carried out in Ramadan – 1431 of Higira (August-September 2010). The study sample was 56 healthy adult males. Five samples of blood were taken at five intervals (Before, at day 1, 15, 28 and after Ramadan). Estimation was done for hematological markers, (hemoglobin, white blood cells count, platelet count); renal function tests (blood urea, serum uric acid, serum albumin, total serum protein); biochemical parameters, (blood glucose, total serum cholesterol, serum triacylglyceride, high and low density lipoproteins) and liver function tests (AST, ALT, Alkaline phosphatase, total serum bilirubin).
Results: The mean age of the subjects was 48.4 years (SD 7.15) and mean weight was 79.92 kg (SD 7.94). No significant changes were observed in weight, hemoglobin, white blood cell count and platelets count, blood urea and serum albumin values. Whereas, serum uric acid and total serum protein levels were statistically lower during and after Ramadan (P< 0.05, 0.01).
Blood levels of glucose showed no significant decrease and serum cholesterol and serum triacylglyceride results were non-significant at first 2 weeks of Ramadan.
The same significant changes (p< 0.05, 0.01) were observed in the lipoprotein at day 15 and 28 of Ramadan. Findings of liver functions levels showed significant changes. While, total serum bilirubin still with no significant changes during Ramadan.
Recommendations: The present study recommends performing more studies with both larger groups and in various categories of healthy and unhealthy subjects.
Keywords: Ramadan, hematological index, lipid profile, liver functions, renal functions

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Article
Study of some risk factors and C - reactive protein levels among patients with cardiovascular diseases

المؤلفون: Adnan G. Alwan --- Dawood S.Dawood --- Yaqoub Y. Al-Rubayie
الصفحات: 1-11
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Objective : To study the effect of some risk factors like age, smoking and Diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with certain cardiovascular diseases (Angina pectoris and Myocardial infarction), in addition to the assessment of the C-reactive protein (CRP) in the sera of those patients.
Methodology: The study was carried out on (100) subjects who were hospitalized in the Iraqi Center of heart Diseases in Baghdad city and were suffering from Myocardial Infarction (MI) (16) and Angina Pectoris (AP) (79) or from both (5) over a period from September 2009 to June 2010. The results of patients were compared with those of (30) healthy and age-matched individuals as a control group. Data were obtained from patients who were already diagnosed by specialists through the use of questionnaire forms including information about age, gender and smoking. Venous blood samples were collected from both the patients and control group to estimate the levels of blood glucose and C-reactive protein.
Results: Statistical results showed that the majority of angina patients were males within the age group (51-60) years with significant differences between males and females. The study also demonstrated that the incidence of (MI) and (AP) was higher among non-smokers in comparison with smokers. The study indicated that the majority of patients with (MI) and (AP) were diabetic. Finally, the study showed that the levels of C-reactive protein among (MI) and (AP) patients were higher than its level among the control group with a highly significant difference.
Recommendations: A large size of sample is recommended to be studied to confirm the results of this study. Study of other factors such as hypertension, body mass index and lipid profile may be of value.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes mellitus; Smoking; Risk factors; C-Reactive protein

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Article
Assessment of Factors Associated with Prehospital Delay ofPatients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

المؤلفون: Hakima S. Hassan --- Saad A. Jasser
الصفحات: 1-12
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الخلاصة

Abstract
Objective(s): to assess the factors which are associated with the prolonged prehospital delay of patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted at the Coronary Care unit(CCU) in Al-Yarmok Teaching Hospital, Ibn AL-Nafis Hospital for Cardiovascular Diseases, AL-Kadumia Teaching Hospital, Baghdad Teaching Hospital,and AL-Kindy Teaching Hospital during the period of the study from February 2nd, 2009 to October 30th, 2009.A random sample of (160) patient who were admitted to the hospitals were selected one by one.A questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of the study, which is comprised of four parts that include(1)sociodemographic data;(2)prehospital delay time was measured as the time which passed from the moment when the patient feels the first symptoms "chest pain" until his arrival to the Coronary Care Unit(CCU) (3)clinical data; (4)factors associated with the prolonged prehospital delay.The data were collected by the application of the questionnaire, the interview technique, observation and the patients' sheets.
Results:The study findings indicated thatthe low percentage of the patients with myocardial infarction used an ambulance(3; 1.9%) and the remaining (157; 98%)arrived at hospitals by self-transport. It is concluded that a large proportion of Iraqi patients did not call for an ambulance after the onset of ST–Elevation Myocardial Infarction(STEMI) symptoms.
Recommendations: The study recommends that the public should be educated that an ambulance is not merely a transportation modality, but also a means of providing early diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; Prehospital delay

الكلمات الدلالية

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