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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

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a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
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Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2011 volume:29 issue:4

Article
Experimental Study of the Effect Geometrical Shape and Vertical Vibrations on Forced Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient from Circumferentially Triangle-Cross Section Finned Cylinder
دراسة عملية لتاثير الشكل الهندسي والاهتزازات العمودية على معامل انتقال الحرارة بالحمل القسري من اسطوانة مزعنفة حلقيا ذات مقطع مثلث الشكل

Authors: وسام عبد كاطع
Pages: 153-174
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Abstract

The aim of this work is to perform an experimental study for the effect of forced vertical vibrations on forced convection heat transfer coefficient, by the use of a circumferential finned cylinder made of Aluminum. The cylinder was heated under the condition of a constant heat flux which is generated by applying an alternating voltage on a fixed resistor mounted inside the interior space of the cylinder which was located horizontally or inclined in multiple angles of (0°, 30°, 45°). In this experimental study, the circumferential finned cylinder prototype of inner diameter (16 mm), and outer diameter including the fin of (48 mm)was used, and the effect of the frequency at a range of (2-16 Hz) and the vibration amplitude range of (0 - 2.2mm) have been studied with heat flux rates (500,1000,1500 W/m2) on heat transfer coefficient. From the results of this study, it was found that the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and amplitude of vibration is incrementally for angles (0°, 30°, 45°). And reaches a maximum ratio of (12.85%) with respect to the frequency equals zero. The increment of inclination angle reduces the values of forced convection heat transfer coefficient, because the fins work as path lines that help to increase the movement of convection currents in the case of horizontal prototype, but in case of inclined cylinder, the fins work as obstructions for the convection currents, thus reducing the ranges of forced convection vibrational heat transfer coefficient. Generally, the heat transfer coefficient increases as Reynolds number increases. The experimental results were compared with results of reference [9] and found that the effect of Geometrical shape on heat transfer coefficient of the cylinder used in this research less than that for reference [9] because the total surface area for the sample used in reference[9] was larger than that for the sample used in the current study .

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Article
Effect of Asphalt Concrete Test Results Deviation on Ratio Discount Decided of Cost And Ability Decrement
تأثير الانحراف في نتائج فحص الخرسانة الاسفلتية على نسبة الخصم المقررة من الكلفة وامكانية تقليلها

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Abstract

The road is the mirror of the civilization in any country so the quality and the quantity of the paved road measure the development in the country. During construction stage must be taking a care for a rehabilitation or maintenance operations latest for cost saving and reduce losses in money involved for these tow activities .The unsuccessful results in testing asphaltic mixtures always could be occur due to unsuitable operation throughout any stage in the production process, leading to disturb the optimum benefit use of such mixture .This paper reviewed roadway layers ( base and surface course),and concerns about different alternatives of designing and testing of asphaltic mixtures that required to be succeed, and take a deviation that may be occur, and the direct or indirect effect of that deviation on roads construction costs . The results show that the discount ratio more than 10% is very effective and make 34%of the 35 mixes samples that taken. While, the discount ratio more than 5% leading to 46% of the samples taken. Accordingly, this research work recommended using the 5% discount ratio as a deviation criteria and it is essential to do an appropriate steps behind it such as adjustment of mixing proportion or increase working inducement in case where there is no discount.

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Article
Studying The Importance of Evaluation And Determination of Volume Fraction Values For Wound Glass And Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites
دراسة أهمية حساب الحجم الجزئي (volume fraction) للمواد المركبة المقواة بالياف الزجاج والكربون

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Abstract

The wide and increased use of the composite materials in industry especially into important applications such as pipes and pressure vessels tends to give the study of their properties more importance, so results will be presented from a series of tests on the physical properties of composite materials . Specimens cut from pipes made from composite materials to be tested under internal pressure loadings have been tested by using a series of ASTM D2584 (1968) standards test methods for glass fiber reinforced composites and the density method for carbon fiber reinforced composites .The results from this series of tests have been tabulated and presented. The volume fraction for the glass and carbon fibers were found to be 0.476 and 0.540, respectively.

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Article
Analytical Criticizing Study of Governmental Contracts Instructions no.1, Issued by the Ministry of Planning and Developing Cooperation at 2008
دراسة تحليلية نقدية لتعليمات تنفيذ العقود الحكومية رقم (1) الصادرة عن وزارة التخطيط والتعاون الإنمائي في عام 2008

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Abstract

For the important role of the Governmental Contracts Instructions, issued by the Ministry of Planning and Developing Cooperation, in regulating the works of the Iraqi Construction Sector, rights, duties, and delegations of Governmental Clients, Contractors, Consultants, and Importers. This analytical criticizing study has been carried out, covering the rules of Governmental Contract Instructions no.1 for 2008. The study aims at focusing on amendments need to be issued, seeking for meeting some general concepts of the Iraqi Construction Sector concerning contracts natures, award, credits, and ban. In addition, it seeks for meeting justice criteria in disputes settlement, bonds, liquidated damages, overheads, breach. and payment terms. It also seeks for being consistent with other rules concerning, tenders opening and evaluation, time extension, and variations. In addition, it seeks for better organizing concerning titles, inception rules, bidding procedures, announcement, and invitations. It is recommended that the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation may take these amendments into consideration.


Article
The Effect of Hardening Exponent on Mechanical Properties of (Al-Si) Alloy
تأثير دليل التصليد الانفعالي على الخواص الميكانيكية لسبيكة (Al-Si)

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Abstract

This approach involves theoretical and experimental study on the effect of cold working percentage on the hardening exponent (n). The important of this object deals with relation of hardening exponent on the spring back and mechanical properties. The materials used was aluminum alloy, which as a round specimen and compressed in different cold working percentage. For the research the following condition are obtained, that the hardening exponent, spring back of metal and hardness increase with increase of cold working percentage. This explain the behavior of metal during forming process and explain the change witch obtain in micro structure ,the hardness and spring back of metal is directly proportional with strain hardening exponent.

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Article
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Extrusion in Complex Die by Using Upper Bound Theory


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Abstract

This paper depends on a new analytical method to calculate relative deformation energies for complex die shape by using upper bound theory which is an important method to solve technical problem in the field of metal deformation .This study divides the complex shape to a number of sectors for counting the deformation energies and then to find the total energy requirement for extrusion process in die with arbitrary linear function. This study uses (H) section which represents one of complex shapes to calculate the relative deformation energies for it, taking into account the effects of friction factor , relative die length and reduction of area . The results of the present study are compared with M.KIUCHI study and found it in a very good agreement.


Article
Sensitivity of Serum Acetylcholine Esterase Toward Derivatives of Oxadiazole

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Abstract

This work addresses the kinetic analysis of the interaction of some oxadiazoles (L1 , L2, L3 & L4) in ethanol with serum acetylcholinesterase. It was found that ethanol have inhibitory effect (25.18%) on AChE enzyme for this reason niglicable it as solvent and instead of it use dimethyl sulfoxide which had no effect. The % inhibition of L1 , L2, L3 & L4 at 10-7 M was 45.42,71.51,54.67&74.27 respectively and it elevated with increasing the concentration till at 10-1 M it reached 53.62,99.08,56.22&99.43 respectively. The effect of both L2 & L4 was reversible in nature. Michaelis – Menten constant and maximum velocity for the hydrolysis of acetyl thiocholine iodide by AChE were determined in control and treated systems. Line weaver – Burk plot and their secondary replots indicated that the nature of inhibition in both compounds was noncompetitive inhibition. The value of Ki was estimated also. The mechanism of action of these types of compounds acting as inhibitors to the AChE is suggested.

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Article
Mechanical Strength of Silicon Carbide Bonded with Iraqi Clays

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Abstract

Two types of Iraqi clays (Kaolin and Bentonite) were used in bonding process with different weight percentage (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) and with different particle size from clays and silicon carbide. The specimens were formed by using low biaxial pressing and two types of internal lubricants (sodium silicate and the carbon paste) to increase the specimen's cohesion. These specimens were sintered at various temperatures of (1100°C, 1200°C, 1300°C, and 1400°C). Increasing of clay percentage leads to decreasing the porosity. But it leads to increase mechanical properties (compressive strength, diametrical strength and bending strength ). Also, the effect of particle size on all properties is studied together with sintering temperature. All mechanical properties (when bonded SiC with bentonite) are higher than kaolin bonded SiC.


Article
Study of Transient Simulation for Solar Heating System

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Abstract

In the current study simulation method was used for design of solar water heating system. An integrated transient simulation program was built up for simulating the Iraqi solar house heating system using TRNSYS as a design tool. The modeling was carried out is modeled for other virtual solar heating systems similar to the Iraqi solar house. The results obtained were used to develop a general design procedure for solar heating systems in Baghdad. Using the design charts and TRNSYS as a design tool simplifies the designer’s task for predicting the long - term heating energy supplied from a solar collector array. The above simulation was applied for Iraqi solar house and the results gave the increasing in storage volume caused increase the auxiliary energy supplied to the system. So, the best practical storage volume is 20m3 and increasing the collector area to optimum value results in increasing the solar fraction (f). The solar fraction may reach 0.97 when the collector area becomes as 400m2 at storage volume of 20m


Article
Study of the Optical Constants of the PMMA/PC Blends

Authors: Marwa. R. F --- Nahida. J. H
Pages: 698-708
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Abstract

The aim of the present work is concerned with the study of the optical constants of the PMMA/PC blend at different concentrations. The samples are casted as films from the PMMA and PC homopolymers and blend. These polymer systems are evaluated spectrophotometically. The absorption spectra of homopolymers and PMMA/PC blends at different concertation showed absorption changes in the wavelength range, which depends on the polymer type, and the concentration of the polymer blends. It was found that 50% ratio from these polymers showed higher absorption values in comparison with the homopolymers, besides, the absorption spectroscopy of the polymer blends did not always effect the similar information obtained from the spectroscopy of the homopolymers .A phenomenon was attributed to immiscibility or phase separation as associated with the blends formation. The results of the optical constant proved that 50%ratio was the best, which was attributed to the lowest energy gap (2.5 eV). Morphological investigations for the casted polymer systems were introduced.


Article
Numerical Methods for Fractional Reaction-Dispersion Equation with Riesz Space Fractional Derivative

Authors: I. I. Gorial
Pages: 709-715
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Abstract

In this paper, a numerical solution of fractional reaction-dispersion equation with Riesz space fractional derivative has been presented. The algorithm for the numerical solution for this equation is based on two finite difference methods. The consistency, stability, and convergence of the fractional order numerical method are described. The numerical methods have been applied to solve a practical numerical example and comparing results with the exact solution. The results were presented in tables using the MathCAD 12 software package when it is needed. The two finite difference methods appeared to be effective and reliable in solving fractional reaction-dispersion equation with Riesz space fractional derivative.


Article
Texture Analysis of Brodatz Images Using Statistical Methods

Authors: Alyaa Hussain Ali --- Alaa Noori Mazher
Pages: 716-724
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Abstract

Textures are one of the important features in computer vision for many applications. Most of attention has been focused on the texture features. An important approach to region description is to quantify its texture content. Although no formal definition of texture exists, intuitively this descriptor provides measures of properties such as smoothing and regularity. The principal approaches used in image processing to describe the texture of an image region are statistical, structural, and spectral. In this paper the features were constructed using different statistical methods. These are auto-correlation, edge frequency, primitive-length and law’s method; all these methods were used for texture analysis of Brodatz images. The result showed that the law’s autocorrelation method yields the best result.


Article
Long Term Strength and Durability of Clayey Soil Stabilized With Lime

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This study deals with durability characteristics and unconfined compressive strength of clayey soil stabilized with lime. The tests comprises of unconfined compressive strength for samples stabilized with the optimum lime percent (4%), and subjected to cycles of the wet-dry, dry-wet and freeze-thaw durability tests as well as, long-term soaking and slake tests. The results indicated that, the efficiency of the lime in the improvement of unconfined compressive strength of clayey soil is of negative effect in the long term durability periods The wetting-drying cycles showed greater reduction in unconfined compressive strength than drying-wetting cycles, while the volume change of samples which subjected to drying at first, was greater than those conducted with wetting. On the other hand, freezing-thawing cycles causes a decreasing in the unconfined compressive strength values, and the reduction ratio was greater than wetting and drying cases. But, during soaking tests it was found that at early soaking periods, the lime stabilized samples continuously gaining strength, but beyond this the strength decreased with increasing soaking period. Finally, the stabilized samples with (4 and 6%) lime becomes more durable against the cycles of wetting and drying.


Article
Study of Signal Estimation Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique by Using Ants Colony Optimization Algorithm

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Abstract

In this paper, an algorithm based on Ants Colony Optimization (ACO) is proposed for extraction of the Directions of Arrival (DOA) of several signals impinging on uniform linear arrays. This algorithm is used to reduce the computation time and complexity that occur in Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT). In order to illustrate the accuracy and flexibility of the proposed algorithm, several simulation cases introduce of ESPRIT-DOA estimation by using ACO algorithm in environment of Matlab 7.8 program. Results are statistically analyzed in order to conclude from it the algorithm's accuracy and reliability


Article
Cryogenic Treatments of Hot Work Tool Steel (56NiCrMoV7)

Authors: Amin.D.Thamir --- Ibrahim.K.Ahamed
Pages: 750-769
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Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of Cryogenic treatment of hot work tool steel type (56NiCrMoV7) on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Three different temperature (-50°C,-100°C & -150°C) were selected at different soaking time(1hr,2hr & 3hr) respectively. All cryogenic treatments were adopted after hardening by air & oil respectively. It was concluded that the property enhancement for this tool steel can be attributed by conversion most of retained austenite to martensite accompanied with higher dislocations density that leads to the precipitation of fine carbide during the cryogenic treatment especially at the samples quenched by oil & treated at (- 150°C) with soaking 1hr

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Article
Watermarking in WAV Files Bases on Phase Coding

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Abstract

The growth of the network multimedia open the illegal ways for users to use the digital media without any hindrance or control. This state created, the need for the copyright protection of various digital media. WAV audio files is one of these media, these media file format itself has no built in copy protection controls. Other systems must be used to prevent illegal copying called watermarking. In this paper, we used the phase coding method to embed the watermark, by using FFT method in two ways. The first way used the block size of the wave data equal to (22) and the second way used the block size of the wave data equal to (23). The results of the above two ways shows that, when we use the first way the noise of the sound will be very smaller than the results of the second way. On the other hand the length of the watermark in second way will be longer than when use the first way. Finally, we can say that the two ways yield good results.


Article
Generating of Chaotic Signals by using Semiconductor Laser with Optical Feedback

Authors: Shatha M. Hasan --- Mohammed S. Mehde --- Raad S. Fyath
Pages: 781-790
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This paper addresses theoretically generating the chaotic signals by using semiconductor laser diode of 1550 nm with optical feedback. The performance of a semiconductor laser subjected to a delay optical feedback was investigated using rate equations that describe the temporal variation of photon density, carrier density, and the phase of the lasing field. The simulation results show how semiconductor lasers are sensitive to external optical perturbations and how rich chaotic signal with large information can be generated with controlled optical feedback.

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Article
Advanced Neighborhood Operation Based Image Zooming In

Authors: Mithaq N. Raheema
Pages: 791-804
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Abstract

Perhaps the most interesting feature of digitally encoded image data is that the image can be analytically manipulated. An entire field of computer graphics, named image processing, has emerged as a result of this capability. Once the data is numerically represented and stored in a manner that corresponds to the image itself, the information can be manipulated by a computer in order to compress the image, correct defects, enhance its qualities, geometrically transform it, perform measurements, detect patterns and objects, and manipulate it in many other forms. This paper provides an overview of the types of image processing operations and introduces an advanced algorithm to enlarge an image to get a closer look. This algorithm changes the magnification of the image and displays the new view in a new figure. It determines the pixel's 3-by-3 neighborhood at the output image, distributes the value of the center pixel in the input matrix to the entire pixel's neighborhood corresponding to it, and filtering the enlarged image by median. This proposed algorithm is tested with many image classes and the results show its very good ability to perform the image zooming in. Some preprocessing and post processing is done automatically which improve this algorithm and give its advantages over the traditional zooming operations. The programming language MATLAB is used to realize the proposed algorithm


Article
The Effect of Pure Aluminum Weight Percent on Different Properties of a New Cermet Material Made of Al-Machinable Glass Ceramic

Authors: Bayda,a Abdul-Hassan Khalaf
Pages: 805-813
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In this research high pure aluminum metal with the following weight percent (1,2,3,4,5) has been added to machinable glass-ceramic, after the preparation of the samples by pressing then firing the effect of this addition on the density, hardness, young modulus, and polishing and grinding time of the machinable glass-ceramic have been studied. It has been found that the increasing in aluminum percent lead to slightly increase in density while the hardness, young modulus, and polishing and grinding time decreased.


Article
Study on The Production of Ammonium Sulfate Fertlizer From Phosphogypsum

Authors: Khalid K. Abbas
Pages: 814-821
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Abstract

The production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from phosphogypsum is studied. The phosphogypsum is considered by product from extraction process of sulphoric acid. The mereseberg process is used a waste of phosphogypsum with ammonium carbonate to produce ammonium sulfate as a main product and calcium carbonate as a byproduct. It is a process could be used as a successful method in phosphate industry (AL-Qauim).The flow diagram is drawn to illustrate the mersberg process then material balance is done. The carbonation process is one of the stage of mereseberg method, then carried out at constant temperature (44Co) because of the reaction is exothermic and high temperature causes decomposition of ammonium carbonate and low temperature causes precipitate different kind of salts. From results of laboratory experiments the temperature of ammonium sulfate preparation is done in 23Co and the ratio of phosphogypsum to ammonium carbonate (400ml /192 gm phosphogypsum ) at reaction time( 4 ) hours. The aim of this work focus on making a process flow diagram which is used in dealing with waste of phosphogypsum and production a useful product.

Table of content: volume:29 issue:4