Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2005 volume:17 issue:1

Article
The cytotoxic effect of different intracanal medicaments

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Abstract

Background: Different intracanal medicaments are being used in endodontics but little attention is paid to their cytotoxicity. The aim of this research was to assess the cytotoxic effect of the traditionally used intracanal medicaments and compare them with 2% acetic acid. Materials and Methods: Different intracanal medicaments and 2% acetic acid were inoculated in the tibia bone of white albino rabbits for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. After the incubation time, the animals were sacrificed and the inoculated areas were assessed histopathologically. Results: Two percent acetic acid induced an inflammatory reaction comparable to that of normal saline, and calcium hydroxide that subsided after 14 days. The formaldehyde containing agents, and CMCP induced a more severe inflammatory reaction, with tricresol formalin showing a reaction even after 28 days. Conclusions: Two percent acetic acid was more biocompatible than the other tested root canal medicaments.


Article
Filler reinforced acrylic denture base material. Part 2- Effect of water sorption on dimensional changes and transverse strength

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Abstract

Background: PMMA considered the most commonly used for complete dentures. It absorbs a small amount of water which exerts significant effect on its properties. Effect of water on dimensional changes and transverse strength of filler reinforced PMMA were investigated in this study. Materials and methods: Different types of fillers were used: Kevlar (6%), glass fibers (5%) by weight in mat and unidirectional forms, zirconium oxide particles (5%) were used, which was added to acrylic resin. The dimensional changes: after processing, drying, and immersion in water for one month were measured. Transverse strength was measured for three periods (after deflasking, after two days, and after one month in water). Results: least dimensional changes was observed in samples with Kevlar unidirectional, they cause about 75.18% reduction in shrinkage, while with glass unidirectional cause 48.33%. A significant reduction in shrinkage was observed with Kevlar and glass reinforced samples in mat form. The addition of Kevlar unidirectional into acrylic resin caused an increase in transverse strength of about (18.5%) after deflasking, and (14%) after one month in water, the decrease in strength in this group after one month in water was about 12.9% when compared to that after deflasking. The transverse strength of samples with zirconia results in slight decreased in strength but was non significant. Conclusion: The presence of fibers decreases the dimensional changes, and fiber form had an effect on it. The transverse strength of PMMA was increased by the presence of fibers. The strength decreased with water immersion, but fiber reinforced samples remain of higher strength.

Keywords

filler --- acrylic --- dimension --- strength


Article
Prevalence of overhang margins in posterior amalgam restorations and alveolar bone resorption

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Background: Overhanging dental restorations(ODR) are a major dental health problem, it is an etiologic factor in the progression of periodontal disease, and are alarmingly prevalent .The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overhang margins and associated periodontal status in 100 patients, clinically detectable overhang margins were recorded on posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Overhanging margins on a proximal restoration were detected by using of bitewing radiographs. 2089 restored surfaces were evaluated, of these 1185 had overhanging margins. Results: As far as related to their effect (ODR) on periodontal health, significantly more bone loss-attachment occurs adjacent to ODR compared to teeth without ODR. Conclusion: This study show high prevalence of overhanging amalgam margins, further more, this study show that ODRs have a significant influence on periodontal status.

Keywords

Overhang --- amalgam --- bone resorption


Article
An evaluation of the effect of retention means on increasing the debonding strength of the denture acrylic teeth attached to the denture base resin

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Background: The debonding of acrylic teeth from the denture base is a challenging problem to the dentist and dental technician in which special means must be done to increase the debonding strength of the tooth. Material and method: Sixty specimens of acrylic central incisors were attached to acrylic rods and grouped into 5 groups according to the shape of the retention means placed at the tooth ridge lap. The specimens were strained under tension to examine their debonding strength. Results: The teeth with serrations (Group 2) have shown to be the most effective mean of increasing debonding strength, followed by the 2 longitudinal grooves (Group 4) where the difference between these groups was insignificant. Then followed by the teeth with 4 holes, and finally the difference between the teeth with a central groove and the control group were insignificant. Conclusions: It is recommended that the tooth ridge lap should be serrated with a fissure groove or placement of the 4 grooves to increase the debonding strength of the tooth.


Article
The biocompatibility and antibacterial action of three endodontic sealers

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Background: Root canal sealers are regularly used in root canal fillings. Bacteria can multiply and grow inside the root canal system. Materials and Methods: Twelve albino rabbits were used for the implantation of the sealer materials inside the S.C. tissue of the animals for 3, 14 and 28 days for determination of tissue reaction. A Muller-Hinton culture medium was used for culturing the bacterial swabs for 24 and 48 hours at 370. Results: The ZOE sealer showed the severest inflammatory reaction initially, and all the sealer materials revealed good tendency for tissue healing after 28 days. The Dorifil sealer exhibited the highest antibacterial action against all the microorganisms tested. Conclusion: The endodontic sealers used in this study showed different types and severity of inflammatory reaction with good tendency for healing. All the sealer material tested had antibacterial actio against the bacteria but with different capacities.


Article
Strength, hardness, corrosion evaluation and computer-aided designing of cobalt–-chromium molybdenum maxillary major connectors. (Part I)

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Background: Rigidity is one of the main criteria for the major connector. This study was conducted to determine the effect of width and thickness on the rigidity of single palatal strap major connector using two cobalt–chromium molybdenum (Co–Cr–Mo) alloys, Remanium and Biosil cast by two different techniques, electrical induction–melting, and gas–oxygen torch melting on the transverse strength of maxillary major connectors. Materials and methods: Forty–eight specimens for transverse strength, twenty–four specimens for hardness, and twenty–four specimens for corrosion were prepared, examined by x–ray then tested by engineering test equipment, hardness tester, and sensitive electronic balance respectively. Ion release into saliva was tested by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and chemical methods. Results: There was a statistically significant effect of each of the products, casting techniques, width (4&8)mm and thickness (0.4&0.6)mm on the transverse strength of Co–Cr–Mo single palatal strap major connector and statistically significant effect of each of products and casting techniques on hardness of Co–Cr–Mo alloy, but results of corrosion and ion release tests were insignificant. Conclusions: The major connector made from Remanium cast by induction technique produces stronger and harder specimens. The effect of thickness is more significant than the width, and there was no significant change in weight after 760 hours immersion in saliva.


Article
Effect of denture adhesives on the retention of maxillary complete denture

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Background: Using of denture adhesives improved the retention and stability of complete denture, so it is important for the success of complete denture treatment when it is used according to its indications. Materials and methods: This project was carried out in an attempt to measure and compare the effectiveness of denture adhesives (Boots, Super corega, and Lacalut denture adhesive) in a well fitting maxillary complete denture at various time intervals. The retention of well fitting maxillary complete denture with saliva alone and with the use of denture adhesives at different time intervals was measured as a resistance to dislodgment using loading apparatus. Results: The study revealed that there is a highly significant improvement in the retention of a well fitting maxillary complete denture after using any one of the three types of the denture adhesive. Statistically the three type of denture adhesives used in this study have approximately the same effectiveness with slightly difference in the time of action. Conclusion: The use of any type of these denture adhesives that were accepted by patient (whether vegetable gum or synthetic polymer, powder or paste) can improve the retention of the complete denture.


Article
Incidence of non Hodgkin’s lymphoma of head and neck in Baghdad city

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Background: Malignant lymphomas in the head and neck region are relatively uncommon but may occur as a part of widely disseminated disease or as a primary lesion. This study was carried out in an attempt to evaluate the incidence of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of head and neck in Baghdad city over ten years (1990-1999). Materials and methods: Cases of Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of head and neck in Baghdad city were collected and evaluated regarding sex, age, site and histopathological subtype of tumor. Results: Out of the total of (426) cases of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the body, (137) were showed to affect the head and neck region including 78 males and 59 females. Conclusions: Our findings showed that the principle site affected with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma was the cervical lymph nodes followed by the tonsils with the predominant histopathological subtypes was the lymphocytic Lymphoma followed by Reticular cell sarcoma.


Article
Sero prevalence of hepatitis B infection among dental professionals

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Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem, especially to health care personnel including dentist. Materials and methods: Sixty – seven Iraqi dental professionals are participated in this study, filled out questionnaire record of past and present history of infection with HBV, immunization against HBV, blood transfusion, surgical operation. They reported time spent in profession and numbers of patients contract daily with them, and absence or presence of preventive measure. Results: Serological test for detection of (HBs Ag and anti HBs Ag, anti HBc IgM and anti HBc IgG) for each dentist had been alone. The result showed that 78.9% of dentists had get immunization against HBV that was determined by presence of anti HBs marker in their sera. A recovery state from previous infection reported in two dentists with positive anti HBs Ag and anti HBc IgG marker. The results showed no significant correlation between positive presence of HBV markers and the time spent in profession. Conclusion: Four dentists have positive sero HBV markers reported of non – using a protective measure

Keywords

Hepatitis B --- serology


Article
A comparative study between the effects of two different antihypertensive drugs on the salivary flow rate and salivary compositions

Authors: RafiL H. Rasheed رافل رشيد
Pages: 43-46
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Background: This study investigated the possible abnormalities and variations in salivary flow rate and compositions in two groups of patients under the effects of two different types of antihypertensive drugs (Atenolol and Captopril) one on hand compared with third group of normotensives (As control) on the other hand. Results: It was obvious that there is marked reduction in the salivary flow rate in those taken the antihypertensive drugs in comparison with control group of normotensives. Significantly elevated levels of potassium, phosphorus, and proteins had been realized as first result of this study which might be explained due to the continuous adrenergic over stimulation of salivary gland in hypertensives under taking Atenolol, magnesium in saliva appear reduced in treated hypertensives with Captopril than with Atenolol. Whereas there is dropping in the level of sodium in the two groups than in the control.


Article
Assessment of magnesium and calcium status in oral cancer patients

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Background: Tumor markers assist in the field of oral cancer. The aim of this study is to determine whether Mg and Ca ions could serve as tumor markers. Materials and methods: A total sample of 53 individuals was studied that includes 33 patients with oral cancer and 20 well-matching control. Estimation of Mg and Ca levels in the lymphocytes of healthy individuals and patients, in the normal and diseased tissues of patients were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The values of both elements in the lymphocytes of patients were exchangeable according to the histopathological diagnosis. They were generally elevated in comparison to the control. (Ca = (3.983±3.214mean ±SD), Mg = (2.598±2.364 mean ±SD). Decrease levels of either elements in the diseased tissues observed in comparison to normal tissues in both sexes but it was more obvious in females than males (P<0.001 for Ca, P<0.002 for Mg). Conclusion: Patients with oral cancer are immune suppressed and immune disturbance could be the cause of the results found in this work.

Keywords

Magnesium --- Calcium --- Lymphocytes --- oral cancer


Article
Prevalence of developmental oral anomalies among school children in two areas of Baghdad district

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Background: This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of some developmental oral anomalies in children, from two different areas in Iraq. Materials and Method: One area selected in Baghdad city center was (urban area) and the other was (rural area) in its boundaries. A total of 3018 children aged 6-12 years were examined for 13 anomalies in lip, tongue and palate. Results: The most frequent, anomaly was ankyloglossia (8.1%), fissured tongue (6.2%), torus palatinus (3.2%), microglossia (2.4%), geographic tongue (1.8%), macroglossia (0.8%) and torus mandibularis (0.3%). Conclusion: the prevalence of these oral anomalies directed by genetic factor and environmental or acquired factor like other diseases.


Article
Treatment of Herpes Simplex by Zinc Sulphate

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Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes recurrent herpes labialis, a common disease afflicting up to 40% of adults worldwide. A randomized, double–blind trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness & the patient tolerance of topically applied 0.5% zinc sulphate suspension with those of a placebo in the treatment of herpes simplex lesion. Patients & Methods: Sixty patients were enrolled in this study. The effectiveness & symptomatic relief of pain were recorded and Fisher exact test were used. Results: The zinc sulphate group showed significantly complete healing (p=0.001) than the placebo group & pain free during the follow-up period. The zinc sulphate group showed significantly better than the placebo group during the follow-up period. The safety that has been recorded of the drug were satisfactory, there is no pain with zinc sulphate group, no side effects. Conclusion: Topically applied 0.5% zinc sulphate suspension is an effective drug for the treatment of herpes simplex lesion in a short period with pain less.


Article
Oral lichen planus clinical study with the clinicopathological correlation in the diagnosis of O.L.P.

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Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with different clinical presentation. Objective: To evaluate the clinical-pathologic characteristic of OLP lesion and to study the correlation between-clinical and histopathologic assessment of OLP. Materials and Methods: A randomly selected biopsies of sixty-three OLP patients, who sent to college of dentistry / oral pathology department were studied. Results: Females were more frequently affected by OLP than males (female=52.38% , male=47.61%) and mostly at the middle age group (25.4%). OLP was more frequently found on the cheek, tongue than palate and lip. Statistically significant differences could be identified for OLP lesion in terms of age, sex, and site of location. Confirmation of clinical diagnosis of OLP by means of histopathologic study of a biopsy specimen is generally advised. However, hardly any data exist about the correlation between clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OLP. In (42.31%) of case, in which the pathologist agreed about the histopathologic diagnosis being diagnostic of OLP, there was a lack of consensus on the clinical diagnosis. Conversely, about (38.46%) of case in which the clinicians agreed about the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis being diagnostic of OLP. Conclusion: Based on the finding of the present study, there appears to be lack of clinicopathologic correlation in the diagnostic assessment of OLP.


Article
Tooth mortality in relation with diabetics and non diabetic patients

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Background: Diabetes can affect the health of the teeth and surrounding structures. The The purpose of the present study was to compare tooth mortality of diabetics & non diabetic patients considering mainly the degree of control & the duration of diabetes. Methods: Tooth mortality of 100 adult diabetics &100 non diabetic patients of the age groups 40 – 52 & 53 – 65 y. was examined . The diabetic group was further divided according to the control & duration of diabetic state. StudentT- test was used where indicated ,the level of significance was 0.01. Results: The results revealed a highly significant difference in the mean number of lost teeth between the poorly controlled diabetic patients & the control group & a non significant difference between the well control diabetics & the control group. Also revealed a non significant differences between the control group & both sub groups of patients of more than 10y. duration & less than 10y duration . Conclusion: The results indicates that tooth mortality was greater in poorly controlled diabetics than the well controlled diabetics & the control group, with a highly significant differences. Tooth mortality was smaller in patients of more than 10 years duration than in those of less than 10 years with a non significant difference


Article
Prevalence of periodontal abscesses among patients suffering from chronic periodontitis in Iraq.

Authors: Wassan Al-Zaidi وسن الزيدي
Pages: 66-69
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Background: Little information is available regarding the prevalence and distribution of periodontal abscesses. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to provide more information about the prevalence and distribution of periodontal abscesses and its relation to other periodontal variables in order to help in the characterizing of the periodontal abscesses in relation to periodontitis. Materials and method: 105 periodontally affected patients were examined 57 male and 48 female the mean age was 43 yrs. Seventeen subjects were diagnosed with periodontal abscesses (10 male and 7 female ) their mean age was 59 yrs. The periodontal abscesses were studied by the assessment of clinical variables including both subjective (pain, redness, swelling and edema) and objective (bleeding on probing, pocket depth and plaque index). Results: It was clear that the prevalence of periodontal abscesses increase with age in both sexes but it was higher in male (10 patients) than female (7 patients) all periodontal abscesses were associated with deep periodontal pocket where the mean pocket depth was (10.7 mm ) in male and (9.7 mm ) in female, also all periodontal abscesses presented with bleeding on probing, most of abscesses scored as "severe" acute stage 90% in male and 85.72 % in female, all male patients affected with periodontal abscesses were smokers, examined patients were presented with abundant amount of plaque accumulation reflect the negligence in oral hygiene care. The mostly affected teeth were anterior teeth then premolar and molar teeth equally. Conclusion: the periodontal abscesses have clear characteristics and they are usually associated with sever periodontal destruction including deep pocket and bleeding on probing also they are correlated with smoking habit and plaque accumulation, their prevalence increase with age and it is higher in male than female


Article
Effects of silymarin on coronary artery bypass grafting

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Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Systemic inflammatory response with secretion of cytokines & activation of leukocytes & endothelial cells is induced by CABG surgery; proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF_α, IL_1β are released in to the circulation in response to CABG surgery & have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction in ischaemia reperfusion injury. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective effects, silymarin inhibit TNF_α & IL_1β. This study was designed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin in CABG patients. Patients & methods: Thirty patients scheduled for CABG surgery in a prospective, randomized study. Twenty patients received silymarin 140 mg cap. Three times daily, given 3 days before surgery, then compared to the control group. Blood sample was drawn before & after surgery for full investigation; WBCs, differential counts; Neutrophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Hb, PCV, ESR, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides, SGOT, SGPT. B.urea, S.creatinin. Results: There was a decrease in post operative values of WBCs, Neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, ESR, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT, B.urea, S.creatinine in patients treated with silymarin, compared to control. There was an increase in postoperative values of HDL in treated patients compared to control. Conclusion: Silymarin treatment is associated with an effect on the measured parameters. The data suggest that this drug may have a direct anti-inflammatory effect which explains its clinical benefit.

Keywords

Silymarin --- CABG.


Article
Gingival recession, gingival bleeding and dental calculus in Iraqi adults and the gingival recession correlation with periodontal disease break down.

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Background: This cross sectional study describes the prevalence of gingival recession, gingival bleeding and dental calculus in Iraqi adults covering the age range from 20-70yrs, and to evaluate the relation between gingival recession and periodontal break down use furcation involvement and tooth mobility as explanatory variables for periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: The study groups consist of 132 subjects (72 males and 60 females) who attended the college of Dentistry for routine dental treatment, gingival recession , gingival bleeding and dental calculus were assessed at all teeth excluding the third molar. Results: There was an abundant amount of calculus in the lower arch in males especially because of smoking and this long standing calculus has a highly significant correlation coefficient with gingival recession and gingival bleeding. Gingival inflammation also is a common finding especially in males which is may be due to heavy amount of calculus and smoking where there was a highly significant correlation coefficient between gingival bleeding and smoking. It was also clear that females showed less gingival recession than males and that gingival recession tends to increase with age and it is more often on the lower anterior teeth due to calculus also there was a highly significant correlation coefficient between gingival recession and gingival bleeding, on the other hand a highly significant correlation was found between gingival recession and periodontal breakdown. Conclusion: Gingival recession, gingival bleeding and dental calculus are common in Iraqi adults. Gingival recession also is associated with destructive periodontal diseases.


Article
Open bite in Iraq (A national survey)

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Backgroung: Open bite is a common malocclusion affecting children and adults. Materials and method: About seven thousand 13 year olds with no history of orthodontic treatment were selected from six governorates (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). An intra-oral clinical examination was used to examine anterior and posterior open bite. Results: Anterior open bite (-4 to -1mm) was found in 2.2% and posterior open bite was found in 1.5% of the sample (0.83% unilateral and 0.63% bilateral) both being more prevalent among females.

Keywords

Open bite --- prevalence --- adolescent


Article
Caries increment in preschool children, a longitudinal study

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Background: This study was concerned with the caries increment in preschool children after one-year fellow up examination. Materials and Methods: the sample consisted of 144 preschool children; the sample was examined at November 1997 and was reexamined at November 1998. The examination included clinical examination of the whole dentition as the dmft was recorded, also the height and weight of children was recorded to find the correlation between caries increment and nutritional status of children. Results: the increment after one year period (1997 – 1998) in mean value of dmft for different groups which were divided according to their dmft to (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, >5) the increment ranged between (0.5-1.75) the highest increment was in the “2” mean dmft value, (2-3.75),it was demonstrated that there was a correlation (r = 1,00, P< 0.001) between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and Increment in dental caries specially in the undernourished group . Conclusion: It was found that there was an increment equal to “0.89±0.25” in the mean value of dmft (20.31)% and a strong correlation between nutritional status expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI) and increment in dental caries.


Article
The pH of stimulated saliva in relation to the oral health status among children and adults

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Background: To determine the pH of stimulated saliva and its relation to the oral health status. Materials and methods: A sample of (96) children with an age of 4-5 years old and (96) adults with an age of 23-25 years old in Baghdad city was examined using plaque and gingival indices, dental caries and salivary flow rate were estimated. Results: The salivary pH reduced by increasing PII score while, it was elevated by increasing the severity of gingivitis in both groups. Mean of caries experience was found to decrease by increasing salivary pH and the latter was reported to increase with enhancement of flow rate in both groups. Conclusion: Increasing pH increased GI and flow rate and decreased PII and dental caries


Article
Smoking and its relation to caries experience and salivary lactobacilli count

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Background: Smoking has many harmful effects on the body. The aim of this studyis to investigate the effect of cigarettes smoking on count of lactobacilli ,the dental caries, and salivary factors. Subjects and Methods: 15 male smokers and 15 male non-smokers aged(24-29) years were chosen from post graduate students in College of Dentistry, they were interviewed about smoking behavior.Stimulated salivary sample was analyzed for lactobacilli count ,salivary flow rate and salivary pH was determined. Results: Measurment of dental caries was expressed by DMFT/DMFS.Results There was a significant relation between lactobacilli and DMFT/DMFS in smokers group with no significant differences concerning salivary flow rate and salivary pH between the two groups . Conclusion: Long term use of tobacco smoking affect the dental caries but not the salivary flow rate or salivary pH


Article
Surface changes of orthodontic brackets following treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances

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Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances were used for long period in the treatment of malocclusion patients. It is subjected to the oral environment and affected by the changes that take place in this media. Many studies were done and express the tendency of these appliances to corrode inside the mouth. Materials and method: 150 orthodontic brackets related to three different companies (Orthodent, Ortho-organizers, and Dentaurum). These brackets examined after removing them from the patients' mouth and examined microscopically. Results: Most of the brackets exhibit corrosion which is mainly pitting, crevice and erosion corrosion


Article
Effect of tooth brushing technique on oral hygiene in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

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Background: This study was conducted to find whether the brushing technique (horizontal technique versus roll technique) would affect the oral hygiene of orthodontic patients or not. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on fifteen patients who were undergoing orthodontic treatment and were submitted to the clinical trial by changing the tooth brushing maneuver throughout the orthodontic treatment course from the patient’s own brushing maneuver to the horizontal and then to the roll brushing technique. Results: The results showed that the roll technique had a superior cleansing effect than the horizontal one, and the gender variation had no effect. Conclusion: Patients' instructions are considered as an important factor for planning good oral hygiene.


Article
Prevalence of dental attrition among 5-11 year-old children in Albu-Etha village (Baghdad)

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Background: Dental attrition is one of the problems affecting the tooth structure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental attrition. Materials and methods: a sample of 98 children aged 5-11 years in Albu-Etha village in Baghdad was examined according to Hansson and Nilner classification. Results: The results showed that boys had higher attrition scores than girls and most of the diagnosed dental wear was of a grade II and mostly in the canine regions. Dental wear of primary teeth was found mostly in the canines while dental wear of permanent teeth was found mostly in the incisors. Conclusion: Dental attrition was found to be higher in permanent teeth than in primary teeth.

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