Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2005 volume:17 issue:2

Article
Assessment of the effectiveness of the manufactured chemo-mechanical caries removal on caries removal

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Abstract

Background: Chemo mechanical caries removal systems has been discussed as an alternative to conventional caries removal. This study assesses the efficacy of a chemo- mechanical caries removal technique in caries removal. Material and methods: Forty five decayed extracted human teeth were used in the present study. After initial opening through the enamel, different concentrations of the chemo-mechanical caries removal solution were placed in the cavity and excavation of the caries was performed. Results: After probing and visual inspection, with the use of the DIAGNOdent caries detecting device, and after histological examination, the concentrations of 0.5% and 0.7% were shown to be equally effective in removal of caries and more potent than the 0.2% concentration. Conclusion: 0.5 % concentration of the manufactured chemo- mechanical caries removal is the optimal concentration that can be used in dentinal caries removal.


Article
An evaluation the sealing ability of a three retro-filling materials

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Background: Retro end filling is important to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periapical tissue. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quality of seals obtained with various retro-grade filling materials using dye penetration method of micro leakage measurement. Materials and methods: Forty extracted human single rooted teeth were used. Following root canal obturation, 30 teeth were divided into three experimental groups and each group was subjected to one of the three filling techniques: acold burnishing of gutta percha, bcalcium phosphate cement, csuper EBA cement. The remaining 10 teeth were considered as a control group. The teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for a period of 10 days after which they were washed, sectioned and the apical dye penetration measured. Results: The results showed that (CPC) and super EBA cement demonstrated less dye penetration than other experimental groups; the difference was statistically significant as compared with groups 1 & 4 and not significant as compared between groups 2&3. Conclusion: A general trend was observed that the apical leakage was found in all teeth but with different degrees, some leaked more than others, dye penetration was more with the cold burnished gutta percha


Article
A finite element analysis of the effect of different margin designs and loading positions on stress concentration in porcelain veneers

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Background: During mastication, stress may concentrate in points in the porcelain veneer which may lead to clinical failure. This study examined whether different finishing lines and different loading positions affect the bond of the porcelain veneers. Materials and methods: A 2- dimensional finite element model was made. Location and magnitude of maximum Von Mises and shear stresses were calculated in porcelain veneer. Results: Stress was concentrated in the butt finishing line more than the deep chamfer and chamfer finishing lines. Stress was concentrated in the incisal portion more than in the cervical portion of the porcelain veneer. The incisal loading exerted stress more than the bonding strength of the bonding agent, and more than the cervical and middle third loading. Conclusion: The best stress distribution was formed around the deep chamfer finishing line. Clinical failure is inevitable in the butt finishing line and incisal loading. Incisal edge fracture of the porcelain veneer may be due to debonding of the bonding agent to the enamel and later fracture of the porcelain veneer


Article
Electromyographic evaluation of the activity of masseter and anterior fibers of temporalis in mandibular rest position

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Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the activity in anterior fibers of temporalis and masseter muscles at habitual rest position of the mandible and to determine the range of minimum muscle activity for these two muscles, using electrophysiological study; EMG power spectrum analysis. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 31 Iraqi dental students (11 males and 20 females) from undergraduate and postgraduate students, at the College of Dentistry, Baghdad University. Results: The results of this study indicated that the anterior fibers of temporalis muscle showed higher EMG activity than that for masseter muscle in habitual rest position and at different interocclusal distances and the interocclusal distance of 2-4mm showed the best clinical rest position to be used in prosthodontic treatment. Conclusion: The EMG activity of the masticatory muscles varies from to another


Article
Influence of occlusal schemes on the stress distribution in upper complete denture in centric and eccentric relation

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Background: This study was aimed to identify the sites of maximum stresses in both balanced and lingualized occlusion in centric and eccentric relation Materials and Methods: Two sets of complete denture constructed and a load of 60 N applied to sites of occlusal contacts so the Von-mises stresses produced from this load applied collected. Results: Balanced and lingualized occlusal schemes compared in centric and eccentric relation, both mean and standard deviation for the calculated stresses compared at the crest of the ridge, buccal flange and mid-palatal suture. Conclusion: Both balanced and lingualized occlusion transmit minimal pressure at the mid-palatal suture and with the concentration of stresses at the crest of ridge in centric, while at the working side balanced occlusion produced greater pressure than lingualized scheme and at balancing side vice versa occur.


Article
Histopathological examination of the chemomechanical caries removal effect on the human pulp

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Background: Chemo mechanical caries removal systems have been discussed as an alternative to conventional caries removal. This study examines the effect of the chemo- mechanical caries removal material on the human pup. Material and methods: Forty eight maxillary first premolars from twenty four patient ( 18 male and 6 male) were studied and selected from patients need orthodontic treatment .class V cavity was done in each tooth and the material put inside the cavity for 20 sec, the extraction procedure done after 20minutes, 24 hours and 4 days . Results: The histological examination of 0.5 % Chemo-mechanical caries removal at the three periods showed that there is no significant effect on the pulp of the tooth. Conclusion: 0.5 % concentration of the manufactured chemo- mechanical caries removal can be used in dentinal caries removal safely with out any adverse effect on the pulp


Article
Removal of mercury contamination from the dental clinic with metal backing for X-ray film

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Background: Mercury in dental clinic has been recognized as a potential health hazard. This evaluated the removal of Hg spills from different surface in dental clinic with tin in the metal backing for dental x-ray film. Materials and Methods: Hg 90 drops (each one of 0.2 g) placed on 9 different surfaces in the dental clinic, and were divided into: Group I (protective surfaces) subgroup 1 (mask) subgroup 2 (gloves) subgroup 3 (dental apron) Group II (dental instrument and equipment) subgroup 1 (metals, for example, the metal tray of sterilizer) subgroup 2 (dental chair unit) subgroup 3 (wet surfaces, for example, the vacuum suction tank of the sucker). Group III (other clinical surfaces) subgroup 1 (working bench) subgroup 2 (the floor) subgroup 3 (the carpet). The metal backing for x-ray film (0.4 g) placed on each Hg spill, and the time of adsorption was recorded in seconds using a digital timer. Results: The results showed adsorption of Hg spills to the metal backing for x-ray film in all groups except in the crevice of the carpet. Group I subgroup 2 showed the faster interaction (7.1 + 2.828 sec.) while group II subgroup 3 showed the slowest interaction (90.3 + 20.981 sec.). Conclusion: Hg spills on dental protective surfaces can be removed easily, while the most difficult spills to be removed were on the wet surface. Furthermore, Hg spills in crevis of the carpet can not be removed

Keywords

Mercury --- metal backing --- x-ray film


Article
Strength, hardness, corrosion evaluation and computer-aided designing of cobalt–-chromium molybdenum maxillary major connectors: part II

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Abstract

Background: Computers have been applied for information processing in medicine and dentistry. This study was to design a special computer program that helps the dentist to select, and design a proper maxillary major connector made of different types of materials with minimum dimensions and adequate mechanical properties. Materials and methods: A special computer program was performed to select suitable dimensions of maxillary major connectors. The computer program was performed according to two principles related to transverse strength and distortion of 48 specimens of maxillary major connector of two different dimensions (Width and thickness) and materials (cobalt–chromium molybdenum in addition to other type) were prepared and tested in part I. Results: The formulated program (Run) showed a correlation results with the manual tests through linear curves analysis of load-deflection of transverse strength, and the proportional limits of each design of major connectors in relation to their width, length, and thickness. Conclusion: This program is applicable to all types and materials of major connectors, and the major connector should be with the minimum dimensions possible but compatible with the rigidity.


Article
Quantitative analysis of trace elements in saliva of oral cancer patients from Iraq

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Background: Trace elements like iron, zinc, magnesium, cobalt and manganese are some of these elements involved in antioxidant defense mechanism. Many authors observed direct association between trace elements deficiency and the cancer mortality. The study was conducted to measure levels of Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), and Magnesium (Mg) in saliva of 50 patients with histologically proved squamous cell carcinoma. Patient and Method: Unstimulated (resting) saliva was collected from oral cancer patients one day before surgical excision of the tumor and one day after surgery using plastic polyethylene tubes. The collected saliva was cold centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 10 minutes at 0-5°C.The centrifuged supernatants were stored frozen at (-20°C) until time of analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Saliva levels of Zn, Mn, Co and Ni were significantly higher in preoperative saliva of oral cancer patients when compared to the normal control. On the other hand, a highly significant reduction in the levels of Cu, Fe and Mg was observed in preoperative saliva of oral cancer patients. However, no significant changes were seen in saliva trace element levels when preoperative values were compared with postoperative values of same patients. Conclusion: Saliva may be employed alone for trace elements measurements or it can be used supplementary to serum test for confirmation of any finding. However, saliva has the advantage of easy collection without trauma to the patients.

Keywords

Trace elements --- saliva --- oral cancer


Article
Clinical effect of low level laser therapy on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcer and oral ulceration in Behcet’s disease

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Abstract

Background: As the exact etiology of recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) remains unknown, therapeutic measures are challenging and difficult. Low level laser therapy use in based on the concept that certain doses of specific wavelength can turn on or off certain cellular components or functions as well as aid in healing and reducing pain and swelling of oral lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of low energy Gallium-Arsenide semiconductor diode laser, 904 nm, on the healing process of recurrent aphthous ulceration and oral ulceration in Behcet’s disease. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 47 patients, age range 12-58 years, with RAU lesions irradiated by laser into two doses (in alternative day), and divided into Control group: RAU patients without any treatment. Group one: RAU in Behcet’s disease irradiated with 1.5 Joule laser. Group two: RAU only, irradiated with 1.5 Joule laser. The results obtained account for duration of lesions, size measurement, pain symptoms, and presence of erythema in three visits. Results: It was shown that no difference in the healing process of RAU and oral ulcer in Behcet’s disease when compared with the control group after low level laser therapy, however when the lesion is less than 24 hours old, it was healed faster than control group. In addition to that, pain symptoms disappear soon after laser therapy, or it regains in low intensity. In RAU, healing process was reduced to a couple of days in initial stage of ulcer, however, a non significant clinical difference was observed on healing process of RAU and oral ulceration in Behcet’s disease after LLLT in comparison with non treated RAU lesions. There was no statistical significant difference on healing process of RAU and oral ulceration in Behcet’s disease after LLLT. Pain disappears soon after LLLT and this is temporary which recur in the next visit but in milder form. Conclusion: Dose and other parameters at which low level laser therapy (LLLT) is implemented influence effectiveness of the therapy

Keywords

Aphthous --- ulcer --- Behcet --- laser


Article
The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of oral and jaw lesions in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias

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Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been found to be very useful for the diagnosis of lesions as multiple myeloma (MM) and plasmacytomas in different parts of the body. The usefulness of such procedure has not yet been verified in the oral and maxillofacial region. This study was conducted to verify the value of FNAC in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. Patients and methods: After clinical and radiological examination, FNAC was done by the use of 10 cc syringes with 22-23 gauge needles on 11 patients with lesions affecting the maxillofacial region. The smears stained with Leishman’s stain, to be examined microscopically. Results: Twenty eight patients were examined throughout 1.5 years period, 11 had soft tissue/or bone lesions affecting the maxillofacial region. 9 patients with MM and 2 had plasmacytoma. Of 9 patients with MM, the mandible was involved in 5 patients, 3 lesions affected the maxilla, and while in one patient the maxilla and mandible were both affected. Soft tissue lesions were seen in 6 patients. The results of FNAC showed that all lesions were due to involvement with myeloma cell infiltrates, with one exception of 2 osteolytic lesions which were due to odontogenic infection. Conclusion: FNAC is a very useful and safe procedure to diagnose different types of lesions affecting the oral cavity in patients with plasma cell dyscriasis


Article
Evaluation of the efficacy of alum suspension in treatment of recurrent ulcerative ulceration

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Background: Recurrent aphthous ulceration or recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal disease known to human beings. Despite much clinical and research attention, the causes remain poorly understood, the ulcers are not preventable, and treatment is symptomatic. The most common presentation is minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis: recurrent, round, clearly defined, small, painful ulcers that heal in 10 to 14 days without scarring. Major recurrent aphthous ulcerative lesions are larger (greater than 5 mm), can last for 6 weeks or longer, and frequently scar. The third variety of recurrent aphthous stomatitis is herpetiform ulcers, which present as multiple small clusters of pinpoint lesions that can coalesce to form large irregular ulcers and last 7 to 10 days. Diagnosis of all varieties is usually made after clinical examination. Alum Potassium aluminum sulfate, or ammonium aluminum sulfate, used especially as an emetic, an astringent, and a styptic. Patients and Method: A sample of fifty two patients were included in this study. 28 female, 24 male, ages range 20-40 years. They all participated in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study. Patients with RAU were separated in to 5 groups, and these were treated with 1, 3, 5, 7 % of alum suspension, and placebo, applied topically four times daily, for five days treatment. Patients response to treatment was determined by; clinical evaluation of subjective treatment response, duration of lesion healing. Results: Statistical analysis of the effect on healing time of the three concentrations of the drug (3, 5, 7) had a significant reduction in the time required for complete healing of the ulcer compared with placebo group. Conclusions: Alum shortened the duration of healing on RAU with lack of any side effects

Keywords

Alum RAU


Article
The interrelation of medical history and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) in Iraqi patients

Authors: Wajnaa F. Qassim وجناء قاسم
Pages: 49-52
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Background: Patients with a temporomandibular joint disorder generally are not subjected to an extensive examination of the entire body, but certain observations which are related mainly to diseases of the musculoskeletal system and nervous system should be taken into consideration. This study is to clear the relation of systemic medical status with temporomandibular disorders progression and vise versa. Materials and Method: this study was applied on 58 patients, 30 females and 28 males. The mean age was 35 years (range 19-63) years. All patients were complaining from temporomandibular disorder. Results: were recorded that most of temporomandibular disorder patients were clinically normal (48.4%), whereas patients subjected to stress form (34.3%) and only (17.3%) had different medical problems. The total male to female ratio nearly equal 1:1 with predominant age for both sexes was (20-29) years. Conclusion: temporomandibular joint was more prone to be affected by local factors, especially the stress relieving habit, than the systemic factors, but this will not preclude more comprehensive and sophisticated diagnostic process, to identify more hidden systemic causes of stress.


Article
Histological changes in tongue of rabbits with iron deficiency state

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Background: Many oral symptoms can be contributed to iron deficient state. The present study was designed to show the effect of iron deficiency in histological feature of tongue. Materials and methods: Fifteen rabbits were used, 9 of them were given carrot only for duration of 2 months, they represent experimental group. Six of fifteen of rabbits were given normal food with all nutrient and vitamin supplement, for 2 months duration too, they represent the control group. Results: The result shows histological changes in tongue including atrophy and depapillation of experimental group. Conclusion: Iron element is important in epithelization of tongue and to keep tongue healthy

Keywords

Iron deficiency --- tongue


Article
Densitometric evaluation of E-speed film with three different developing solutions

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Background: In order to determine the influence of different solutions on the quality of the radiograph, the purpose of this study is to have a comparison between solutions to see the best one produce radiographs of highly diagnostic ability. Material and method: An aluminum step wedge was radiograph with E-Speed periapical films of the films were developed in three different processing solutions at standardized conditions according to manufacture’s instructions data concerning film density, contrast, fog and speed film. Each film solution combination was compiled in attempted to evaluate optimal film –solution combination. Results: In present study better contrast and less film fog obtained with technique C solution, for film speed, higher speed values indicate lower exposure time to patient. Conclusion: The rapid processing solution deteriorated faster and need less processing time than conventional solutions

Keywords

Film-Speed --- Contrast --- Density


Article
The histochemical effects of the administration of hydrocortisone sodium succinate upon the periodontium of albino rats' experimental study

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Background: The effects of the administration of cortisone upon numerous body tissues have been described; changes in the periodontal tissue of developing albino rats (newborn) histochemically have not been described. A study was therefore, under taken to investigate the effect of administration of cortisone upon the periodontal ligament tissues. Materials and methods: Experimental animals (new born rats, their age 10, 19, 25 days old) were treated by cortisone, saggital sections were stained by alcian blue and H&E stains. Results: It was shown that the hydrocortisone sodium succinate affect that periodontal tissue development and this drug inhibit and delay the synthesise of GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) till aged 25 post natal (p.n.). Conclusion: The periodontal membrane in the treated groups is affected (delay in the GAGs synthesis) by the hydrocortisone sodium succinate drug administration


Article
Periodontal status during pregnancy

Authors: Bacima G. Ali باسمة علي
Pages: 64-68
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Background: The purpose of the present research was to determine the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation at different periods of gestation and the prevalence of pregnancy tumor, since the hormonal changes have been implicated complicating factors for periodontal disease. Method: Fifty women were examined; seventeen women from first trimester, twenty at second trimester and thirteenth at third trimester. Results: It was revealed that a high prevalence of periodontal disease increased with advanced stages of pregnancy. The percentage of pregnancy tumor was 6% from the total sample and only in 2nd and 3rd trimester groups. Conclusion: Local treatment in a preventive oral hygiene program from early pregnancy is very important to prevent further progression of any inflammation


Article
Periodontal condition and attachment loss among patients with spinal cord injuries in comparison with a non - injured patients

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Background: Spinal cord injury is a serious condition that produces life-long disabilities The purpose of this investigation was to determine periodontal condition and attachment loss of patients with spinal cord injury in comparison with non injured patients and to investigate the cause and age of spinal cord injury, tooth mortality tooth brushing of the injured patients. Methods: A total of 53 patients with spinal cord injuries and 53 control patients of the age groups 20-40 years and 41-60 years were examined in this study. Periodontal condition and attachment loss were assessed using PDI of Ramfjord .The data was analyzed by student-T test and correlation coefficient(r). Results: The results revealed a high prevalence of periodontal disease in both injured and control groups (100 %) but the severity of periodontal disease was higher in injured patients. Non – significant differences in the mean periodontal disease index (PDI) and the mean attachment loss (AL) were found for both injured and control groups. Conclusion: The results indicate a high prevalence of periodontal disease in both injured and control groups but the severity of periodontal condition and attachment loss was higher in injured patients


Article
The relationship between restoration and furcation involvement in molar teeth

Authors: Wassan Al-Zaidi وسن الزيدي
Pages: 74-76
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Background: The reason of restoring a defect in a tooth is to preserve the tooth and its surrounding structures. This study aims to examine the correlation between the presence of a crown (CR) or a proximal restoration (RE) and furcation involvement (FI) on molar teeth. Material &method: Data was collected from 238 periodontal patients (130 male and 108 female) who had restored and non-restored molars present both with and without (FI). A majority of the restoration that were present in these patients had been placed for at least five years prior to the study. First and second molars were examined clinically using the following criteria : CR, RE, FI, MO (mobility). Results: Females showed higher percentage of crown placement & Cl.II restorations than males results were 29.7%, 73.2%& 10%, 40% respectively.while percentage of furcation involvement &tooth mobility were higher in male and the results were 52.4%, 17.7% & 31. 9%, 16.7% respectively Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that molars with CR or RE had a significantly higher percentage of FI but no greater mobility when compared to molars without restorations (CR or RE).

Keywords

Molar --- furcation


Article
Gingival fluid status in improperly restored and non restored teeth

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Background: Gingival crevicular fluid is a characteristic feature of inflammatory periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study is to assess the gingival fluid flow level in restored and non restored teeth. Methods: A total of 434 sites in 30 dental students were evaluated in this study. The participants ranged in age from (20-23y.) teeth selected for measurement were from the maxillary right second premolar to the maxillary left second premolar. The tested sites were divided into two groups of the first group (206 sites) is the experimental group with restoration and the second group (228 sites) is the control with no restoration .Student T-test was used where indicated , the level of significance was 0.001 . Results: The results demonstrated very high significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results indicate that gingival crevicular fluid in addition to other clinical Parameters were greater in restored teeth with overhang fillings than non restored teeth with a highly significant difference.

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Article
Soft tissue impingement and lip form in Iraqi teenagers

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Background: Soft tissue impingement and lip form have often been overlooked in previous epidemiological surveys. Materials and Methods: About seven thousand 13 year olds with no history of orthodontic treatment were selected from six governorates (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). An intra-oral clinical examination was used to assess traumatic overbite causing soft tissue impingement and the lip form of each student. Results: Soft tissue impingement was found in 2.7% (2.5% palatally and 0.2% labially). Normal lip form was found in 80.7%, contracting lip form in 14.7% and lip trap in 4.6% of the sample. All the previous were non-significantly related to gender and residency. Conclusion: Iraqi children present a much mre favorable lip form than Western children

Keywords

Soft tissue --- impingement --- lip form


Article
Gingival health status among 3-5 years old children in Al-Edwania village, Baghdad

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Background: Periodontal disease is one of the most widespread diseases in Iraq therefore this study was conducted to assess the periodontal condition. Materials and methods: A sample of 91 children living in AL-Edwania village was examined using plaque and gingival indices. Results: It showed a high prevalence of gingival inflammation, gingival inflammation increased with age, and females had a significantly higher gingival index mean than males. The mild type of gingivitis was found to be the highest score. Higher gingival and plaque index means in posterior segment were demonstrated than that in anterior segment. Conclusion: The most common type of gingivitis was the mild. The GI and PlI were increased with age and higher among females.


Article
The effect of oral respiration on the dental occlusion in patients with respiratory tract allergies

Authors: Sundus M. Bezzo سندس بيزو
Pages: 87-92
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Background: Malocclusion is one of the main problems concerning the oral cavity. This study examined the possible effect of mouth breathing habits in patients with respiratory tract allergies on the dental occlusion. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 150 patients having allergic rhinitis, asthma or both ranging in age from 5-19 years. A group of 150 healthy individuals matched with gender and age to the study group was used as a control group. The total sample was questioned about their mode of breathing then their occlusion was examined clinically. Results: Significantly higher percentages of mouth breathers were found among the study group (P<0.05). Similarly CLII and CLIII dental occlusion, displaced teeth as well as crowding affected significantly greater percentages of allergic patients in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: Mouth breathing habits in patients with respiratory tract allergies may have an additive role in the development of some undesirable malocclusions


Article
Evaluation of the complications due to delayed management of trauma to anterior teeth

Authors: Lubab J. Mohammed لباب محمد
Pages: 93-96
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Background: Trauma to anterior teeth is a serious problem in young aged patients. This study was done to evaluate the complications that occur if treatment to the traumatized anterior teeth (primary or permanent) was delayed. Materials and Methods: Patients who came to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at the college of dentistry / Baghdad seeking treatment of traumatized anterior teeth for esthetic or symptomatic reason were studied. Dental and medical history was taken, and the injured teeth were examined clinically and radiographically. Results: Most of the patients were late in seeking treatment month or more. Trauma which involves enamel and dentin was seen in (51) cases and pulp necrosis was seen in (43.1%) of these cases. Enamel and dentine fracture with pulp exposure (36 cases) showed a very high frequency of pulp necrosis (72.2%). External and internal root resorption were seen in only (13) cases of the (153) teeth examined. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the parents and the public about the seriousness of dental trauma and urge them to seek dental treatment as soon as possible. In addition a thorough clinical and radiographic examination is essential to identify the complications of dental trauma and treat them

Table of content: volume: issue: