Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2006 volume:18 issue:1

Article
An evaluation of the effect of curing systems and water storage on the fracture toughness of two types of composite resin filling materials with different organic matrix composition (in vitro study)

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Abstract

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Background: Chipping and bulk fracture are major contributors to clinical failures of composite restorations. Fracture toughness (KIC) quantifies susceptibility for fracture. Halogen light curing units have some specific drawbacks, such as decreasing light output with time. This may result in a low degree of monomer conversion of the composite, which is undesirable, as it can adversely affect mechanical properties including fracture toughness. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of conventional light cure unit (Astralis – 5), light emitted diode (Radii) and water storage on the fracture toughness of packable composite (Filtek P60) and microfilled hybrid composite(Glacier).
Materials and Methods: KIC was determined by preparing 128 single – edge notched beam test specimens (2X4X20 mm with a 3mm long notch on one edge). The composite specimens were cured by Astralis – 5 or Radii and were subjected to 3 – point bending test (without aging), after 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days storage in distilled water. Student t – test followed by ANOVA (P<0.01) were used to analyze the results.
Results: The fracture toughness values were highly significant when using Radii light cure unit (for both types of composites), and the fracture toughness values for P60 composite were highly significant.
Conclusions: Water aging from 7 days to 28 days didn't produce significant effect in the fracture toughness values for P60 composite, but it led to a highly significant reduction in the fracture toughness values for the Glacier composite. Resin containing Bis – GMA showed higher fracture toughness values than UDMA based resin.
Key words: Fracture toughness, (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 1-5)

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Article
Inhibition of artificial secondary caries by fluoride – releasing restorative materials

Authors: Tara A. Al-Qutib --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Pages: 6-11
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Abstract

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Background: Fluoride releasing restorative materials was developed to reduce the possibility of secondary caries. This study aims to examine the effects of fluoride-releasing restorative materials on the inhibition of artificial caries-around restorations.
Materials and Methods: The materials used in this study are conventional Glass-ionomer cement (Kavitan plus), Modified resin glass ionomer cement (photac-fill quick), compomer (Dyract), fluoride-releasing resin composite (crystal Essence) and Spectrum composite without fluoride (Dentsply). Forty extracted human mandibular and maxillary premolars were used and standardized CL V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual aspects of each tooth, the lingual cavities were restored with each of the fluoride-releasing materials while the buccal cavities were restored with Spectrum Dentsply composite act as a control according to the manufacturer's instructions. The restored teeth were incubated in the acidified gelatin gel at 4.0pH, and the artificial secondary lesion created around the restoration was observed by using poloraide light microscope.
Results: Glass ionomer cement created a thick-radio-opaque zone in the artificial lesion along the restorations-dentin interface, while the fluoride-releasing composite created a thin radio-opaque zone due to the formation of acid-resistance zone by bonding infiltration.
Conclusion: Fluoride-releasing restorative materials including conventional Glass-ionomer cement (GIC), Modified resin glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), compomer, and fluoride-releasing resin composite have the potential to inhibit secondary caries formation around restorations and the conventional GIC have a stronger effect than other material.
Keywords: Artificial caries, fluoride. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 6-11)

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Article
Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in partially edentulous patients' dependence of different variables

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Background: Temporomandibular disorders TMDs are recognized as the most common chronic or facial pain condition confronting dentists and other health care providers
Materials and Methods: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) investigation was performed on two hundred apparently healthy and partially edentulous individuals (92 males and 108 females) aged between 18-70 year. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of TMDs according to age and Gender, and to investigate the role of some possible etiological factors in TMDs.
Results: Subjective symptoms were perceived by 30.5% of the patients. The most common symptom was TMJ sounds. Objective signs were observed in 37.0% of the patients. The most prevalent sign was TMJ sounds. Non-significant Gender and age variations were observed regarding symptoms and signs of TMDs. Significant relationships were found between grinding, clenching, recurrent headache, functional shift and the number of symptoms and signs of TMDs.
Conclusion: The number of missing teeth and dental were positively related to the number of signs only, whereas significant relationships were found between crossbite, unilateral and bilateral loss of molar and premolar teeth and the number of symptoms and signs of TMDs.
Keywords: TMJ, partial edentulous (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 12-16)

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Article
Complete denture intolerance in edentulous patients

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Abstract

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Background: It has been indicated that with a dissatisfied complete denture patient, the problem could well lie with the patient himself rather than the dentist's clinical skills. The aim of this study was to identify the difficult patient and assess the correlation between his satisfaction and the quality of the denture.
Materials and Methods: One hundred complete denture patients attending the prosthodontic clinic were interviewed at the adjustment stage. Their opinion concerning their present dentures were recorded and compared to a profound clinical evaluation of the dentures. Correlations between patient's satisfaction and the quality of the dentures were assessed to identify the difficult denture patients
Results: The results showed that the most common reason for complaint was pain (30%), followed by over extension (17%), lack of retention (7%), discomfort (6%), difficulty during chewing and speaking (4%), poor aesthetics (2%) and defective occlusion (1%) . The rest of the patients constituting 33% were satisfied with their dentures and had no difficulty adapting to them.
Conclusions: Out of a total of 100 patients, only 8 patients (2females and 6 males) had unrealistic demands and complaints. The other 92 were either satisfied or had justifiable complaints.
Keywords: Complaint, satisfaction, denture quality. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 17-19)

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Article
The relationship of tooth color to eye color, facial skin complexion and gingival pigmentation

Authors: Mohammed M. Ali
Pages: 20-24
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Abstract

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Background: The selection of a color for the edentulous patient is difficult because the natural teeth are no longer present to act as a guide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship of tooth color to eye color, facial skin complexion, and gingival pigmentation.
Materials and Methods: A total of 140 subjects (80 females and 60 males) from Al-Taji village were examined in this study. The participants ranged in age from (18 – 35 years). Each subject was seated on a chair in an upright position under day light between (10 a.m. and 1 p.m.). Direct visual examination was used to evaluate eye color and face complexion. The Dummett oral pigmentation index (DOPI), was used to estimate gingival pigmentation of the maxillary arch. The shades of the maxillary central and lateral incisors were obtained by using (Vivadent), basic colors selector
Results: The statistical analysis of the data revealed a non significant relation between tooth color and other parameters (eye color, facial skin complexion and gingival pigmentation). In addition, the light yellow teeth were most commonly seen (61.42%), while brown teeth were the least (0.71%).
Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that depending on eye color, facial skin complexion and gingival pigmentation in order to match tooth color is not appropriate.
Key words: Tooth color, tooth selection. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 20-24)

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Article
Human pulp response after direct pulp capping with an adhesive system

Authors: Ali M. Abdul Kareem
Pages: 25-29
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Abstract

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Background: The adhesive systems are experimentally used in direct pulp capping procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological responses of pulp tissues after direct pulp capping with an adhesive agent.
Materials and Methods: The pulps of twenty human teeth scheduled for extraction were mechanically exposed and capped with an adhesive system and calcium hydroxide cement for 60 days. The teeth were extracted and prepared for examination under light microscope for inflammatory responses and dentin bridge formation.
Results: The slides showed that there were variable responses which ranged from moderate to severe and progressive extension of tissue necrosis with time for teeth capped with the adhesive system. After the application of calcium hydroxide paste, only mild tissue response was elected with complete hard tissue bridging.
Conclusion: Based on the experimental conditions, the application of the adhesive system in direct contact with mechanically exposed pulp cannot lead to acceptable repair of dentin-pulp complex.
Keywords: Adhesive, pulp capping, calcium hydroxide, pulp response. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 25-29)

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Article
Food consumption by complete denture wearers

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Background: Proper nutrition is provided by the intake of well balanced diet which may be solid, semisolid and liquid. Certain types of food intake can be a problem for people with dental restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the chewing capability and the change of food pattern that may occur in complete denture wearers.
Material and methods: The change of food pattern that may occur after wearing complete dentures was assessed in 80 patients, 46 males and 34 females with a mean age of 60.2 and ranges from 31-72years. The chewing capability of the food intake by those patients was determined. Food have been broken down into four groups using a daily food guide and the patients were asked to rank the types of food that were easy to chew , moderate and difficult.
Results: It was found that there was no significant difference in eating pattern of dairy product group before and after using the dentures (p<0.05). The meat group however was reported by the largest number of subjects as difficult to chew. Some types of fruit and vegetables were also reported as difficult to chew; the difference was significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results indicated that the majority of the subjects were satisfied with chewing with dentures (69%) while the others were either partially satisfied or not satisfied.
Key words: Diet, food pattern, chewing. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 30-32)

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Article
Pre-treatment denture patient expectations in a university clinic

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Background: It has been indicated that expectation of patients can greatly influence the result of treatment. Many prosthetic failures result not from technical difficulties but of mismatch between patient expectation for prosthesis and the dentist's goal for the same treatment.
Materials and methods: One hundred patients were selected with an average age of 58.4 ranges of 30-78 years. Patients were interviewed to answer a questionnaire related to patient's expectation measurement. This was justified through statements related to fit, function, comfort, esthetics, and general expectations.
RESULTS: It was found that many patients did not expect dentures to look just like or having better appearance than natural teeth. Others however reported high expectation in relation to fit and function.
Conclusion: Most patients gave realistic expectations concerning the items of comfort, esthetics and general expectations compared with having no teeth and with natural teeth. They showed high expectations however in response to function and fit. They believed that dentures should fit perfectly and not move and that they should be able to eat and chew as well with dentures as with natural teeth.
Key words: Expectation, function, realistic, comfort. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 33-37)

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Article
Survey of partially edentelous patients in relation to age, gender and use of removable prosthesis

Authors: Ferial Al-Naddawi --- Salah A.B. Mohammad
Pages: 38-41
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Background: The need for removable partial denture dental prosthesis varies considerably between age, and gender. The aim of this study was survey such relations.
Materials and method: A thousand partially edentulous patients, visiting the Department of prosthodontics, Dental school, University of Baghdad, through period of three were examined to determine the type of prosthodontic services done for these patients and to correlate between age, gender and use of removable appliance.
Results: Even distribution was found between male and female attending prosthodontic department for prosthodontic need and depending on die case sheets of die patients and for the years 1989- 1991. The use of single partial denture (Rpd) showed a decrease with age. The use of double partial denture (Rpd/Rpd) showed increase till age of thirty then showed decrease after this age. The use of both, complete denture against and single complete denture showed an increase with age. For age less than 20, 30, and 40 years, (bilateral free end saddle (class I) was the most common partial denture.
Conclusion: No statistical difference was found between male and female for all Kennedy classification and with all age groups.
Key words: Edentelous, removable prosthesis (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 38-41)

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Article
Panoramic radiographic study of mesiodistal axial inclination of three maxillary teeth in 8-12 year old children

Authors: Asmaa T. Uthman
Pages: 42-45
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Background: The establishment of norms of mesiodistal axial inclination is very important since normal occlusion depends upon proper axial inclination. The aim of the present article is concerned with the assessment of mesiodistal axial inclination of the permanent maxillary canine, first & second molar to provide a baseline data for these teeth.
Materials & Methods: A total sample of 60 Iraqi children aged 8, 10 & 12 years having class I occlusion were traced to obtain the angles of mesiodistal axial inclinations of maxillary canine, first & second molar.
Results: Eight years old children males have a highly significant increase in mesiodistal axial inclination in second molar when compared with corresponding females. On the contrary, a significant increase in the angulation was seen in female’s canine when compared to those of males and a non-significant gender difference for this angulation was seen for the first molar.
Conclusion: The normal average value of mesiodistal axial inclination of key teeth like maxillary canine, first & second molar would help in identifying individuals who deviate markedly from the average.
Keywords: Mesiodistal axial inclination, OPG, maxillary teeth. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 42-45)

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Article
The efficacy of a combined corticosteroid and anti fungal therapeutics in the management of oral lesions

Authors: Jamal N. Ahmed
Pages: 46-48
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Background: Corticosteroid is a medication widely used in the treatment of the chronic inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. Treatment with cortisone is complicated with the secondary oral candidiasis. The purpose of this study was to find the efficacy of a combined therapeutics (cortisone and antifungal) in the treatment of chronic oral lesions.
Materials and methods: Eighteen patients were selected for this study, and they were divided into three groups. The Pl group received combined therapeutics (cortisone and antifungal), the 2nd group received cortisone only and the 3rd group received placebo.
Results: The results showed that fungal infection in 42% of the 2nd group and there was no evidence of infection in group which received combined therapy. In addition, the clinical signs and symptoms were improved.
Conclusions: These findings suggest the use of an anti fungal in the management of chronic oral lesion that requires prolong administration of cortisone.
Key words: Antifungal, oral lesions. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 46-48)

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Article
Estimation of crown length and root development in Iraqi primary school students using Orthopantomograph

Authors: Asmaa T. Uthman
Pages: 49-53
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Background: Dental development provides the orthodontist an invaluable information for providing proper timing of certain preventive & interceptive orthodontic measures. The aim of this study was to find out the normative values of crown & root lengths & developmental stage of maxillary permanent canine and first & second molars of Iraqi primary school children aged 8,10 & 12 years of age using OPG 5.
Materials & Methods:Crown length & root development was studied in 60 Iraqi primary school children aged 8 to 12 years old using Orthopantomograph 5.
Results: Crown length & root length was seen greater in females than in males and a gradual increase in root length was observed as we pass from age of 8 years toward 12 years of age indicating that root calcification was evident and pass faster in females than in males.
Coclusion: This study provide information about the normal development of maxillary dentition represented by canine, first & second molars.
Keywords: Crown length, root development, OPG. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 49-53)

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Article
Effects of cytotoxic drugs on oral flora of patients with different types of cancers

Authors: Khulood M.Al-Saraf
Pages: 54-57
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Background: Cytotoxic therapy could be either single agent chemotherapy which has very limited application in up dated oncology field. This study was done on patients with different types of carcer, and those patients were treated with chemotherapy either single drug (methotrexate) or combination cytotoxic drugs including methotrexate.
Materials and methods: The aim of this study is to identify the changes which occur in oral flora after application of the drug by taking swab from oral cavity of each patient before treatment and 3, 6, and 9 days of single dose treatment with cytotoxic drug(s) and a comparison was done between the types of oral microorganisms occur before and after treatment.
Results and conclusion: Oral flora was affected greatly with cytotoxic drugs especially in case of combination therapy, with increased appearance of pathogenic microorganism, and also there was increased in fungal infection.
Key words: Cytotoxic drugs, cancer, oral flora (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 54- 57)

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Article
Effect of oral hygiene measures on gingival status clinical and histopathological study

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Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between severity of the inflammatory periodontal diseases and plaque mass. Some investigations have corralled the histologic parameters with the clinical manifestation of inflammation such as gingival index and gingival exudate flow rate scores. The aim of this study was to correlate between the histological parameters, the gingival clinical status and gingival exudate flow rate (GEFR) and dental plaque.
Materials and methods: Seven dental students precipitated in this study. Experimental gingivitis was induced. GI, PlI and GEFR were scored at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Buccal biopsy excised on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, stained and inflammatory cells were counted.
Results: The results of the cohort study demonstrated an increase in all clinical indices during development of the experimental gingivitis and these tend to decrease following the reinstitution of oral hygiene. This study also showed a strong correlation between the clinical and histological parameters.
Conclusion: Microbial plaque initiates inflammatory destructive response in the gingiva. This can be reduced by maintenance of good oral hygiene.
Key words: Gingivitis; oral hygiene; gingival status; inflammatory cells. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 58-62)

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Article
Gingival status and gingival fluid flow in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

Authors: Hazim M Ibrahem --- Leka'a M. Ibrahem
Pages: 63-65
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Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the role of smoking as a risk factor on the gingival status of the diabetic and non-diabetic patient as measured by both gingival fluid flow (G.F.F) and gingival fluid pH (G.F.pH) and clinical parameters (plaque index and gingival index).
Material and method: All the patients were smokers with mean age of 45 years. Thirty-two sites were selected from each group. Clinical examination including PL.I and GI were evaluated for each patient, G.F.F and G.F.pH were evaluated to in the selected sites.
Results: The PL.I, G.I, G.F.F and G.F.pH for smoker diabetic patients were slightly higher than smoker non-diabetic patients, but no statistical difference was found.
Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between the clinical parameters and G.F.F and G.F.pH in both diabetic and non diabetic patient. It was also found that smokers are high risk group for periodontitis.
Key words: Gingival status, gingival fluid, diabetes. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 63-65)

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Article
Clinical effect of chlorhexidine mouthwashes on patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

Authors: Leka'a M. Ibrahem
Pages: 66-68
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Background: This study compared the short-term clinical effect of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate as an adjunct to regular oral hygiene practices.
Material and method: This study done on 26 adolescent (ages 11 to 15 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment. Thirteen subjects were experimental (CHX) and other 13 were control (C) groups. Baselines values were recorded 10 days after prophylaxis which include plaque index PL.I, gingival index G.I gingival fluid flow (G.F.F.) and discoloration index (D.I). Both groups (CHX and C) received soft tooth brushes with instruction to brush twice daily as well as CHX mouth rise twice daily with 15ml for 60 seconds for experimental groups .Reevaluation were performed 1, 2, 3 months after baseline except for the D.I which was only assessed at 3 months.
Result: no difference between groups was seen at baseline for any of the parameters. The changes of PL.I, G.I. G.F.F. at 1, 2, 3 month were statistically significant in the case of experimental groups, as the changes in the months. The D.I shows high scores in the experimental group as compared to control group but they were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The data shows that the use of CHX in addition to regular oral hygiene habits was effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis in adolescent undergoing orthodontic treatment.
Key words: Chlorhexidine, mouthwash, orthodontics. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 66-68)

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Article
Severity of dental caries among 3-6 years old children in Al-Edwania village, Baghdad

Authors: Ban S. Diab
Pages: 69-71
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Background: Dental caries is a big problem among children in rural areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the severity of dental caries in Al-Edwania village.
Materials and methods: A sample of 95 children aged 3-6 years of both gender was examined according to the criteria of World Health Organization 1987.
Results: The results showed a lower severity of dental caries than previous study done in urban areas. As for gender relation to the severity of dental caries, the data showed that girls had a higher caries severity than boys for both dentitions primary and permanent.
Conclusion: Decayed surfaces were higher than filled ones, therefore dental treatment and preventive measures should be applied.
Keywords: Dental caries, severity, urban, children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 69-71)

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Article
Current prevalence of dental caries in Iraqi preschool children. A comparison to national and international studies.

Authors: Ban A. Salih --- Iman T. Ibrahim
Pages: 72-75
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Background: This study described the occurrence of dental caries among children in kindergartens and described changes in caries prevalence and experience from 1983 to 1998, and to provide a baseline for the evaluation of the preventive oral health programs.
Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 946 kindergarten children, 512 (54.13%) boys, and 434 (45.87%) girls age ranged between 4 - 5 years, and the kindergartens were randomly selected in different regions in Baghdad city.
Results: In this study the mean value of caries experience (dmft) was found to be equal to (4.83 ± 4.05) for boys, and (4.15 ± 4.00) for girls in age 4 - 5 years.
Conclusion: It was concluded that in spite of the drastic changes concerning diet, especially sugar and carbohydrates due to sanctions, but what was found that there were few fluctuations around the same values of (dmft) from 1983 -1998. It was concluded that the present (dmft) value was among the highest reported values among recent international studies and neighboring arabian countries.
Key words: Dental caries, caries- epidemiology; preschool children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 72-75)

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Article
Oral health status among a group of children attending preventive clinic in Dahmar University - Yemen

Authors: Hala A. Al-Juboury --- Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 76-79
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Background: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most important etiological factors for tooth mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status among a group of children in Yemen.
Materials and methods: A sample of 122 children with age range 6-12 years attending the preventive clinic in Dahmar University in Yemen. Dental caries was estimated using the dmfs/DMFS indices following the WHO criteria.
Results: A high caries percentage (93.6%) was found. Caries experience of deciduous teeth was decreasing with age accompanied by increase among permanent teeth. Caries active males were higher than females. Most of the children had a mild gingivitis, which tended to increase with age. Severity of gingivitis was significantly higher among boys than girls.
Conclusion: The low caries percentage may need further investigation to study dietary habits and fluoride level in water.
Keywords: Dental caries, gingivitis, children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1)76-79)

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Article
Normal Iraqi values of overjet and overbite

Authors: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Pages: 80-83
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Background: Knowing the normal range of values helps us define the abnormal range.
Material and Method: This study involved six governorates (cities and environs) in Iraq selected to cover the whole country geographically (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). The sample consisted of 6957 intermediate school students aged 13 years with no previous history of orthodontic treatment. An intra-oral clinical examination was used to assess their overjet and overbite.
Results: More than two thirds of the sample (67.8%) had an overjet of 2mm to 4mm and three quarters of the sample (75.3%) had an overbite of 1mm to 3mm and when overjet and overbite values were cross-tabulated, 54.7% of the sample had an overjet of 2-4mm and an overbite of 1-3mm suggesting their normal values.
Conclusion: For Iraqi 13 early teen-agers the normal overjet is 2-4mm and overbite is 1-3mm
Key words: Overjet, overbite, Iraq (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1): 80-83).

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