Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2006 volume:18 issue:2

Article
The effect of prepared denture cleansers on some physical properties of stained acrylic resin denture base material cured by two different techniques

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The debris in the denture cause many problem to the patient and the use of the denture cleanser is the solution for this problem but this denture cleanser may affect the properties of the denture. The aim of our study was to observe the effect of prepared denture cleansers on some physical properties (water sorption, water solubility and color stability) of the acrylic resin after their immersion in the tea solution and also to compare the effect of those denture cleansers on heat and microwave cure acrylic resin.
Materials and methods: Heat curing and Microwave acrylic denture was prepared and immersed in four types of denture Cleansers after their staining with tea then the water sorption, water solubility and color stability of acrylic resin was measured .
Results: There were no changes in the stained acrylic properties when the samples were immersed in the prepared denture cleansers and in the alkaline peroxide cleanser compared to that immersed in the distilled water. Furthermore no significant differences were observed between microwave and water bath cured specimens in respect to color stability, sorption and solubility of the testing groups.
Conclusions: The prepared denture cleanser solutions are good and satisfactory cleanser materials for the acrylic resin denture base cured by two different techniques.
Key words: Acrylic, denture cleanser, water sorption, water solubility. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 1-8)

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Article
A comparison of inferior alveolar nerve block and periodontal ligament injections during endodontic treatment of human mandibular first premolars

Authors: Waleed I. Ali --- Majida K. Al-Hashimi
Pages: 9-14
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Profound pulpal anesthesia for root canal treatment is difficult to achieve in mandibular posterior teeth. Several authors emphasized on the effects of periodontal ligament injection as a primary or supplementary technique. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of periodontal ligament injection and inferior alveolar nerve block injection in providing profound pulpal anesthesia for endodontic treatment of human mandibular first premolars; and to compare the discomfort associated with each injection in regard to initial needle insertion and injection of solution.
Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament injection was used as a primary injection technique to anesthetize 30 sound, healthy mandibular first premolars and it was compared to the pulpal anesthesia of the other 30 mandibular first premolars on the other side of the same patient, which were anesthetized using the inferior alveolar nerve block injection.
Results: The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two injection techniques.
Conclusion: The periodontal ligament injection can be used effectively to anesthetize mandibular first premolars, as a primary technique, during root canal therapy procedure. Pain associated with insertion of needle and injection of solution for both injection techniques was acceptable.
Key words: Periodontal ligament, inferior alveolar, anesthesia. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 9-14)

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Article
An evaluation of the effects of different polishing agents on the surface roughness of porcelain

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Rough porcelain surface due to faulty glazing technique or occlusal adjustment can cause grinding of opposing structure and tissue irritation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing agents on the surface roughness of adjusted porcelain in comparison to applied glaze.
Methods and Materials: Thirty five porcelain specimens resembling flat-back facing (metal porcelain buttons) were fabricated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the type of surface treatment tested. Each group consisted of seven specimens and the groups were distributed as follows: Group I: Applied glazed; Group II: Polished porcelain using dental pumice; Group III: Polished porcelain using Dentalloy polishing paste; Group IV: Polished porcelain using Dentaurum universal polishing paste and Group V: Polished porcelain using Al203 paste. The surface roughness evaluation of the specimens was carried out by a surface roughness analyzer device (profilometer).
Results: Statistical analysis showed no significance between porcelain samples polished by Dentaurum universal polishing paste and those subjected to applied glaze. Both techniques provided better smoothness than the rest polishing procedures.
Conclusion: Final polishing of rough porcelain surface by Dentaurum universal polishing paste can be considered as an alternative to reglazing adjusted surfaces of porcelain restorations regarding the technique sensitivity and time consuming related to the latter procedure.
Key words: Polishing agents, porcelain, surface roughness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 15-21)

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Article
Percentage of undercut areas in edentulous patients

Authors: Sabah S. Al-Habib --- Ghayda'a H. Al-Izzi
Pages: 22-24
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ABSTRACT
Background: Bony undercuts are usually present in both maxillary and mandibular jaws (anteriorly and posteriorly) unilateral or bilateral. Their location is affected by bone resorption and aging process.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted on a sixty male and female patients attending the fifth class clinic in college of dentistry / Baghdad University. Their ages ranged from 30 -80 years with no systemic diseases.
Results: In the maxillary jaw the percentage of undercut in male anteriorly was 57%, while posteriorly was21%. In the mandibular jaw anteriorly was 24%; posteriorly was 43%. In the female subject the percentage of undercut was in maxillary jaw anteriorly 23%; posteriorly was 6%, in mandibular jaw anteriorly was 4%, posteriorly was 15%.
Conclusion: There was a highly significant difference in the prevalence of undercuts between males and females, in the maxillary posterior region and mandibular anterior areas. A significant difference was also found between males and females in the maxillary anterior region and mandibular poster area.
Key words: Maxillary undercut, mandibular undercut. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 22-24)

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Article
An assessment of the effect of using different post systems on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

Authors: Aladin Al-Rubayi --- Lamis A. Al-Taie
Pages: 25-31
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Abstract

ABSTRCT
Backgroud: Different post systems are available in the market but the prognosis of teeth by which they are restored has been questioned. This in vitro study evaluated and compared the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with four post systems.
Materials and Methods: Forty intact human mandibular second premolars were selected for this study. These samples were endodontically treated, and randomly divided into 5 groups of eight each. Group I: the control group (without posts), group II: restored with prefabricated carbon fiber posts (C-post), group III: restored with prefabricated parallel-sided titanium posts (Radix-anker posts), group IV: restored with cast post and cores, and group V: restored with glass fiber posts (Postec), then the samples were tested to failure with an obliquely applied compressive load at 45oC, using a Zwick testing machine with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. until failure.
Results: Failure load results were obtained for all test specimens. The means and standard deviations for each group were as follows: group 1 (control group): 113.875 ± 4.19Kg; group 2: 89.875 ± 4.16 Kg; group 3: 84 ± 4.28 Kg; group 4: 82 ± 5.58 Kg; and group 5: 80 ± 5.21 Kg.
Conclusions: The specimens restored with carbon fiber posts and composite cores showed significantly greater resistance to root fracture than those restored with the other three systems tested. There was a little difference in the fracture mode between the different treatment modalities, and teeth without post and core foundations tested significantly stronger than the other comparison groups.
Key words: Fracture resistance, metal posts, fiber reinforced posts. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2)25-31)

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Article
Evaluation of interfacial bond strength of repaired composite resins

Authors: Ali M. Abdul Kareem
Pages: 32-34
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Repair of composite restorationsis a choice if absence of caries is guaranteed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interfacial shear bond strength of the immediately repaired composite specimens.
Materials and methods: Sixty specimens from 2 types of composite were made in a special mold and polymerized with light. Three methods of surface treatment of the initial layer were done prior to the application of the repair layer including the use of matrix strip or not and abrasion. The specimens were subjected to shear force from the testing machine and mean for each group was calculated.
Results: The non–air inhibited specimens showed the highest values of shear bond strength (mean =13.1 Mpa) which was significantly different from the bur abraded specimens (p<0.05), but insignificant from the air inhibited specimens (p>0.05) for both types of composite.
Conclusion: The absence of air inhibited layer by using matrix strip increase the interfacial bond strength of the immediately repaired composite with inferior interfacial bonding for the bur abrasion method.
Keywords: Composite, bond strength, repair. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 32-34)

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Article
The prevalence of oral developmental disturbances and dental alignment anomalies in females of secondary schools in Thamar city (14-21years)

Authors: Balkees T. Garib
Pages: 35-39
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Abnormalities of the oral and dental tissue are detected frequently during routine dental examination. and the prevalence of these anomalies is varying among different population.
Materials and methods: A thousand young aged females (14-21 years) were collected randomly from secondary school in Thamar city- Yamen. Full oral examination was carried for the prevalence of any oral-dental anomalies.
Results: Flourosis enamel hypoplasia is the predominant dental anomaly 10.2%. The second problem was the retained deciduous teeth 4.1% and the non erupted permanent dentition 3.9%, while malposed alignment accounts 12.8%. Soft tissue showed fissure and geographical tongue in n2.6% and 2% respectively. Other anomalies present in minimal percentages.
Discussion: Esthetic problem are predominant in young females of Thamar city including both changes in enamel tooth structure (Flourosis) and mal alignment (crowding, spacing and malposed tooth). An obvious disturbance in shedding is present (4%) which may relate for further dental mal alignment.
Key words: Developmental anomalies, flourosis, dental mal alignment. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 35-39)

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Article
Orthopantomographic assessment of mandibular asymmetry as an aid in diagnosis of tempromandibular problems

Authors: Natheer H. Al-Rawi --- Asmaa T. Uthman
Pages: 40-42
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ABSTRACT
Background: Dental rotational panoramic radiographs can be used to diagnose vertical asymmetries between the right (R) and left (L) mandibular condyle and/or ramus. The aim of this study was to study the effect of dentition on condylar asymmetry which is the early risk of developing tempromandibular problems.
Materials & Methods: A total sample of 70 Iraqi patients (30 dentate & 40 edentulous) were selected in this study. All were exposed with a Siemens OPG-5. The outline of the condyle & the ascending ramus of both sides were traced using acetate paper. The difference in vertical height between the two sides is expressed by an asymmetry index which is calculated with the formula (R-L)/(R+L) X 100%.
Results: A statistically significant difference was found between dentate & edentulous patients regarding condylar height symmetry.
Conclusion: More than 6% differences measured on OPG-5 indicated condylar asymmetry.
Keywords: condylar asymmetry, TMJ, OPG (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 40-42)

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Article
Detection of acid fast bacilli in the saliva of patients having pulmonary tuberculosis

Authors: Jamal Noori --- Gassan Yassen
Pages: 43-46
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ABSTRACT
Background: Tuberculosis is a serious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is readily detected by demonstration of the bacteria in a clinical specimen. The purpose of this study was to determine the density of acid fast bacilli in the mixed and parotid saliva samples and to compare them with the sputum, in addition, to find out the efficacy of the saliva samples in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Subject and Methods: A sample of 25 patients of both sexes, Age ranged from 17-70 participated in this study, Unstimulated mixed saliva and the parotid saliva was collected for direct .smear of acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Nelson acid fast stain. Five samples were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and storen brink media to determine the presence of the bacilli in the samples.
Results: Concerning the mycobacterium tuberculosis, about 60% of unstimulated mixed saliva revealed positive acid fast bacilli, while all samples of parotid saliva showed negative acid fast bacilli. There was no significant relationship between the duration of signs and symptoms of disease and the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the collected specimens. The density of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mixed saliva mainly was scanty which mean it was not more than 2-9 bacilli in at least 100 fields. This confirms the fact that the body fluids commonly contain only small number of mycobacterium tuberculosis. The five samples of saliva which were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and stonebrink media showed positive cultures.
Conclusion: Mixed saliva was less efficient than sputum by direct smear of sputum.
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, saliva. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 43-46)

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Article
Burning mouth syndrome: an analysis of 130 patients

Authors: Shanaz M. Gaphor
Pages: 47-51
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Background: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) of the oral mucosa is relatively common complaints of dental patients. The aim of this study was to determine the possible causes of (BMS).
Materials and methods: A sample of 130 patients (91 women and 39 men) was thoroughly studied.
Results: Females were more commonly affected than males and particularly those aged over 50 years. The tongue and palate were the most frequently affected sites. Psychogenesis was found to be the most frequent cause, followed by geographic tongue and candidiasis.
Conclusion: Burning mouth syndrome is a multifactorial condition generally affecting women much more than men.
Keywords: BMS, local and systemic causes. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 47-51)

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Article
Gutta-percha as retrograde filling in endodontic surgery without apicectomy (A clinical and radiographical study with new technique)

Authors: Anwar A. Al-Saeed
Pages: 52-56
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ABSTRACT
Background: Many materials are being used as retrograde filling materials. This study was to evaluate the effect of
Gutta-percha as retrograde filling in endodontic surgery by using ultrasonic device in comparison to the use of Zinc
free Amalgam.
Patients and Methods: Fifty-seven patients of average age ranging from 18-34 years of old, 32 were males, while 25 were females of different socioeconomic status. All the cases had chronic periapical lesions that were exposed to endodontic surgery with the use of Gutta-percha as retrograde filling by the use of ultrasonic device. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was used as criteria for detection of the state of healing process for 1 year follow-up.
Results: All the cases 57 (100%) showed a complete healing without any recurrence of periapical lesions. The current study shows that 42 (73%) of cases had faster and much better healing process in maxillary anterior region than that of the mandibular anterior region 15 (26.3%). Healing process was significantly and clearly better than in those patients with short duration of the pathological lesions, in comparison to the long duration lesions. The study registered that healing process was significantly better in males than in females. No rejections were detected from the use of Gutta-percha as retrograde filling materials in comparison retrospectively to the use of Zinc free Amalgam.
Conclusion: No allergic reactions or rejections were reported from the use of Gutta-percha as reported from the use of amalgam. There was absence of contraction or microleakage of microorganisms in case of Gutta-percha while this has been reported in the use of amalgam and other materials. No remnant particles have been observed clinically or even radiographically in the use of Gutta-percha while these commonly occur and clearly observed in case of amalgam.
Key words: Endodontic surgery, gutta-percha, ultrasonic technique. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006;18(2) 52-56)

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Article
Comparison of conventional periodontal therapy versus scaling and root planing with subgingival minocycline gel 2%

Authors: Kholood A. Al – Safi
Pages: 57-62
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Background: Alternative regimens using subgingival minocycline plus scaling and root planing (SRP/M) significantly improved clinical attachment (CAL) and reduced probing depth (PD) compared with SRP alone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes in 2 periodontitis cohorts, one receiving conventional periodontal therapy and the other receiving scaling and root planing with multiple doses of subgingival minocycline
Materials and Method: Moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis patients were concurrently treated with either:(1) scaling and root planing with 4 subgingival doses of minocycline in all ≥ 5mm pockets over a 6 month period (SRP/M) n = 25 patients or (2) conventional therapy 6 month period (SRP n = 25 patients). Clinical and radiographic measurements including (PD), CAL, BOP and interproximal bone height (BH), were analyzed at baseline and 1 year.
Results: Baseline clinical and radiographic data were similar between SRP/M and SRP patients. PD showed greater mean improvement in SRP/M (1.1 ± 0.1 versus 0.5 ± 0.1 mm P=0.02) with 25% of subject of SRP/M gaining ≥2mm compared to 4.2% in SRP. The mean loss in bone height and percent subjects losing bone height were less in SRP/M (2.9 ± 0.6 mm) than SRP (3.7 ± 0.7mm) while cross sectional SRP/M data between CAL and BH or PD and CAL were highly correlated, changes over 1 year were not correlated among any of these parameters.
Conclusion: Scaling and root planing and subgingival minocycline in experimental sites resulted in more PD reduction and less frequent bone height loss than conventional periodontal treatment alone.
Keywords: Root planing, minocycline. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 57-62)

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Article
The effect of aspirin on the periodontal parameter bleeding on probing

Authors: Maha Abdul Aziz
Pages: 63-67
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ABSTRACT
Background: The absence or presence of bleeding on probing (BOP) is a sign of periodontal health or disease, but the presence of BOP is not an accurate predictor of disease progression. Aspirin is increasingly used in the prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and is a non-disease factor that may modify bleeding indices given its antithrombolytic activity. The objective of this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was to study the effect of short-term daily aspirin ingestion on the clinical parameter BOP.
Materials and methods: A total of 60 subjects were randomly assigned to oral administration to one of three arms: placebo (group 1), 100mg aspirin (group 2) , 300mg aspirin (group 3). Before (visit 1 – V1) and after 7 days (visit 2 – V2) exposure to the respective regimens, clinical parameters were measured on all teeth, included plaque index (PLI), probing depth (PD) and BOP.
Results: The primary measure of interest was BOP so, the results of this study indicate that the group treated with 300mg aspirin demonstrated a statistically significant increase from base line in percent of BOP compared to the placebo group and 100mg aspirin group.
Conclusion: Failure to consider the effects of aspirin on BOP could impair proper diagnosis and treatment planning for clinicians and introduce a significant confounding variable in research situations.
Key words: Aspirin, bleeding on probing, clinical trial. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 63-67)

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Article
Blood groups and hypertension

Authors: Nasreen A.R. Wafi
Pages: 68-70
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Background: Essential hypertension is very common worldwide & it has many harmful effects. The aim of our study was to find whether any relation between blood groups and essential hypertension exists.
Materials and methods: 439 hypertensive patients were chosen from the hypertensive clinic in Sulaimanyia , 288 females & 151 males. Their age ranging between 40- 76 years (mean 58). The blood group of these patients was determined. At the same time a control group of 439 non hypertensive persons were chosen in whom the blood groups were determined.
Results: A close relation between blood group O and hypertension where 51.2% of hypertensive patients were group O, while 23.5% were group A, 19.8% were group B and 5.2% were group AB. This close relation between hypertension and blood group O was found almost equally in both female & in male patients.
Conclusion: Group O people in Sulaimanyia are more prone to have essential hypertension than other blood groups.
Keywords: Essential hypertension, Blood groups. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 68-70)

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Article
Relations between dental plaque, gingivitis & dental caries among 21-50 years dental patients

Authors: Vian M. Al-Jaf
Pages: 71-74
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Background: The reason for this study was to find the relation between dental plaque, gingivitis and dental caries.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 52 patients attending department of periodontics, college of dentistry, Arbil, age (21-50) years grouped into 3 age groups. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), calculus index simplified (Cal-SI) and dental caries from the DMFS were used.
Results: Positive correlation between PI and GI (r = 0.48) & weak positive correlation between PI and Cal-SI (r = 0.33). But negative correlation was found between PI and DMFS (r = -0.059). No significant differences were found for each of plaque, calculus and gingival indices between different age groups (P > 0.05). The study showed higher mean number of DMFS in the age group (31-40) years with no significant differences between age groups and gender.
Conclusion: Gingivitis is plaque associated disease but dental caries is not.
Key words: Plaque, gingivitis, dental caries. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 71-74)

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Article
Drainage of submandibular abscess by using local anesthetic block technique of transverse cervical cutaneous nerve of the neck

Authors: Anwar A.Al-Hussain Al-Saeed
Pages: 75-82
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Background: The purpose of the current study was to create a painless drainage of submandibular abscess by using local anesthetic block technique of transverse cervical cutaneous nerve of the neck.
Patients and Methods: Ninety-seven patients attending College of Dentistry /University of Baghdad, and Private Clinic in the period between (January 2002-October 2004) were selected. The average age of the patients was ranged between 14-63 years from different socioeconomic status. Sixty-one were females, and thirty-six were males. All the patients were complaining of submandibular abscesses with severe pain huge swelling of different duration, and of several odontogenic etiologies. Clinical and radiographic examination was evaluated depending mainly on orthopantomography due to the presence of severe trismus. The patients were divided into two groups. The control groups (48 patients) who were treated by ordinary technique, by using topical ethyl chloride, incision, drainage, insertion of corrugated drain with suturing, covered by heavy dose of antibiotics according to the sensitivities of the patients. While the study group (49 patients) who were treated by using local anesthetic block technique of transverse cervical cutaneous nerve at the lateral side of the neck at the level of thyroid cartilage (Adams` apple). Measurement records of pain severity were registered during incision, drainage, and insertion of corrugated drain with suturing. Also other measurements were recorded for the state of consciousness of the patients during their treatments.
Results: The study reported that 46 (96%) cases of the control group had severe pain during incision of the skin and subcutaneous layer over submandibular abscess in comparison to 0 (0%) case of the study group which showed no pain. The control group showed 48 (100%) cases having severe pain during drainage of submandibular abscess in comparison to 31(63%) cases of the study group, which shows no pain. Also 47 (96%) cases of the study group shows no pain by using local anesthetic block technique of transverse cervical cutaneous nerve in comparison to 48 (100%) cases which have severe pain. The study reported that 17 (35.4%) cases of control group showed fainting during drainage of submandibular abscess in comparison to only 5(10.4%) cases of the study group. No signs and symptoms of hematoma, ecchymosis, or parasthesia was detected during the use of local anesthetic block technique of transverse cervical cutaneous nerve.
Conclusions: Incision through skin, and subcutaneous layer over submandibular region to drain a chronic abscess can be done safely without significant pain or spread infections as well as no significant pain during insertion of corrugated drain with suturing unlike the ordinary technique.
Key words: Submandibular abscess, Transverse Cervical Cutaneous Nerve. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006;18(2) 75-82)

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Article
Treatment of clinically evident skeletal mandibular asymmetry

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ABSTRACT
Background: Orthodontists are frequently called upon to treat conditions in which there is asymmetry, either
dentally, skeletally, or dentoskeletally, between the patients' right and left sides. Such asymmetries exist in all
degrees of severity. It is well known that correction of dental and functional asymmetries can be accomplished
with orthodontic treatment only whereas skeletal asymmetries are considered to present difficult orthodontic
treatment problems and require orthopedic treatment and/or surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to
assess the extent to which combined orthodontic and surgical treatment are applied to treat patients with
mandibular asymmetry.
Materials and methods: The sample of this study consisted of 33 patients with different skeletal clinically evident mandibular asymmetry conditions. Comprehensive examination protocol was established for each patient and the deformity of mandibular asymmetry had been classified according to Henderson (1985) and James (1990) into 6 different conditions. Then the treatment has been determined according to each individual case following the policy of each of the operators in the different hospitals from which the sample had been collected.
Results: The treatment of mandibular asymmetry conditions was found to be mostly achieved by surgical intervention with or without orthodontic treatment.
Conclusion: The importance of the teamwork for the treatment of the candidates for orthognathic surgery was found to be realized by the operators in the different hospitals from which the sample had been collected but it needs to be emphasized and reinforced to be a well-established policy for the treatment of such cases.
Keywords: Mandible, asymmetry, orthognathic surgery. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006;18(2)83-88)

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Article
Caries increment in preschool children: A longitudinal study

Authors: Iman T. Ibrahim
Pages: 89-91
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Background: This study was concerned with the caries increment in preschool children after one-year fellow up examination.
Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 144 preschool children; the sample was examined at November 1997 and was reexamined at November 1998. The examination included clinical examination of the whole dentition as the dmft was recorded, also the height and weight of children was recorded to find the correlation between caries increment and nutritional status of children.
Results: The increment after one year period (1997 – 1998) in mean value of dmft for different groups which were divided according to their dmft to (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, >5) the increment ranged between (0.5-1.75) the highest increment was in the “2” mean dmft value, (2-3.75), it was demonstrated that there was a correlation (r = 1,00, P< 0.001) between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and Increment in dental caries specially in the undernourished group .
Conclusion: It was found that there was an increment equal to “0.89±0.25” in the mean value of dmft (20.31) % and a strong correlation between nutritional status expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI) and increment in dental caries.
Key words: Caries, preschool children, nutritional status (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2)89 -91)

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Article
Prevalence, severity and pattern of dental fluorosis among a group of children in Dahmar–Yemen

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 92-96
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Background: Dental fluorosis is an irreversible condition caused by excessive fluoride ingestion during the tooth formation. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and pattern of dental fluorosis of the primary and permanent dentitions.
Materials and Methods: A random sample of one hundred eighty children aged 6-12 years were examined by using Dean’s Flourosis Index – modified criteria.
Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 77.8%. Permanent teeth fluorosis was higher than primary teeth fluorosis which was relatively uncommon. Dental fluorosis was most frequently seen on the posterior teeth (particularly the molars). 42.9% of the children had a moderate type of fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was more prevalent among males than females. Both early and late forming teeth were affected by fluorosis. Upper teeth were more affected than the lower teeth. There was a high degree of bilateral symmetry.
Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in both primary and permanent dentitions; it was a moderate public health problem. The high prevalence and severity of fluorosis emphasized the need to study the risk factors determining dental fluorosis in Dahmar Village rather than water fluoridation.
Keywords: Dental fluorosis, children, Yemen. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2)92-96)

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Article
Local anesthetic quality in pedodontic department, College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad

Authors: Abeer M.Zwain
Pages: 96-99
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Background: Discomfort and pain usually is associated with dental work especially for young patients. Pain control can be achieved by using local anesthesia. This study is designed to estimate the frequency of ineffective pain control during treatment provided for children in pedodontic department in college of dentistry, university of Baghdad.
Subjects and methods: 166 children, 82 males and 84 females 4.5-12 years old participated in this study. The level of child anxiety was measured before giving the injection, quadrant treated and type of treatment also recorded. The effectiveness of pain control had been rated by SEM (sound, eye, motor) scale during providing the dental treatment.
Results: The local anesthesia was ineffective in 26.5% of the studied sample, while the others 73.5% undergone treatment with no signs of pain. Anxious children showed more signs of pain experience during treatment than the non anxious. Treatment in the mandibular jaw was associated with anesthetic failure more than that of the maxillary jaw.
Conclusions: Ineffective pain control is relatively frequent in pedodontic department in College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad and there is a need for using more methods for reducing anxiety like nitrous oxide sedation (NO2) and computer controlled local anesthesia because of the close relation between anxiety and pain control.
Key words: Local anesthesia pain. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2)96-99)

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