Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2006 volume:18 issue:3

Article
Depth of cure of four different light-activated composites using different curing modes

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study investigated the influence of different new curing modes on the depth of cure of different light- activated composites to determine to the thickness of a composite layer that could be adequately cured clinically with these new curing modes.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the depth of cure after exposure to different curing modes. Parameters included six curing modes: Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II (PCII) plus three experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode (PLPC), Prolonged moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode (RHCC) for each of the four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: Statistical analysis of the data by using the one-way analysis of variance revealed that, there is statistically very highly significant difference for all the depth of cures between the curing modes and composite types.
Conclusion: This study indicated that, although, both curing mode and composite type significantly affect depth of cure but the effect of composite composition on the depth of cure is much more than that of curing mode.
Key words: Composite, light curing modes, depth of cure. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)1-5)

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Article
Effect of beveling with different grid size diamond fissure bur on resin bond strength

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Diamond burs are recommended for grinding enamel and they are available in different grid sizes, therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of beveling with 4 different grid size diamond fissure bur s on shear bond strength of light cured composite resin.
Materials and Methods: Forty extracted anterior teeth were sectioned at the level of cervical line. The crowns were embedded in cold cure acrylic resin exposing the labial surface. The specimens were divided into 4 groups according to the grid size of the diamond fissure bur which were used in flattening the labial surface (group I extra fine, group II fine , group III Medium , group IV coarse). Standardized cylinders of composite resin were bonded to the grinded surface, and testing was done with Zwick testing machine.
Results: There is a non significant difference between all the four groups.
Conclusion: The grid size of diamond burs didn't affect the resin bond strength to enamel.
Keywords: Diamond bur, bond strength, enamel beveling. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)6-8)

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Article
Shape and location of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among patients attending dental clinic

Authors: Ghayda`a H. AL-Izzi
Pages: 9-11
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the shape and location of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) among a group of edentulous patients.
Materials and methods: Out of 720 edentulous patients fifty three subjects were found to have tori at College of Dentistry / Baghdad University. Clinical examination was applied to assess the presence of tori, also a final cast for each patient was made for reassurance of the presence of these tori.
Results: Tori were found to be more in females compared to males, with no statistically significant differences. Also no significant difference in the percentage of occurrence of tori was recorded between different age groups. The non lobulated Tori appeared more than lobulated. Torus palatinus occurred more than Torus mandibularis.
Conclusion: There are differences in percentage of occurrence of tori with age and gender and in shape and location.
Keywords: Torus palatinus, torus mandibularis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)9-11)

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Article
Effectiveness of four different light-activated composites cure with different light energy densities

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study investigated the influence of light energy density (intensity x time) on the effectiveness of composite cure in view of the curing profiles of light-polymerization units with different light- activated composites to determine the energy density that satisfies adequate polymerization of all light-activated composites types used in this study.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the hardness of the top/bottom surfaces and hardness ratio of two mm thick composite specimens after exposure to different light energy densities. Parameters included five light intensities (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mW/cm2) and seven irradiation times (20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 seconds) for each of the four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: Statistical analysis of the data by using the one-way analysis of variance revealed that, most of the hardness ratios exhibited a very highly significant difference according to intensity, composite type and curing time. The results indicated that, Heliomolar and Degufill Mineral light-activated composites required approximately (36 J/cm²) energy density for adequate polymerization for a two-mm thick specimen while, Herculite XRV and Tertric Ceram light-activated composites required approximately (12 J/cm²) energy density for adequate polymerization for a 2-mm thick specimen.
Conclusion: This study indicated that, final curing should not be done with energy density less than (300 mW/cm2 for 120 seconds, 400 mW/cm2 for 90 seconds and 600 mW/cm2 for 60 seconds) for Heliomolar and Degufill Mineral light-activated composites.
Key words: Resin composite, light curing, microhardness, photo-activation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)12-16)

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Article
Assessment of diametral tensile strength and microhardness of Glass ionomer reinforced by different amounts of Hydroxyapatite

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Abstract

Back ground: Glass ionomer materials lack resistance to wear and pressure and are susceptible to moisture during the initial stages of setting and dehydration. So this study was done to assess diametral tensile strength and microhardness of glass ionomer reinforced by different amounts of hydroxyapatite. Materials and methods: In this study a hydroxyapatite material was added to glass monomer cement at different ratios: 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% (by weight). The diametral tensile strength test described by the British standard specification for zinc polycarboxylate cement was used in this study and the microhardness test was performed using Vickers microhardness testing machine and the microhardness values were calculated and statistical comparison was performed on the tested groups. Results: The group of glass ionomer cement that contains 20% hydroxyapatite has higher diametral tensile strength and microhardness values than other groups of this study. Also the results showed that the group of glass ionomer cement without hydroxyapatite has the lowest values of diametral tensile strength and microhardness than other groups. The groups of glass ionomer cement with 10%, 15%, 25% and 30% hydroxyapatites also showed increasing in diametral tensile strength and microhardness values in comparison with group of glass ionomer cement without hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The addition of hydroxyapatite to conventional glass ionomer cement will increase its diametral tensile strength and microhardness.


Article
Shear bond strength measurement of different root canal sealers to gutta percha

Authors: Ali Mamdooh A.K
Pages: 21-25
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Abstract

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Background: Bond strength of root canal sealers to gutta-percha is an important property for the integrity of sealing of root canals. The purpose of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of contemporary commercially available endodontic sealers to gutta-percha.
Materials and Methods: Forty disks of gutta-percha with a diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 4 mm were made by softening gutta-percha cones and then fixed with plaster in 1-inch phenolic rings. Five-millimetre long sections of polyethylene tubing, filled with freshly mixed sealer, were placed on the gutta-percha and tested for shearing bond strength after setting. A custom made holder was attached to the rings and placed in a testing machine, which was activated at a cross-arm speed of 0.5 mm per minute.
Results: The bond strength of different sealers to gutta-percha ranged from 0.92 MPa to 8.17 MPa.
Conclusion: The Epoxy resin sealer exhibited the highest bonding with gutta-percha under the shearing force.
Keywords: Adhesion, Sealer, Gutta-percha, and Shear. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)21-25)

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Article
Fluoride ions release study of different GIF materials

Authors: Raid F. Salman
Pages: 26-29
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare & measure the release of fluoride ions from set tested materials, CGI (Pro-med), MGI (Ketac molar), and LCGI (Vitremer).
Materials & Methods: The tested materials were made as molds with certain dimensions and each mold was placed in vial containing 100 ml. of DDW. Every 24 hrs, 5 ml. of the solution was transferred into smaller tubes to measure the fluoride release using spectrophotometer. This procedure was repeated every 24 hrs. for 14 days.
Results: The results revealed that the CGI (conventional glass ionomer) had higher release over other materials, then the MGI (modified glass ionomer) material, and finally the LCGI (light cure glass ionomer) with significant differences between them at P< 0.05.
Conclusions: The MGI material had higher fluoride ions release concentrations over the LCGI. However, the CGI had higher fluoride ions release concentrations over other materials.
Keywords: Glass ionomer, fluoride release, filling materials. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)26-29)

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Article
Causes of tooth extraction in AL Mushahda village

Authors: Ban F. AL- Droubie
Pages: 30-33
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: In spite of the current emphasis on preventive dental health, many people are still affected by dental caries. In fact, dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease and it remains a sever problem in some cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of tooth need extraction among adult population in AL Mushahda village in Baghdad City, which was not included in the previous Iraqi studies.
Materials and methods: A random sample of 210 subjects was examined 160 adult subjects having 370 teeth needing extraction.
Results: The result showed that caries was found to be the principle reason for loss of all tooth types for all age group. The first molar was the most common teeth needing extraction and the main cause for its extraction was caries, as it is the first tooth to erupt and probably neglected during the mixed dentition.
Conclusion: The highest percentage of tooth needing extraction indicated low awareness of oral disease by the population and little or no involvement of communities in promoting oral health
Key words: Tooth loss, tooth extraction (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)30-33)

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Article
The use of anterior mid stop point splint in comparison with full coverage splint therapy in the management of temporomandibular joint dysfunctions

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Background: The effectiveness of occlusal splint in decreasing the symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunctions has been demonstrated in many studies. There are many designs of acrylic splint fabricated as a therapeutic device in the management of various TMJ problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of anterior mid stop point splint (AMSP) in comparison with the full coverage (conventional flat splint) in the management of temporomandibular joint dysfunctions.
Subject and methods: Thirty patients were chosen for this study. They were of both genders with age ranged between (21-60) years. They were divided into two groups. The first group (15 patients) was treated with anterior mid stop point splint, while the second group (15 patients) was treated with full coverage flat surface splint. Clinical and electromoygraphic evaluation were performed for each patient before and after treatment.
Results: It has shown that 93.3% improvement of the symptoms of pain in the first treatment group (AMSP splint), and 53.3% improvement in the second treatment group (full coverage splint) during the course of treatment (45 days).
The opening capacity was increased in an average of 9.9mm and 7.3mm for the same groups respectively in the same period. Electromyographic investigation showed 40.54% resting potential of temporalis in patients treated with anterior mid stop point, While 18.21% resting potential of temporalis muscle in patient treated with full coverage splint in 45 days of therapy. In other word, the ability to re-establish a smooth coordinated musculo-skeletal relation, balanced occlusion, and effective function through treatment was evaluated in this project.
Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that anterior mid stop point splint is more useful in comparison with smooth surface full coverage splint in the management of temporomandibular dysfunctions.
Keywords: Anterior mid stop point splint, full coverage splint, TMJ dysfunctions. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)34-38)

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Article
The incidence of oral lesions induced by chronic irritations among patients attending Oral Diagnosis Clinic

Authors: Riyadh O. Alkaisi --- Jamal N. Ahmed
Pages: 39-42
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Background: Chronic irritations can produce a variety of clinical lesions in the oral cavity, such as; reactive hyperplasia, red and white lesions, traumatic ulcers and swellings The purpose of this study was to find out the incidence and the main causes of these lesions in Iraqi patients during the last two years.
Materials and methods: A total of 340 patients attending the diagnosis clinic within 2 years (2003 and 2004) were examined clinically and diagnosed thorough a search for the etiological factors of the lesions mentioned in this study.
Results: Out of 340 patients complaining of various oral lesions, only 146 patients were diagnosed as having oral lesions due to chronic irritation. Highest frequency was reactive hyperplasia (35.6%), followed by traumatic ulcers (24.7%). red lesions (19.9 %), white lesions (15 %) and swellings (4.8 %) respectively. Mechanical irritation represents the major causative factor in creating the traumatic lesions.
Conclusions: The incidence of oral lesions due to chronic irritation was increased (mainly traumatic ulcers) due to health negligence of mouth hygiene, besides the increasing incidence of smoking and other bad habits.
Key words: Oral lesions, chronic irritations. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)39-42)

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Article
The relation of candida growth in the development of “leukoplakia”

Authors: Anwar A. Al-Hussain Al-Saeed
Pages: 43-47
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Background: Many predisposing factors affect the onset of leukoplakia. This study evaluates the relation of the candidal infections for the development of leukoplakia in relation to gender, age, and smoking habit.
Patients and Methods: Fifty three patients of average age from (40-70) years of old, were complaining from leukoplakia in their oral mucosa, in the period of (January 1999-Nov 2000), and the same number of healthy individuals were used as control group. Swabs were taken immediately from the leukoplakia lesion and from the same site of the normal mucosa of the healthy individuals, and send for microbiological study.
Results: The majority cases of leukoplakia 37 (70%) have (+Ve) growth of candida growth of pathogenic type in compare to 8 (15%) of normal individuals from the same region of the oral mucosa which have (+Ve) growth of candida but of non-pathogenic type, and the most common were Candida albicans 28 (75%) from the whole sample. The candida growth were significantly higher in the leukoplakia lesion in those of heavily smokers 35(66%), particularly in the retromolar area, as well as hard palate, tongue, mandibular lip, and cheek. The study also reported that the smoking habit act as a main factor for alteration of oral epithelium for proliferation by enhancement of candida growth to produce their mycelium and toxins that lead to development of leukoplakia.
Conclusions: The study shows that the majority cases of leukoplakia are caused by candidal growth of pathogenic type, mainly Candida albicans which are more obviously detected in the smokers, old age, but there is no relation to their gender.
Key words :Leukoplakia, candida, smoking. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)43-47)

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Article
The effect of frequency of tooth brushing on the gingival status among 10-13 years old school children in Dohuk

Authors: Vian M. Hussain --- Barzan A. Mirza
Pages: 48-50
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Background: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of gingivitis and the effect of tooth brushing on the gingival health among school children in the city of Dohuk.
Materials and Methods: Four hundred school children, 190 males and 210 females were examined. Plaque and gingival indices, and the frequency of tooth brushing for each child were recorded.
Results and Conclusions: The results of this study showed that 98.7 % of the school children examined had gingivitis, with different severities. 45 % of them did not brush at all and 55 % of them brushed their teeth with different frequencies. Those school children who brushed more had less mean of plaque and gingival scores.
Key words: Plaque, gingivitis, tooth brushing. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)48-50)

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Article
Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in mandibular molar teeth of adult smokers

Authors: Maha Abdul Aziz
Pages: 51-56
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Background: Smoking has been associated with periodontal disease severity and is considered a risk factor for its development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of periodontal destruction in mandibular molar teeth of adult smokers and non-smokers.
Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 subjects (50 smokers & 50 non-smokers) age range (30-60) years of both sexes. Plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus index (CLI), gingival recession (GR), tooth mobility (MO), furcation involvement (FI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and teeth loss were assessed at mandibular molar teeth excluding the third molar.
Results: Revealed that the prevalence and severity of GR, PPD, FI and MO were significantly increased in smokers compared to non-smokers.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that smoking appears to be a major environmental factor associated with accelerated periodontal destruction in adult smokers.
Key words: Smoking, periodontitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)51-56)

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Article
The effect of atenolol (B- blocker) on salivary composition in patients with essential hypertension

Authors: Tahrir N.N. Aldelaimi
Pages: 57-59
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Background: saliva play an important role in maintaining oral health, it is important to dentist as well as physician. The aim of the study was to examine the salivary flow rate and composition in patients with essential hypertension before and after treatment with Atenolol
Materials and methods:.48 patients with hypertension were examined in Ramadi General Hospital, from October 2001 till October 2003
Results: The hypertensive patients were characterized by lower salivary flow rate and significantly elevated levels of proteins, potassium and phosphate.
Conclusions: This might relate to chronic adrenergic over stimulation of the salivary glands in hypertensive patients. Salivary sodium, calcium and magnesium concentrations were similar in both groups. Atenolol increased the salivary flow rate and lower the phosphate but had no effect on protein and on potassium concentrations.
Key word: Salivary composition, salivary gland, hypertension. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)57-59)

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Article
Oral health status among a group of dental students in Yemen

Authors: Hala A. Al-Juboury
Pages: 60-62
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Background: Both caries experience and gingival health are precise indicators for oral health status. The purpose of the present study was to determine dental and periodontal conditions among third year dental students in Dahmar University-Yemen.
Methods: Dental and gingival conditions of third year dental students were recorded, they were (57) with age range from (20-21) years, (46) boys and (11) girls. The statistical significance was calculated using T-significance comparison test.
Results: The results showed a high caries prevalence (96.7) which is higher among females than males with non significant difference, while for periodontal condition; gingivitis scores were found to be equal for both genderes which is low grade or very mild gingivitis, both plaque and calculus values were less among females than males also these results were non- significant.
Conclusion: Oral health status was impaired among dental students of third class which may be attributed to the low level of dental education at this period.
Keywords: Caries, gingivitis, dental students. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)60-62)

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Article
Autogenous maxillary canine transplantation: A therapeutic alternative to Dental Implant

Authors: Lukman F. Omar
Pages: 63-66
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Background: Since there is no previous study in Kurdistan region of Iraq concerning the autotransplantation,therefore,the study is designed to evaluate(14)case of impacted maxillary canines autotransplantated in young patients.
Materials and Method: Fourteen healthy young patients with partially erupted or impacted maxillary canines were taken. The tooth was extracted and placed in the recipient prepared socket and stabilized with wire splint. The patients followed up clinically and radiographically for two years.
Results: At the end of this period, (12) cases showed that the clinical tooth mobility was similar to that of the adjacent teeth, radiographically showed normal lamina dura and periodontal ligament space, and two cases showed inflammatory resorption with widening of the periodontal space and tooth mobility.
Conclusion: Autotransplantation is a useful alternative treatment which should be considered as a viable option for treatment of impacted and partially erupted canines.
Key words: Autogenous, Canine, transplantation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)63-66)

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Article
Effect of oral hygiene education on adults with and without subsequent orthodontic treatment

Authors: Iman Al-Sheakli --- Abeer S. Al- Rawi
Pages: 67-69
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Background: Poor oral hygiene in orthodondic patients is responsible for the final poor gingival results. The present study was designed to determine the relative effect of individual oral hygiene education on patient with fixed orthodontic appliances (test group) by measuring, Plaque index (PLI), Gingival index (GI) and Bleeding on probing (BOP), then to compare these parameters of the test group with patients without an orthodontic treatment (control group).
Materials and methods: A sample of 23 patients attending the Department of Orthdonic, College of Dentistry / Baghdad University, with an age range between 18-25 years old scheduled for fixed orthodontic treatment and another 23 control persons with the same age were selected for this study. Plaque and gingival indices and bleeding on probing were taken for four surfaces of all teeth of both test and control groups. These were measured for a period of twelve weeks.
Results: The mean of PLI for the control group was 0.4 at day zero for males and 0.3 for females while at the end of study was (0.4 and 0.5) respectively. In the males of test group it was 0.2 and 0.3 for females at 0 day and was 0.6 and 0.4 respectively at end of the study. The mean of GI for males and females of the control group at base line was 0.5 and 0.4 respectively and at the end of the study was 0.3 for both. While for the test group it was at 0 day 0.4 for male and 0.2 for female and at the end of the study was 0.6 and 0.5 respectively. The highest percentage of bleeding on probing was 34% for female test group at the second weeks of the study.
Conclusion: The influence of the orthodontic treatment as such did not seem to be of importance regards individual oral hygiene habits.
Keywords: Fixed orthodontic appliances, oral hygiene education, gingivitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)67-69)

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Article
Nine–year cohort study to predict caries in permanent teeth from caries in primary teeth in the same individuals

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 70-72
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Background: Prevalence and severity of dental caries vary in different populations and fluctuate with time. Past caries experience is probably the most common used factor in the assessment of caries risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether caries status of the primary dentition can be used to predict caries in the permanent dentition.
Materials and methods: A sample of 128 kindergarten children of 4-5 years old were examined for primary teeth caries experience in the baseline study based on WHO criteria, then re-examined after 8 years to assess the caries experience in permanent teeth.
Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between the caries experience in primary and permanent teeth by using different indicators. The sensitivity was found to be higher than specificity, while positive and negative predictive values were 81% and 66% respectively.
Conclusion: The primary teeth caries experience play an important role in predicting permanent teeth caries. More attention was suggested to be paid to the children with more primary teeth decayed.
Keywords: Predict dental caries, primary permanent dentition. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)70-72)

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Article
Salivary Candida albicans in relation to oral health status among 4-5 years old children in Baghdad city

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Background: Candida albicans is a common inhabitant of human oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between Candida albicans counts in the stimulated saliva and caries experience, PlI, GI, salivary flow rate and pH.
Materials and methods: A sample of 100 children 4-5 years old was examined for dmfs according to WHO criteria. Salivary samples were collected. PlI, GI, salivary flow rate and pH were estimated. Candida count was enumerated 48 hours after aerobic incubation at 37oC.
Results: Salivary Candida albicans was isolated from about 25% of children. Mean Candida albican was higher among females than that among males. Levels of Candida albicans were found to be enhancing with increasing dental caries and with reducing salivary flow rate and pH. The mean count of candida albicans was higher in mild stage of PlI and GI in both sexes.
Conclusion: Candida albicans is prevalent in a low percentage among children.
Keywords: Candida albicans, saliva, oral health, children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)73-77)

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Article
Orthodontic treatment need of Kurdish teenagers

Authors: Tara Ali Rasheed --- Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Pages: 78-84
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Background: This oral health survey aimed to determine the orthodontic treatment need in Sulaimania governorate in relation to gender and residency.
Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 998 Kurdish intermediate school students aged 13 years collected from Sulaimania city and five surrounding small villages. A clinical examination was used to determine the orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI).
Results: The registered DAI scores ranged between 13 and 65 with a mean of 25.43, according to these scores, 58.6% of the sample were found to have no or slight treatment need, 18.5% with treatment elective, 12.5% with treatment highly desirable, and 10.3% with very severe (handicapping) malocclusion and treatment mandatory. Highly desirable or mandatory treatment need (DAI≥31) was found similarly in males (23.2%) and females (22.6%), but noticeably more in rurals (25.1%) than in urban (20.6%).
Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion in Kurds is similar to that of Arabs.
Keywords: Angle classification, molar relation, overjet, overbite, Kurdish (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)78-84).

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