Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2007 volume:19 issue:1

Article
The effect of denture cleansers on surface roughness and microhardness of stained light cured denture base material

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Denture cleansing is the most widely used method by the patients to maintain clean and health denture but the prolonged use of such cleansers may affect the properties of the denture. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of denture cleansers on surface hardness and surface roughness of the light cured acrylic resin after their immersion in tea solution.
Materials and methods: Light curing acrylic resin was prepared and immersed in four types of denture cleansers after staining with tea then surface hardness and surface roughness of the acrylic resin was measured.
Results: There is no change in the stained acrylic properties when the samples were immersed in the denture cleansers compared to that immersed in the distilled water.
Conclusions: The prepared denture cleanser solutions are satisfactory for the acrylic resin denture base. It is recommended to use the denture cleanser for cleansing the prostheses which were cured by light curing method.
Key words: Denture cleanser, surface hardness and roughness, light cured resin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)1-5)

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Article
Effect of soldering on shear bond strength of porcelain fused to metal. (In vitro study)

Authors: Adel F. Ibrahim --- Ahmed G. Mehdi
Pages: 6-10
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Background: The insertion of metal frameworks is critical during the fabrication of metal-ceramic restorations to ensure adequate fit to the abutments. When fitness is inadequate, sectioning of the metal framework is required, which is then soldered in the dental laboratory.
Materials and Methods: Forty cylindrical metal (Ni-Cr alloy) specimens were prepared; it has 8 mm diameter and 3 mm height. Half of these specimens were made in such a way so that it has perforation in the center of 1mm in diameter; the later group is then soldered. All the samples were oxidized, and then sandblasted with aluminum oxide. The ceramic material (vita VMK 95) was applied, the final thickness of ceramic was ١٫٥ mm, and then the samples was finished and glazed.
Half of the soldered and half of non soldered samples were stored in distilled water for one week, and then shear bond strength was evaluated for all samples. After the testing, all samples were inspected visually and microscopically to detect the nature of failure.
Results and Conclusion: The result revealed that the intact specimens (non soldered) has higher shear bond strength values than the soldered specimens, and there is no influence of the water storage on shear bond strength for both groups. The visual and microscopical observations show that the non soldered groups have higher percentage of cohesive failure than soldered groups which has higher percentage of adhesive failure.
Key words: Soldering, Porcelain fused to metal, shear bond test. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 19(1)6-10)

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Article
Effectiveness of four different light-activated composites cure with different curing modes

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Light-activated resin composites, introduced in the 1970s, revolutionized clinical dentistry by maximizing working time and minimizing setting time. This study investigated the influence of different new curing modes on the effectiveness of cure of different light- activated composites to examine their efficacy in satisfying composite adequate polymerization.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the hardness of the top/bottom surfaces and hardness ratio of two mm thick composite specimens after exposure to different curing modes. Parameters included six curing modes: Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II (PCII) plus three experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode (PLPC), Prolonged moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode (RHCC) for each of the four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: There was very high significant difference for all the hardness ratios with the curing modes except the hardness ratio of Heliomolar composite where, there was an insignificant difference because, the mean hardness ratio of Heliomolar composite with the first six curing modes (control, PDI, PDII, SS, PCI, PCII) was not calculated because of the poor polymerization of Heliomolar bottom surfaces with these six curing modes.
Conclusion: This study indicated that, clinical usage of Control, PDI, PDII, SS, PCI and PCII curing-modes is not advocated to cure Heliomolar and Degufill Mineral composites while the experimental curing modes (PLPL, PMPC and RHCC) satisfied effectiveness of composite cure for all the composites being tested.
Key words: Resin composite, light curing modes, microhardness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)11-15)

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Article
Evaluation of the shear bond strength of alloybond amalgam adhesive with and without using of different retentive means

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Background: Many problems result with the use of pins and with development of the dentin adhesives reason for minimizing of dentin pin usage have emerged. The aim of the study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of alloybond amalgam adhesive with and without using of different retentive means.
Materials and Methods: Fifty sound 1st premolar teeth of similar size and shape were used in this study. The occlusal surfaces were ground to have flat superficial dentin. The specimens divided into five groups which received different retention methods (two pins, alloybond-SDI Australia, two grooves (1mm depth and 1mm in diameter).The specimens were stored at 37°C for 24 hrs after thermocycling before testing by using Instron testing machine, with cross head speed 0.5 mm/min until the amalgam fracture from the tooth. The mode of failure which is adhesive, cohesive or mixed was examined.
Results: There was a high significant differences (p<0.01) among all the groups. Highest shear bond strength values were seen in group of 2 pins and alloybond and the lowest bond strength were related with the use of 2 grooves while the other groups were between them.
Conclusion: The use of pins with the alloybond produced superior shear bond strength and there was no significant difference between the use of pins, and the use of 2 grooves with alloybond.
Keywords: Shear bond strength, amalgam, bonding agent. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)16-19)

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Article
Comparison between skeletal, and facial measurements of vertical dimension in edentulous patients

Authors: Mohammed M. Ali
Pages: 20-23
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Background: The use of dots on the nose, and chin as markers for measuring occlusal vertical dimension is common in complete denture construction. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of facial measurements while assessing occlusal vertical dimension in edentulous patients.
Materials and methods: The study was carried out on 28 edentulous patients. Occlusion rims were constructed, a central bearing-screw attached to the lower occlusion rim, and a central-bearing plate was attached to the upper occlusion rim. Then the occlusal vertical dimension was increased at predetermined amount (3, and 5 mm) by counting the number of flutes of the central bearing screw, and the corresponding facial measurements recorded by using a caliper device to the nearest 0.1 mm.
Results: It was found that 3 mm increase in skeletal height corresponded to mean facial increase of 1.81 mm and ranged between 1-3.5 mm, while 5 mm increase in skeletal height, correspond to mean facial increase of 3.56 mm and ranged between 2.1-5.3 mm.
Conclusions: Alteration of vertical skeletal relationships is corresponding with less alteration in facial movement between reference marks above, and below the mouth. This suggests that depending on facial marks when assessing occlusal vertical dimension is not very accurate.
Key words: Vertical maxillomandibular relations. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)20-23)

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Article
The effect of recasting on the castability of the prepared Co-Cr dental base-metal casting alloys.

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Background: The use of Co-Cr alloys in dentistry has gained wide popularity in recent years and the RPD is the primary application of this alloy. From economic point of view, the casted alloy may be mixed with new alloy in different proportion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of recasting process on the castability value of prepared Co-Cr dental base-metal casting alloy and compare it with other commercially available alloy.
Materials and methods: The prepared Ni-Cr alloy was locally prepared in Iraq by Al-Khafagy (2003), while the Wirocast Ni-Cr was used as conventional alloy. A wax mesh of 1mm opening and (10*10) segments square was invested in phosphate-bonded investment and casted by using induction casting machine. The number of complete cast segments was counted, divided by 220 and multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage designated the castability value (Cv).
Results: The prepared Co-Cr alloy showed higher castability values than the Wirocast alloy regarding all the tested groups. However, there were non significant differences between the two groups. ANOVA test revealed a non-significant differences within the groups regarding the conventional alloy and significant regarding the experimental alloy
Conclusion: Recasting has no effect on the castability value regarding the conventional alloy while the prepared Co-Cr alloy may be recasted only with proportion of 50% used alloy and 50% new alloy without possible changes in the castability values.
Key word: Castbility, casting behavior, Co-Cr alloy, recasting. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)24-27)

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Article
A comparison of apical seal of gutta percha obtained by different compaction techniques. (in vitro study)

Authors: Nagham M. Al-Shammary --- Ali K. Al-Ugaily
Pages: 28-34
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Background: To compare the apical seal provided by gutta-percha compacted by three different compaction techniques; these were cold lateral compaction technique, ultrasonic compaction technique, and combination compaction technique.
Materials and methods: Thirty human single canal roots of recently extracted teeth were selected. The teeth were cleaned and their crowns were sectioned at a point approximately 3 mm from the CEJ. The roots were embedded in custom made acrylic socket to facilitate grasping during the obturation procedure. The samples were divided into three groups of ten samples according to the obturation technique used and each sample was radiographed buccolingully and mesiodistally. After storage period of 7 days was ended to allow the sealer to set; the roots were immersed in 2% Methylene blue dye for 48 hours. Then the roots were split longitudinally and the linear measurements of apical dye penetration were made with stereomicroscope.
Results: No Significant differences were found between the different compaction techniques used in the study regarding the linear dye leakage measurements although cold lateral compaction technique showed the highest mean value of dye penetration followed by ultrasonic compaction technique, while the combination compaction technique showed the lowest mean of dye penetration. Therefore, all the techniques have nearly the same apical sealing ability and no technique provide perfect apical seal.
Conclusion: The results of dye leakage measurements showed that all the techniques used in the study have nearly the same apical sealing ability and no technique provide perfect apical seal.
Keywords: Apical leakage, compaction, gutta-percha, ultrasonics. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1) 28-34)

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Article
The influence of different root canal medicaments on the tensile bond strength of composite resin to coronal dentin.

Authors: Inas I. Al-Rawi --- Mohammad A. Al- Ubaidi
Pages: 35-37
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ABSTRACT
Background: Intra canal medicaments are routinely used during endodontic procedure and may influence the bond strength of resin materials to the dentin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the adherence of composite resin to dentin conditioned with different intracanal medicaments by using the 7th generation bonding agent.
Materials and Methods: Superficial dentin of 60 human premolars was used as substrate. The following irrigants solutions were applied to dentin surface for 60 seconds- Distilled water, 2% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA with 2% NaOCl. The FC and CMCP were maintained in contact with the dentin for 3 days. Gluma-BOND was applied to the conditioned dentin and the test specimens were built with composite resin (Cavex). After storage in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours the specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycle, then tested to failure for tensile bond strength (MPa) in an Instron machine and examined the mode of failure under the stereomicroscope
Results: The TBS did not differ significantly among those conditioned with DDW, FC and CMCP. The mean scores were significantly higher after conditioning with CHX group and 17% EDTA with 2% NaOCl group, while the mean scores were significantly lower after conditioning with 2% NaOCl group.
Conclusion: The intracanal medicaments differently influence the adhesion of composite resin to coronal dentin bonded with Gluma-BOND and on the mode of failure.
Keywords: Intracanal medicament, tensile bond, 7th generation bonding agent. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1) 35-37)

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Article
Post-gel polymerization shrinkage strain of four different light-activated composites polymerized with different curing modes

Authors: Haitham J. Al-Azzawi --- Ali A. Al- Shekhli
Pages: 38-41
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Background: This study investigated the influence of different new curing modes on the post-gel polymerization shrinkage strain of different light- activated composites.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the Post-Gel Polymerization Shrinkage Strain of two mm thick composite specimens after exposure to different curing modes. Parameters included six curing modes: Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II (PCII) plus three experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode (PLPC), Prolonged moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode (RHCC) for each of the four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: Statistical analysis of the data by using the one-way analysis of variance revealed that, there is statistically very highly significant difference for all the polymerization shrinkage strains with the composite type, curing mode and post-curing-time.
Conclusion: Light intensity reduction and elongation of the curing time combined with pulse activation and soft start polymerization (PLPC curing mode) resulted in significantly lower and gradual post-gel polymerization shrinkage strain for all the light-activated composites being tested
Key words: Post-gel polymerization, curing modes, polymerization shrinkage. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1) 38-41)

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Article
Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in a sample of Baghdad population

Authors: Thikra I. Hamad --- Intisar J. Ismail
Pages: 42-46
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Background: Although some oral lesions, such as torus palatinus and torus mandibularis are normal variants, but require prompt diagnosis and sometime treatment to reduce the potential for serious complication and enhance prosthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study is to inspect the prevalence of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM), with their relations to TMJ dysfunction syndrome.
Material and method: The sample consisted of 932 persons, 301 males and 631 females were examined for the presence of TP and / or TM. Analysis was carried out according to age, gender, TMJ dysfunction and chronic diseases to the presence of TP and TM.
Results: indicated that 49 (5.3%) had TP; where as 67 (7.2) had TM. The male: female prevalence ratios of TP and TM were 1: 3.42 and 1: 1.81 respectively.
Conclusion: TP and TM were more frequent in females and there is significant relation between the TP and TM with presence of TMJ dysfunction syndrome (P< 0.05) especially TM, the presence of TM might be useful to look for sign of dysfunction.
Key words: Torus palatinus (TP), torus mandibularis (TM). (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1) 42-46)

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Article
Regular tertiary dentin formation in response to low stimulus

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Background: The nature and severity of stimuli that reach the dental pulp vary and the response to protect the challenged pulp will vary accordingly. The aim of the study was to evaluate pulp response to low stimuli, histologically.
Materials and methods: Maxillary molars teeth of albino rats were subjected to 0.05% of citric acid for 12 hoursday for 3 days duration, histological evaluation was done in 7, 14, 30 days interval period.
Results: After 7 days, proliferation of new blood vessels in the pulp with congested blood vessels were identified in sub-odontoblastic layer. After 14 days, new dentin deposition with hypocalcified areas was identified. After 30 days, regular tertiary dentin formation was seen with demarcated line separating it from adjacent secondary dentin.
Conclusion: Low stimuli resulted in regular tertiary dentin formation.
Keywords: Dentin, enamel erosion, pulp response. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1) 47-49)

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Article
Comparative study of the effects of the denture liners on the mucosa of denture bearing area and on the denture hygiene

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Background: In this study an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of using denture liners on the oral mucous membrane of the denture bearing area.
Materials and methods: A sample of 36 patients coming to the clinic of the college of Health and Medical Technology were included in the research, and three types of denture liners were used (Hard process or heat cured, cold cured acrylic and soft liner).
Results: Soft liner exhibited viscoelastic behavior that lead to improvement in masticatory function, patients comfort compared with heat and cold cured liners. Soft liners had the least effects on the mucosa of denture bearing area, while heat cured liners showed little changes on the mucosa and high influences on the soft tissues properties by cold cured liners. Conclusion: Denture hygiene was found poor in cold cured liners, fair in both hard processed and soft liners.
Key words: Denture liners, denture hygiene, masticatory function. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)50-54)

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Article
Value of digital radiography in evaluating proximal caries in comparison with conventional radiography (Comparative study)

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Background: This study is to compare between the diagnostic accuracy of Ekta speed plus film and digital radiography (including computer and print paper images) for proximal caries detection.
Materials and methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth were mounted and imaged with conventional bite wing films and with direct digital radiography.
The radiographs were viewed on view box while digital images viewed on a monitor screen and printed on a paper. Using three scores (score one for best evaluating images, score two for the less evaluating images and score three for in between degree of evaluation to compare between all images).
Results: Using t-test and F-test for statistical analysis showed high significant differences between diagnostic evaluation of Ekta speed plus films and digital radiography images on computer and printed images for detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth.
Conclusion: Higher mean scores where given to film image than the computer image and lowest mean scores to print image
Key words: Digital Radiography, computer screen, print image. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)55-57)

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Article
Histopathological evaluation of skin wound in rabbits treated by systemic dexamethasone.

Authors: Muhannad A. Kashmoola
Pages: 58-61
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Background: Healing of all damaged tissues including skin wounds has an identical pattern and depends on numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors; one of these factors is cortisone hormone. The present study was designed to show the effect of dexamethasone on skin wound healing.
Materials and methods: Twelve rabbits were used, experimental group (7 rabbits) were given 4 mg dexamethasone ten days prior to skin incision and control group (5 rabbits) had skin incision without medicament application. Biopsies were taken from two groups for histopathological evaluation.
Results: There was a delay healing in the experimental group in comparison to control group.
Conclusion: Prolonged use of dexamethasone or misuse of this drug impaired wound healing.
Key words: Dexamethasone, skin wound. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)58-61)

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Article
Salivary flow rate and pH in relation to tongue surface variations

Authors: Ameena Ryhan
Pages: 62-64
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Background: Different tongue surface variations were seen among individuals. This study was aimed to see any relation between salivary flow rates, pH with these variations.
Material and method: A total of 43 females were examined for their variations on tongue surfaces. A flow rate and pH were measured for whole salivary gland sample for each student.
Results: Twenty four of cases (55.8%) showed normal tongue texture, 16 of them (37.2%) were with fissured tongue, while only 2 students with hairy tongue and one with geographic tongue.
Conclusion: A non significant difference was found between normal and fissured tongue regarding the flow rate and pH. While a significant differences was found between normal and fissured tongue regarding the mean age, that fissured tongue increased with age.
Key words: Flow rat, pH, fissure tongue. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)62-64)

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Article
Linear image distortion of different patients' head position using Dimax direct digital panoramic x-ray system.

Authors: Lamia H. AL-Nakib
Pages: 65-68
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Background: The aim of this study is to show the effect of improper patient head positioning on the distortion amount.
Material and method: Distortion amount is measured using a special ball phantom which contain 23 balls to check the patient positioning mechanisms using Planmeca 2002 CC Praline Digital X-ray unit by adjustment the position to 00 both x- and y- directions, then linear movement was done by displacement of the ball phantom +5mn anteriorly and-5mm posteriorly. Exposure to X-rays was done for each position. The three images were seen on computer screen, balls and space in between dimensions were measured using Dimax software.
Results: The results revealed that at zero position, balls appear round, all with same size, every spaced with constant magnification factors. When the ball phantom displaced, different distortion amount in the balls will take place especially in the anterior region.
Conclusion: Exact head positioning must be taken in consideration to ensure that wanted area is included within the zone of sharpness.
Key words: Radiography distortion digital panoramic. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)65-68)

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Article
Repair of the cleft palate with the use of demineralized xenogenic bone graft combined with platelet rich plasma

Authors: Arie R. Zangana --- Munther M. Radhi
Pages: 69-71
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Background: The purpose of this study was to find the best method of repairing a huge cleft palate.Patients and Methods: The surgical operation was carried out on 20 children referred to the Department of plastic surgery in a Sulaimaniya Teaching Hospital suffering from cleft palate who were treated by the use of decalcified xenogenic bone graft combined with platelets rich plasma which eliminate. The need to harvest autogenous iliac bone graft.Results: Six months postoperatively, clinical results were satisfied and perfect without any complications.Conclusion: The use of demineralized xenogenic bone graft combined with PRP is considered the best substitute for autogenous bone graft to treat cleft palate.
Key words: Cleft palate, xenogenic bone graft. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)69-71)

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Article
Oral halitosis and oral hygiene practices among dental students

Authors: Abeer S. Al-Rawi --- Barzan A. Al-Atrooshi
Pages: 72-76
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Background: Oral halitosis is a very important problem, because it leads to a lot of social and psychological discomfort to a high percentage of the population.
The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, and halitosis among the undergraduate students in the ( College Of Dentistry University Of Baghdad), The students were in the (3rd ,4th and 5th stages) ,the study was done in a one month period .
Materials and Methods: A self administrated questionnaire was distributed among all the (481) students (263) male, and (218) female undergraduate students at the College of Dentistry. A questionnaire was designed to assess the self reported perception of: oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, dryness of mouth, tea drinking habits.
Result: The response rate was 77%. 44% of males and, 32% of females reported the self perception of bad breath odor and halitosis. The self treatment was sought by 12% of males and 22% of females. 6% of males and 4% of females experienced halitosis interference with their daily work. 78% of males and 62% of females experienced halitosis after waking up from sleep in the morning. The brushing was prevalent among 81% of males and 99% of females. Bleeding gingival was recorded in 26% of males and 14% of females. Dry mouth was common among 14% of males and 17% of females. Tea drinking was common among 44% of males and 37% of females, while tongue coating was equally common among both males and females approximately (21%) and (20%).
Conclusion: This study indicates that female students had better oral hygiene practices, much less reported oral halitosis as compared to male students. There was no difference in the tongue coating between male and female students. The students should be motivated to be a health symbol, and keeping their mouth free from halitosis.
Key words: halitosis, oral hygiene practices, brushing frequency, tongue coating. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1)72-76)

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Article
Diagnosis of initial carious lesion by clinical and conventional radiographic methods in comparison to direct digital radiography

Authors: Maha M.Misbah --- Sulafa El-Samarrai
Pages: 77-80
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Background: Digital radiographic system is still not widely used in routine dental practice. Their superiority in the early detection of carious lesion compared to clinical examination and conventional radiography is still questioned. For this reason this study was designed.
Materials and Methods: Children aged 7-9 years attending the dental clinic were examined for initial caries clinically using d1-4, D1-4 index. Two radiographic images were taken for posterior teeth, in addition to a direct digital radiograph following parallel technique.
Results: For both dentitions, the direct digital radiographs were more precise in the detection of decayed surfaces compared to both clinical and conventional radiographic examinations. Statistically significant differences were recorded. Results however varied when studying lesions according to grades of severity as clinical examinations appeared to be sufficient in caries detection.
Conclusion: Clinical examination need to be supplemented by radiography in the diagnosis of early lesion.
Key words: Initial carious lesion, digital radiography. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 77-80).

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Article
Effect of arch wire ligation on shear bond strength of metal brackets

Authors: Haitham A. Mohammed --- Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Pages: 81-87
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Background: This study evaluated the effect of ligating different arch wires on the amount of force needed to debond a bracket and the effect that has on the bond strength of the adjacent brackets.
Materials and methods: Sets of 5 human maxillary first premolar teeth where attached together by acrylic resin and bonded to .022 slot brackets. The sets where randomly split into five groups. Four test groups were characterized by ligating the 5 brackets by an arch wire (SS .019x.025, SS .021x.025, NiTi .019x.025, and NiTi .021x.025). A fifth group served as control having no ligated arch wire during debonding. The brackets were debonded by a debonding pliers attached to an Instron Universal testing machine. After debonding the middle bracket, the arch wire was removed and the adjacent and terminal brackets were debonded. Then the teeth were examined with enhanced digital images to evaluate the site of failure according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI).
Results: Compared to control, the bond strength of the middle brackets in all the test groups was significantly increased and the adjacent brackets significantly decreased. Higher bond strengths of the middle brackets were associated with the use of SS and .021x.025 arch wires rather than NiTi and .019x.025 arch wires, respectively. The most common type of failure was between the bracket and the adhesive. Enamel cracks were found less frequently in the test groups than in control.
Conclusions: It is advised to start debonding from one side of the arch to the other rather than starting in the middle of the arch to have an adjacent bracket from one side only.
Keywords: Bond strength, arch wire ligation (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 81-87).

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Article
Severity of dental caries in relation to family size and other socioeconomic factors among a group of children in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ban F. AL- Droubie --- Wesal A. Al -Obaidi
Pages: 88-90
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Background: Dental caries is the most common childhood disease; its relation to family size was not studied in Iraq, so this study was conducted to assess the severity of dental caries among preschool children and its association with socioeconomic factors, especially family size.
Materials and methods: A sample of 229 children aged five years old was selected randomly from different areas in Baghdad City. Dental caries for primary teeth was recorded following the WHO criteria.
Results: The mean dmfs of children of clerk mothers was significantly higher than that among children of housewives mothers. The largest family size had a highest dmfs mean, but there was no significant difference in dmfs mean between different groups. Negative correlations were found between family size and mother education (r = - 0.428, P< 0.01) also between family size and mother occupation (r = - 0.356, P< 0.01). There was no significant difference among the mean dmfs of the first, last child and the only one.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the housewives mothers have more time to take care for their children health and the lager family size affected the ability of parent to care of their children.
Keywords: Dental caries, family size, socioeconomic. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 88-90).

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Article
Effect of repeated pregnancies on caries experience and dental treatment needs

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas
Pages: 91-94
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Background: Pregnancy may be accompanied by an increase in dental caries severity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of frequent pregnancies on dental caries experience and treatment needs.
Materials and Methods: This study involved 224 pregnant women in Baghdad city (112 primigravidae and 112 multigravidae). The age rang was 20-25 years. The DMFS index was followed for recording caries experience.
Results: A statistically significant difference was seen in caries experience (DMFS) between the two groups (P<0.05), especially in the mean value of missing surface (MS) which was highly significantly more among multigravidae than that of primigravidae women (P<0.01). As for the decayed and filled surfaces results showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). The multigravidae women showed a higher treatment need than primigravidae women, in particular the need for prosthetic replacement.
Conclusion: A relationship was found between dental health and the number of pregnancies indicating a general biological influence of repeated pregnancies.
Key words: Primigravidae, multigravidae, dental caries, treatment needs. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 91-94).

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Article
Mandibular arch form and late anterior crowding

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Background: Postadolescent crowding in the lower dental arch that develops after completion of permanent dentition and during teenage period is a common orthodontic problem and usually occurs in the incisors region. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the distribution of different mandibular arch forms in late lower anterior crowded dentition.
Materials and Method: The research surveyed 73 patients (33 boys and 40 girls) with various severities of late lower anterior crowding assessed by the classical Irregularity Index of Little1, while the mandibular arch form was determined by applying the approach of Raberin et al.
Results: The data declared the sequential distribution of flat, pointed, mid, narrow, and wide forms (37%, 30%, 18%, 12%, 3%) respectively, with no clear gender dimorphism. It appears that this distribution is not greatly affected by the severity of the crowding.
Conclusion: The common feature of reduced anterior arch length in late lower crowded dentition leads to the superiority of the flat arches followed by the pointed form with reduced intercanine width.
Key words: Mandibular crowding, arch form. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 95-100).

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Article
Evaluation of the variation of skeletofacial angles(facial,mandibular,and gonial angles) among the pubertalage groups: (A cephalometric study).

Authors: Manar Y Abdul-Qadir --- Hussain A Obaidi
Pages: 101-106
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ABSTRACT
Background: The skeletofacial growth pattern changes among pubertal age could or could not associate with the change in skeletofacial angles. These angles have a definite influence on skeletal relationships. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the skeletofacial angles among the four pubertal age groups.
Materials and method: The sample subjects were aged between 11-14 years. The criteria for the sample selection were normal class I molar occlusion with normal overbite and over jet (1- 4 mm), no detectable dental crowding or spacing, no rotations and no history of previous orthodontic treatment and/or craniofacial surgery. All the subjects were radiographed with lateral cephalometric films. The radiographs were traced and the skeletofacial angles were measured and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance, Duncan multiple range test and t-test at p < 0.05 for gonial (Ar-Go-Me) and Mandibular plane angles (FH/GoMe).
Results: The facial angle (FH/NPog) showed no significant difference among the age groups in males only, while in females the facial angle displayed a significantly higher value at 13 years group as compared with both 11 years and 12 years groups. Comparison between the genders revealed a significantly lower value in males than females for the facial angle at 13 years group only.
Conclusion: The skeletofacial angles gonial and Mandibular plane angles demonstrated no significant change among the four age groups for both gender and no significant difference was noticed between males and females at 11, 12, and 14 years age groups for all angles.
Key words: skeletofacial angles, pubertal age. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 101-106).

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Article
Evaluation of dental caries experience and treatment needs of pregnant women in Baghdad governorate

Authors: Baydaa Ahmed Yas --- Baydaa Ahmed Yas
Pages: 107-111
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Pregnancy represents a particular systemic condition that is able to induce, because of hormonal fluctuations, manifestations of different nature in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare dental caries prevalence and treatment needs of pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women matching with age and area of residency.
Material and methods: In the present study 629 pregnant women were examined for their dental caries experience and treatment needs. 571 non-pregnant were examined too. They were attending the Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Baghdad governorate. The age range was 20-25 years.
Results: Data revealed a higher caries experience (DMFS) among pregnant women (14.22±0.38) compared to nonpregnant
group (13.94±0.37) but with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). A higher (DS) value was recorded
for pregnant than non-pregnant women but the difference was statistically not significant (P>0.05). The highest
dental treatment needed was one surface restoration (pregnant: 82.70%, non-pregnant: 85.10%). While the highest
prosthetic treatment need was the need for one-unite prosthesis (pregnant: 32.40%, non-pregnant: 35.60%). Caries
experience (DMFS) showed a highly significant difference with pregnant educational level (F= 5.606, df=4, P<0.01).
Conclusion: An organized, comprehensive oral health preventive and educational program is essential to improve
the oral health status of pregnant women.
Key words: Pregnancy, dental caries, dental treatment need (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 107-111).

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Article
Distribution of ABO blood group and Rh factor in relation to different types of cleft lip and/or palate

Authors: Mushriq F. Al-Janabi
Pages: 112-114
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study was carried out to investigate if there is a relationship of cleft lip and / or palate (different types) and ABO blood group.
Materials and methods: Blood group test including Rh factor was undertaken for 245 cleft children, 53.4% were males and 46.4% were females.
Results: The percentage of blood group A is highest in cleft lip and palate patients , and blood group B was lowest, Rh+ were found to be 91.02% and there was a significant difference between cleft group and Iraqi national bank , with no significant difference between different cleft types.
Conclusions: Although blood types are genetically inherited the environment potentially can determine which types in population will be passed on more frequently to the next generation.
Keywords: Cleft lip and palate, blood group, ABO system. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 112-114).

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Article
The relation of load deflection of nickel titanium orthodontic wires and the application of different fluoride containing tooth paste (an in vitro study)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study was designed to find the relation of load deflection of round 0.012 inch nickel titanium orthodontic wires, the application of different fluoride containing tooth paste, and the effect of immersion time in these fluoride containing tooth pastes on the load deflections of nickel titanium orthodontic wires.
Materials and method: The straight portion of preformed (arch form) round 0.012 inch nickel titanium orthodontic arch wire was cut and immersed either in one of the tested fluoride containing tooth pastes or in the controlled medium “artificial saliva”, where incubated at 37oC in special incubator at 2 time intervals (60 and 90 minutes).The load deflections of the wires were measured with a specially designed test apparatus based on the mechanism of 3-point bending test.
Results: The nickel titanium arch wire after immersion in acidulated monoflurophosphate tooth paste reveals lowest load deflection among the immersion test media (tooth paste), while the immersion in neutral sodium fluoride containing tooth paste reveals intermediate load deflection, and the immersion in stannous fluoride containing tooth paste reveals highest load deflection which is closest to that in artificial saliva. F- test by ANOVA table shows that there is a highly significant difference (P< 0.0001) between all chemical reagents at the mean 2 time intervals for the mean load deflections of nickel titanium arch wires, and there is a significant difference at 60 minutes between all chemical reagents at P< 0.05, and there is a highly significant difference at 90 minutes between all chemical reagents for the mean load deflections of Ni-Ti arch wires at P< 0.0001. Using fluoride containing tooth paste with nickel titanium arch wire could decrease the load deflection; in addition to the fact that there is an inverse relation between the immersion time and the load deflection of nickel titanium arch wire. This may contribute to prolong orthodontic treatment.
Conclusions: The stannous fluoride containing tooth paste seems to be the best fluoride containing tooth paste because it shows no detrimental effect on the load deflection of nickel titanium arch wire. So during the long period orthodontic treatment, both patient and clinical doctor should carefully use the fluoride containing products (teeth pastes, topical prophylactic agents, etc…).
Keyword: Load deflection, nickel titanium wire, Fluoride, Toothpaste. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 115-121).

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