Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Loading...
Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2008 volume:20 issue:1

Article
Effect of modified Carisolv gel on shear bond strength of repaired light cure composite and compomer restorations.

Authors: Haitham J.Al-Azzawi --- Rasha H. Jihad
Pages: 1-4
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of modified Carisolv gel on the shear bond strength of delay repaired light cure Helio Progress composite with Excite bond and Dyract≡eXtra compomer with Prime & Bond NT.
Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens of Helio Progress composite and thirty specimens of Dyract≡eXtra compomer of (6mm diameter & 3mm depth) were aged for one week at 37 C°. The aged substrate surfaces were abraded by coarse Al2O3 Sof-Lex discs and subjected randomly to different surface treatments: Modified Carisolv gel, phosphoric acid gel (control) and combination of both, with two different bonding agents Excite bond with composite and Prime & Bond NT with compomer.Repair was done by using a standardized translucent plastic straw (3mm diameter & 6mm length) and light cured. All specimens were stored in deionized distilled water for 24 hours. Each specimen was subjected to a shear force at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min using a universal testing machine until failure. ANOVA and student t-test were used to analyze the bond strength values.
Results: All surface treatment methods showed highly significant difference compared to control (p<0.001). Surface treatment with combination of modified Carisolv gel and phosphoric acid gel resulted in the strongest repairs. Helio Progress composite showed high bond strength than Dyract≡eXtra compomer, however, the difference is statistically not significant (p>0.05). Different bonding agents did not show a significant difference (p>0.05) in bond strength values.
Conclusions: Different combinations of surface treatments and bonding agents affect shear bond strength differently. The highest shear bond strength values were achieved with modified Carisolv gel alone and combination of modified Carisolv gel and phosphoric acid gel, whereas the lowest values were obtained with phosphoric acid gel alone as a surface treatment agent.
Keyword: Carisolv, Repair, Compomer, Bond strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 1-4)

Keywords


Article
A comparative study of the sealing ability of two different obturation techniques with and without the use of sealers.

Authors: Raghad A. Mohammed --- Ahmed G. Subhy
Pages: 5-7
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The final stage of endodontic therapy is complete obturation of the root canal system to provide as perfect as possible at the cementodentinal junction of the apical foramen. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sealing ability of injection molded thermoplasticized gutta percha and lateral condensation techniques with and without the use of sealers.
Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted adult human maxillary central incisors with complete formed apices were utilized in this study. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups for evaluation of the apical seal. Group (1) lateral condensation gutta percha technique without sealer, (2) lateral condensation gutta percha technique with sealer, (3) Injection molded thermo plasticized gutta percha without sealer, (4) injection molded thermoplasticized gutta percha with sealer. Groups 1 through 4 were obturated as specified. All of the teeth were immersed in flourescine dye for 48 hours, then they were removed from the dye for microleakage measurement.
Results: The results showed no significant differences between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 2 and 3 (p>0.05), but there were highly significant differences between groups 1 and 3 (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Sealer was found to be an essential part of the thermo plasticized gutta percha and lateral condensation techniques. Thermo plasticized system with sealer had significantly less apical leakage than others. The highest amount of leakage was significantly seen with lateral condensation without sealer.
Key words: Obturation techniques, sealer, microleakage. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)5-7)

Keywords


Article
Thermal expansion of prepared dental base-metalcasting alloys.

Authors: Mohammed T. Al-khafagy
Pages: 8-13
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the linear thermal expansion of prepared Ni-Cr and Co-Cr dental base-metal casting alloys which were prepared locally in Iraq and compare with other conventional alloys.
Materials and methods: Cylindrical shape wax specimen were prepared of 15mm length and 5mm diameter which were invested in phosphate-bonded investment material and casted by using induction casting machine. The liner thermal expansion was tested by using Iraqi made dialometer in which the furnace was set to reach from room temperature to 950 °C in a rate of 10 °C per minute.
Results: The prepared Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys showed a higher linear thermal expansion than the conventional alloys, however, statistical analysis revealed non significant differences regarding the Co-Cr alloys and highly significant difference regarding the Ni-Cr alloys.
Conclusion: In comparison of locally made and other conventional alloys, Co-Cr alloys statistically revealed no difference while Ni-Cr alloys showed a difference.
Key words: Thermal expansion, Co-Cr alloy, Ni-Cr alloy. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)8-13)

Keywords


Article
The effect of bleaching agent on the microhardness of composite resins

Authors: Saif Alarab A. Alajwadi
Pages: 14-15
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of H2O2 bleaching agent on the microhardness of composite resins
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty samples were made from two types of composite resins then divided into 2 groups .The microhardness value (VHV) was determined for each sample of the two groups before or and after treatment with 35% H202 bleaching agent using microhardness tester.
RESULTS: The statistical analysis of the results using one way ANOVA and paired t test indicated that there is a significant reduction In microhardness of 3M after bleaching application and there is a non significant reduction in microhardness of Tetric ceram.
CONCLUSION: Within the limit of this in vitro study, it can be said that 35% H2O2 has no significant effect on the microhardness of Tetric ceram composite resins while can reduce the microhardness of 3M composite resins .
Key words: Bleaching, hardness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)14-15)

Keywords


Article
Assessment of consistency and compressive strength of glass ionomer reinforced by different amount of hydroxyapatite

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT:
Background: Glass ionomers have good biocompatibility and the ability to adhere to both enamel and dentin. However, they have certain demerits, mainly low tensile and compressive strengths. Therefore, this study was done to assess consistency and compressive strength of glass ionomer reinforced by different amount of hydroxyapatite.
Materials and Methods: In this study hydroxyapatite materials were added to glass ionomer cement at different ratios, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% (by weight). The standard consistency test described in America dental association (ADA) specification No. 8 was used, so that all new base materials could be conveniently mixed and the results would be of comparable value and the compressive strength test described by British standard specification for zinc polycarboxylate cement was used in this study.
Results: Different consistencies of materials produced a disc of varying sizes. The amount of the powder (in milligram)
was mixed with 0.5 ml of liquid to produce a consistency giving a disc of 3 cm±1mm in diameter were 500 mg for
glass monomer cement, 450 mg for glass ionomer cement reinforced by 10%, 5% and 30% of hydroxyapatite and
350 mg for glass ionomer cement reinforced by 20% and 25% of hydroxapatite. The results showed that the glass
ionomer cement reinforced by hydroxyapatite has higher compressive strength than conventional glass ionomer.
Conclusion: The addition of hydroxyapatite to conventional glass ionomer requires less powder to liquid ratio. Addition of hydroxyapatite to glass ionomer cement increased its compressive strength.
Key words: Consistency, compressive, Glass ionomer, Hydroxyapatite. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 16-20)

Keywords


Article
Enhancement of bone induction after implantation of amelogenin protein and its active sub-protein.

Authors: Riyadh O. Alkais
Pages: 21-23
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Amelogenin (AM),a major enamel matrix protein(EMP),is a potent bone morphogenic protein which can enhance bone formation, and contains an active sub-protein(AAS).
Materials and methods: Twenty adult Syrian hamsters were grouped into 2, groups. Two holes were induced in the mandible of each animal and 3 mgs of AM &AAS were applied in each whole of, group 1 and group 2 respectively. Animal scarifying was done after 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 postoperatively, serial sections were prepared and slides were examined by light microscope.
Results: Comparison of osteoinductive activity of whole AM protein (complex) with that of its intermediate molecular weight sub-protein (active sub-protein (AAS) revealed that the osteoinductive process was more accelerated after AM application than that after AAS application
Conclusions: Other AM sub-proteins may act collectively with AAS to represent the excellent osteoinductive activity of AM protein.
Key words: Amelogenin, bone morphogenic factor, active sub-protein. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 21-23)

Keywords


Article
Comparison of amelogenin sub-proteins osteoinductive activity (Histopathological study)

Authors: Riyadh O. Alkaisi
Pages: 24-27
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Enamel matrix proteins (EMP) represent one of the most effective members of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) family.
Materials and methods: Chemical isolation of AM followed by isolation of AM sub-proteins was done using gel filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide gel. Beside that the histopathological pictures after the application of each AM sub-proteins in a bony defect created in the mandible of hamsters were observed.
Results: Only the intermediate molecular weight sub-protein (application showed a rapid healing process and new bone formation.
Conclusions: Among the 3 AM sub-protein only the intermediate one represents the bone morphogenic factor.
Key words: Enamel matrix proteins, AM sub-proteins. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)24-27)

Keywords


Article
Evaluation of lipid-bound sialic acid tumor marker in sera of acute lymphocytic (ALL) patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) concentration was determined in the sera of 90 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 50 controls (30 normal subjects and 20 chronic non-malignant diseases). The aim of this work is to determine the reference values for serum sialic acid in healthy subjects and in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Materials and Method: All of serum sample were collected by venepuncture and kept frozen (-20 C°) until analyzed, then a spectrophotometric technique is used for the estimation of the concentration of sialic acid marker in sera.
Results: The mean sialic concentration in healthy individuals was 132 mg/ml and that in chronic non-malignant disease was 171.1 mg/ml, where as, the concentration of (LSA) in 90 cancer patients with (ALL) was 270.3 mg/ml.
Conclusion: Both cancer patients with (ALL) and patients with chronic non-tumor disease can cause an elevation in the concentration of sialic acid values in serum as compared to healthy individuals.
Keywords: Sialic acid, tumor marker, acute lymphocytic leukemia. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)28-30)

Keywords


Article
Oral findings and health status among elderly Iraqi patients (aged 65 and above)

Authors: Fawaz Al-Aswad
Pages: 31-33
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The study hypothesis was that elderly patients with many concomitant disease and drugs would have different oral diseases, thus epidemiological information about their oral health is urgently needed in geriatric dental care for diagnosis treatment and prevention.
Objective: To obtain base line information on the prevalence of oral problems and disease in elderly Iraqi patients.
Materials & Method: The study group consisted of 83 (43 males and 40 females) elderly patients, they were examined to evaluate the oral health status.
Result: of 83 patients who verbalized their complaints 72% complained of dry mouth, 42% had burning mouth syndrome and 48% had oral mucosal lesion. The commonest oral finding was denture stomatitis 30%.
Conclusion: These data suggest that there was considerable unmet dental need with significant oral disease in this target group.
Key words: Denture stomatitis, Candidosis, elderly patients. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 31-33)

Keywords


Article
Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia among patients with orofacial pain

Authors: Taghreed F. Zaidan
Pages: 34-36
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: The great majority of patients complaining of pain in and about the face are suffering from some form of toothache. However, there are many other possible causes of such pain. Trigeminal nerve is the main sensory nerve supplying the skin of the face and scalp as well as the majority of the oral tissues and many deeper structures. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia among orofacial pain patients.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven patients with orofacial pain (111 females and 86 males) between the age 15-65 years were examined. Each patient was subjected to a questionainer. Some patients needed x-ray (intra or extra oral radiographs) in order to reach the diagnosis.
Results: The highest number of patients with orofacial pain was that of dental origin (pulpal and periodontal), about 28.5%, next to it was patients with TMJ disorder or myofacial pain 25.5%. Patients with trigeminal neuralgia were 16.3%. Patients with migraine were 8.6%. Patients with sinusitis were 8.1%. Patients with otitis media were 5.1%, also patients with a typical facial pain were 5.1%. Finally patients with cluster headache were 3%. The majority of those patients were of pain on the right side of the face more than the left side. The trigger zones were more frequently occurring intra orally mainly at the premolar and molar areas (43.7%), trigger zones at the upper lip were in 18.7% of patients while at the angle of the mouth in 15.5% of the patients, in the cheek 12.5%, and finally at the preauricular area was 9.3%.
Conclusions: The highest number of patients with orofacial pain was of dental origin (pulpal and periodontal), and TMJ disorder or myofacial pain. The prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia was 16.3% of the patients.
Keywords: Orofacial pain, Trigeminal neuralgia, Dental pain. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)34-36)

Keywords


Article
Periodontal treatment with combined: mechanical therapy plus low-energy laser irradiation compared to scaling and root planning. A clinical and microbiological spilt mouth study

Authors: Khulood A. Al-Safi
Pages: 37-44
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT:
Background: The present study is aimed to describe a six- mouths result on selected microbiological and clinical
parameters obtained by subgingival debridement in periodontitis.
Material and Methods: Thirty patients with moderate to advanced periodontal destruction were treated under local
anesthesia and the quadrants were randomly allocated in a spilt-mouth design to receive one of 2 types of
treatment procedure: 1- Scaling and root planning (SRP) using hand instrument, and 2- Scaling and root planning
(SRP) and then irradiated with (Ga As) infrared diode laser. The selected teeth were assessed for microbiological and
clinical variables. Clinical measurements of plague index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing
depth (PD) gingival recession (GR) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were made prior to and at 3 and 6months
after treatment. Subgingival plague samples were taken at each appointment and analyzed using dark field
microscopy for the presence of cocci, non-motile rods, and spirochetes. Differences in clinical parameters and
prevalence of bacterial species were analyzed using the paired t-test.
Result: The mean value of BOP decreased in the laser group (SRP/L) from 59% at baseline to 20% after 6 month (P<
0.001) and in SRP group from 55% at baseline to 25% after 6 months (p<0.001). The mean value of PD decreased in
the laser group from 5.0 7± ز 0 mm at baseline to 2.9 0.6± mm after 6 months (P < 0.001) and in SRP group from 5.0 to
0.6 mm at baseline to ± 3.3 0. after 6 months (p<0.001). The mean value of the CAL decreased in the laser group from
6.8± 1.0 mm at baseline to 4.5±1.0 mm after 6 months (P < 0.001) and in the SRP group from 6.9 1.0± mm at baseline to
5.4 1.0± after 6 months (P.(0.001>The reduction of the BOP score and the CAL improvement was significantly higher in
the laser group than in the SRP group (P<0.05، P<0.001, respectively). Both groups showed a significant increase of
cocci and non-motile rods and a decrease in the amount of motile rods and spirochetes.
Conclusions: With in the limits of this study soft laser therapy provided additional microbiological and clinical benefits
over conventional mechanical debridement.
Key words: Low energy laser, scaling, periodontal root planning. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 37-44)

Keywords


Article
Reliability of family history report among relatives of aggressive periodontitis patients

Authors: Hala Algobory --- Saif S. Saliem --- Alaa O. Ali
Pages: 45-48
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status among relatives of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to evaluate the reliability of the family history report as provided by the proband.
Materals and methods: Fifty AgP patients were identified during 2005/2006 as fulfilling the criteria to be diagnosed as AgP as outlined in the 1999 international classification system for periodontal disease. These subjects met the clinical criteria for either localized or generilized AgP.
Results: it was consider that AgP patients should be informed of the genetic nature of their condition and that other blood relatives could be at risk. The results would suggest that the screening of relatives with a positive family history could be justified as a standard procedure, but negative family history reports are unlikely to yield significant numbers of affected relatives and may not be a justifiable use of scarce resources.
Conclusion: The report given by the proband was considered reliable. If the report was positive, it was followed by diagnosis of periodontitis in 73% of the cases, while if it was negative, periodontitis was absent in 66% of the cases.
Key words: Aggressive periodontitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)45-48)

Keywords


Article
The effect of smoking on periodontal health status salivary composition

Authors: Lekaa M. Ibrahem
Pages: 49-51
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on periodontal status and the salivary composition.
Materials and Methods: The study groups include 25 healthy subjects, 13 smokers and 12-non-smokers.Periodontal
parameter included PL.I, G.I, CI.S and B.O.P was recorded. Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected before
clinical measurement. Biochemical analysis of salvia was carried out which include thiocyanate, sodium, calcium,
magnesium and potassium.
Results: The smokers exhibited significant difference in mean of PL.I and CI.S (1.47, 1.44) respectively in comparison to non smoker (1.19, 0.82) respectively. The non smoker exhibited higher percentage of B.O.P (39%) in comparison to smoker (27%) which is significantly difference. There was no difference in the mean of G.I for smoker in compare to non smoker (1.21, 1.29) respectively. The biochemical analysis of saliva showed that sodium values were significantly greater in non smoker (13.89 mEq/I) when compared to smoker (8.99mEq/I). Like wise non smoker exhibited greater calcium level (7.09 mg/100ml) when compared to smoker (3.43 mg/100ml) and for magnesium was (0,81mEq/I) for non smoker in comparison with smoker (0,47mEq/I). On contrary smoker showed higher level of thiocyanate and potassium (1.33 mM , 18.89mEq/I) respectively in comparison with non smoker (0.56 mM, 13.79mEq/I) respectively
Conclusion: Smoker exhibited low level of oral hygiene and greater disease level but reduced calcium, sodium and magnesium concentration in compare to non smoker
Key words: Smoking, periodontal parameter, saliva and chemistry. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 49-51)

Keywords


Article
Periodontal health status and biochemical study of gingival creviculer fluid among diabetics and non diabetic (Comparative study)

Authors: Raghad F. Abaas --- Lekaa M. Ibrahem
Pages: 52-57
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of diabetes mellitus on periodontal parameters and to correlate between glucose content of gingival crevicular fluid and blood in diabetics and non diabetics.
Material and method: The sample composed of 105 participants. Group I composed from 35 healthy subjects, group II composed from 35 patients were well controlled diabetics and 35 patients were moderately and poorly controlled diabetics. The periodontal parameters which included Plaque Index (PL.I), Bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival fluid flow (GFF) were recorded. For sampling of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), strips of filter papers were gently inserted into the selected crevice of 4 teeth, each filter strip was placed in distilled water, and the supernatant was used for assessment of glucose (GGF) and total protein (PGF).
Results: The mean for GGF was highest in group III (9.972±4.218) and the lowest was for group I (3.34±1.612). For periodontal parameters the highest value was also for group III, were PL.I was 2.350±0.367 and mean GCF was 3.014±0.545. There was weak correlation between periodontal and biochemical parameters.
Conclusion: Diabetic groups showed significant difference in periodontal parameters compared to control group. Also significant increase in GGF and PGF compared to control group.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, gingival crevicular fluid. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 52- 57)

Keywords


Article
Evaluation of periodontal abscess clinically and microbiologically

Authors: Lekaa M. Ibrahem
Pages: 58-61
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characterized well-defined a cute periodontal abscess clinically and microbiology.
Material & Method: Thirty patients were selected for this study; clinical examination was carried out recording the following variables: pain, edema, redness, swelling, bleeding on probing, suppuration, tooth mobility and probing pocket depth. Microbiological samples were taken using dark field microscopy.
Results: The results show that 60% of the abscesses affected untreated periodontits. Ninety percentage of the
patients reported pain and more than 75% of the abscesses had moderate to severe score related to swelling,
edema and redness. Bleeding occurs in all abscesses, while suppuration was detected in 70% and 85% of teeth
presented some degree of mobility the mean associated pocket was 7.1 mm. The microbiological examination
showed that the spirochetes were the predominant bacteria (41.8%) while coccid bacteria were present in lower
number (19.22%) .
Conclusion: The periodontal abscess has clear clinical characteristics and usually associated with sever e periodontal distraction. The lesion has a large mass with a large prevalence of periodontal pathogen.
Key words: Periodontal abscess, clinical parameters and microbiology. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 58-61)

Keywords


Article
The clinical and socio-cultural evaluation of the effects of oral contraceptives on periodontal condition

Authors: Maha Abdul Aziz
Pages: 62-68
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Human gingival tissues serve as a target for progesterone and estrogen, causing an increase in gingival inflammation. Therefore, the use of oral contraceptives (OC) might be considered as a predisposing factor for periodontal disease. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of oral contraceptives on the periodontium and to investigate the relation between socio-cultural status and periodontal condition.
Materials and methods: Twenty non users women (group 1), 20 OC users for less than 2 years (group 2) and 20 for 2-4 years (group 3) with generally good oral hygiene standards were selected for this study. Plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and teeth loss were measured. Socio cultural data including: age, educational level, professional level, number of children, frequencies of dental visits, tooth brushing and previous periodontal treatment were collected by a questionnaire form.
Results: The percentages of PPD of score (≥4) mm were significantly increased when group 1 was compared with group 2 and group 3. Similar results were detected by comparing group 1 with group 3 in respect to percentages of BOP. Also a relationship was observed between percentages of extracted teeth of mothers and number of children at each group. On the other hand neither of the socio-cultural variables was found to have a statistically significant effect among the 3 groups nor means of PLI and GI.
Conclusion: Women on contraceptive pills require regular periodontal care programs may help maintain healthy gingiva and avoid development of sever periodontal problems.
Keywords: Contraceptive pills, socio cultural, periodontal condition. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)62- 68)

Keywords


Article
Evaluation of the effect of low energy laser on gingivitis

Authors: Alaa Omran --- Ali H. Abbas
Pages: 69-70
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Surgical lasers have been used in medicine for over a decade in the surgical specialties of the laryngelogy, dermatology, plastic surgery, urology, gynecology and cardio-vascular surgery. All the clinical applications of laser discussed previously require the use of relatively high power laser devices. In dentistry laser research and development is in its embryogenic stage and its use on hard dental structures has been scarcely reported. The treatments of gingivitis by laser radiation has not investigated; so the aim of the present study was to shed light on the effect of low-energy laser on gingivitis, and the main indication for the therapeutic affect of laser because of its anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory actions. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients complaining from mild edematous gingivitis affecting the upper six anterior teeth were divided into two groups 1: 10 laser treated patients' group and 2- 10 patients (control group). The analysis of the results was according to the criteria of condition worsening, no change or improved and analysis of variance bleeding (G I) was performed. Results: Five out of 10 patients exhibited no change while 4 out of 10 were better than from the beginning, while 1 out of 10 was worse than the beginning.


Article
Mandibular dental arch parameters in Down's Syndrome patients with Class I occlusion. (A comparative study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to find out the dental arch form for patients with Down's syndrome and to compare the mandibular dental arch parameters of those patients with the corresponding norms, and to gain a correlation between the maxillary and mandibular arches for the Down's syndrome patients from previous study.
Subjects and methods: A total sample of 50 patients with Down's syndrome was examined with an age ranged from14-18 years. The mandibular dental arch parameters were compared with another group, control, on student of an intermediate school matching with the age and Angle's classification (Class I). Study models for the maxillary and mandibular arches were constructed, and then dental arch measurements were carried out and evaluated.
Results: The mandibular arch parameters for the patients with Down's syndrome showed significantly smaller mean values than the control group for both genders with the males had greater values in inter arch distance and length, with high correlation between the maxillary and mandibular jaws. The wide arch form is the dominated arch form while the flat is the least to appear.
Conclusion: The growth pattern of dental arches in Down's syndrome patients is proportionally reduced when compared with those of norms, with a symmetrical configuration. Hence all arch forms are presented with different distribution.
Keyword: Down's syndrome, Dental arch parameter, Genetic influence. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 72-77)

Keywords


Article
Comparison of the forces generated by steel, nickel titanium and elastomeric separators

Authors: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Pages: 78-86
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study compared stainless steel spring, NiTi spring, and elastomeric ring separators for their initial force of separation and after a tooth separation of up to 0.8mm.
Materials and Methods: The five types of separators used were TP spring, Truflex springs, NiTi springs (Ortho Technology), Dentalastics (Dentaurum), Alastik (3M Unitek) separators. The testing apparatus consisted of a framework holding two acrylic teeth in contact; the upper tooth attached to a calibrated micrometer that controls the amount of separation between the teeth by fractions of a millimeter and the lower tooth attached to an electronic balance that registers the force of separation after inserting a separator between the two teeth. After registering the initial force of separation, the micrometer was adjusted so that the contact area was opened up to 0.8mm in increments of 0.1mm and the separating force was measured.
Results: Dentalastics exerted the highest force levels and NiTi springs showed the lowest force values; while Alastik, Truflex and TP separators were in the middle. When the teeth where separated incrementally 0.1mm at a time, Truflex and NiTi springs showed a gradual drop in the separation force, both elastomeric separators showed a steep drop from their high initial forces to a relatively high remaining force at 0.8mm separation, while TP springs gave the steepest drop that fell below 50 grams at 0.3-0.5mm separation.
Conclusions: Truflex springs gave moderate initial separation forces that remained effective even at 0.8mm separation.
Keywords: NiTi separators, TP springs, elastomeric separators. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1):78-86).

Keywords


Article
The role of environmental versus genetic factors on tooth and dental arch dimensions in a twin sample

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for mesiodistal tooth diameters and dental arch dimensions to evaluate the relative influence of genetics and environment on them and to determine if monozygotic and dizygotic twin can be differentiated on the basis of comparison between these parameters.
Materials and methods: A sample of 32 pairs of monozygotic twin (13 males and 19 females) and 30 pairs of dizygotic twin (12 males and 18 females), both groups age range was 13-23, were selected. Both mesiodistal crown dimension and dental arch parameter were identified and the data was analyzed through two main quantitative genetic approaches, simple variance analysis (f ratio) and classical correlation analysis (falconer's formula).
Results: the maxillary left central incisors was the common tooth which has high genetic variability and strong heritability estimate in total twin sample and in male and female twin pairs, A potential source of common environment contribution to tooth size was found in male twin pairs while females were appeared to have an impact on dental arch dimension.
Conclusions: the maxillary left central incisors may be useful as an additional tool for zygosity determination along with other trait, while dental arch dimensions are not recommended for zygosity diagnosis. Common environment revealed an effect on teeth in males and on dental arch dimension in females.
Keywords: twin, genetics, tooth diameter and dental arch. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)87-94)

Keywords


Article
Role of the horizontal activator in Class II i malocclusion treatment

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The conflict in opinions about the dental and skeletal changes induced by class II malocclusion activator therapy is still present. The aim of this study was to assess the skeletal and/or dental outcomes of treating moderate-severe skeletal class II division 1 malocclusion by the activator.
Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of pre and post treatment records (cephalometric radiographs) of 11 Iraqi adolescent patients (7 females 10-11 years old, and 4 males 12-13 years old).
Results: The results showed significant skeletal and dental changes that reflected significant improvements in the cardinal features of class II (overjet, overbite, ANB angle, and lower anterior facial height).
Conclusion: Correction of the overjet, overbite, and ANB angle in moderate-severe skeletal class II i cases by the activator into normal range values may be at the expense of unfavorable lower incisors proclination and ii angle which are very important for stability of treatment result. The activator can induce skeletal changes that reflect improvements in the antero-posterior and vertical relationships of class II i malocclusion (downward and forward growth of the mandible, remodeling of glenoid fossa, in addition to the rotation of maxillary and mandibular bases). Acrylic loading and acrylic trimming done in the activator are responsible for the dramatic dental changes that can sometimes contribute to the skeletal improvements (extrusion of lower posterior teeth, relative intrusion of incisors, overjet and overbite correction, and changing positions of points A and B).
Keywords: Skeletal class II, horizontal activator, myofunctional appliance. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1) 95-100)

Keywords


Article
Characteristics of malocclusion in Iraqi orthodontic patients overjet and overbite variations (Comparative study)

Authors: Bashaer B.M. Nouri --- Iman Al-Shikli
Pages: 101-104
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the variations of overbite and overjet in a group of patients needing orthodontic treatment and compare them with a previous Iraqi study.
Materials and Methods: A number of 1550 pretreated orthodontic patients were clinically examined intra orally for certain occlusal features as overjet, overbite anterior openbite and anterior crossbite of ages, one year to more than thirteen years of age.
Results and Conclusion: No significant differences were found between males and females among all variables. Overjet values were normal at stages of deciduous dentition and the distribution of both increased and decreased overjet values were high at mixed and permanent dentition stages. The distribution of anterior crossbite was low.
Conclusion: There was a significantly high distribution of increased overjet and overbite in the total age group, in addition to a significant increase in the distribution of anterior crossbite indicating an increase in the severity of malocclusion during the last decade.
Keywords: Overjet, overbite, malocclusion. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)101-104)

Keywords


Article
Influence of different recycling protocols on load deflection of nickel titanium orthodontic wire (An in vitro study)

Authors: Mustafa M. Al-Khatieeb
Pages: 105-110
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the load deflection of nickel titanium orthodontic wire after different recycling protocols.
Materials and methods: A spooled 0.014 inch nickel titanium orthodontic wire was separated into 7 groups: as received condition (T0, control group), treated in artificial saliva for 4 weeks (T1), treated in artificial saliva and autoclaved (T2), treated in artificial saliva and dry heated (T3), treated in artificial saliva and disinfected by glutaraldehyde (T4), treated in artificial saliva and disinfected by iodophor (T5) and treated in artificial saliva and disinfected by chlorhexidine(T6). The changes in the load deflection were observed by special test apparatus based on 3-point bending mechanism.
Results: The findings of the current study showed that there was highly significant difference in mean load deflection of nickel titanium wire between all recycling protocols (P< 0.0001). The recycling by sterilization of the wire by heat autoclave or disinfection by chlorhexidine both showed high mean load deflection values which were closer to the control, while the disinfection by glutaraldehyde or iodophor showed intermediate load deflection values, and the sterilization by dry heat showed lowest mean load deflection value.
Conclusions: The different recycling protocols could decrease the load deflection value and this could be due to corrosive degenerative changes of the passive TiO2 film on the wire and subsequently detrimental effect on load deflection. Sterilization by the heat autoclave or disinfection by chlorhexidine both seem to be the best recycling protocols because both showed least detrimental effect on the load deflection because those protocols showed high mean load deflection values which were closer to the control, while the disinfection by glutaraldehyde or iodophor both showed intermediate detrimental effect on the load deflection because those showed intermediate load deflection value, and sterilization by the dry heat seems to be the worst recycling protocols because it showed highest detrimental effect on the load deflection because it showed lowest mean load deflection value among all examined recycling protocols.
Key words: Recycling, load deflection, nickel titanium wire. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1)105-110)

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue: