Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2008 volume:20 issue:2

Article
The effect of modified carisolv gel on micro leakage of repaired aged composite restoration using different bonding systems

Authors: Haitham J. Al-Azzawi --- Ammar Aziz
Pages: 1-8
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of the modified Carisolv gel on micro leakage of repaired aged composite restorations using three different bonding agents [total etch (Swisstec SL bond), two self-etch bondings (Clearfil SE bond) and one step (I-bond)].
Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens were prepared using ready made plastic molds (used for medical tabs 2.5mm depth and 8mm diameter), all specimens were stored in artificial saliva solution in an incubator with a constant temperature at 37C° for one month, the surface layer was abraded using coarse aluminum oxide abrasive discs, washed with air-DDW for 15sec, specimens were divided into three groups according to bonding agent used, group A (n=20) using I-Bond, group B (n=20) using clearfil SE bond, group C (n=20) using Swisstec SL bond, each group subdivided into 2 subgroups according to surface treatment with Carisolv gel, GA1 (Carisolv+I-Bond),GA2(I-Bond), GB1(Carisolv+clearfil SE bond), GB2(clearfil SE bond), GC1(Carisolv+Swisstec SL bond), GC2( Swisstec SL bond).Repair was done by loading a plastic mold with swisstec composite and placed on the aged composite, cured from each side for 20sec, all specimens were thermoclycled 10 cycles/day for 7 days between 5±2C° and 55±2C°, stored in bottles containing methylene blue dye in an incubator at 37C° for 48 hrs, washed thoroughly and left at room temperature for 2 hrs for dryness and dye fixation. All specimens were sectioned by a sectioning machine and examined using stereo microscope with a reflected light under magnification of 4X to determine the degree of micro leakage in mm, the data were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance test (ANOVA), student t-test and LSD test.
Results: The results revealed that surfaces treated with Carisolv gel exhibited less micro leakage than those without treatment with Carisolv gel and the difference was highly significant , surface treatment with Carisolv and phosphoric acid showed minimum leakage comparing to surfaces treated with Carisolv gel or phosphoric acid separately, considering bonding agents total etch bonding (Swisstec SL bond) exhibited less micro leakage than Clearfil SE bond and I-Bond, the difference was highly significant, Clearfil SE bond showed less micro leakage than I-Bond the difference was highly significant too.
Conclusion: Composite surfaces treated with Carisolv gel (10) mins exhibited less micro leakage upon repair than those surfaces without treatment with Carisolv gel, composite surfaces treated with total-etch bonding exhibited less micro leakage upon repair than those treated with self-etched bondings, composite surfaces treated with Clearfil SE bond yielded less micro leakage than those surfaces treated with I- Bond.
Key words: Carisolv, composite repair, bonding agents. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):1-8)

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Article
Retention of three endodontic posts cemented with adhesive resin cement

Authors: Ahmed G. Subhy
Pages: 9-13
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ABSTRACT
Background: An extensive review of published articles has revealed a wide divergence of opinions regarding the suitability of different post systems for endodontically treated teeth. As a result the dentist has no clear guidelines concerning the selection of suitable post systems that will provide adequate retention while minimizing subsequent root fracture. This invitro study formulated to compare the retentive abilities of three different post systems (Euro post, Easy post, custom cast post) using adhesive resin cement.
Materials and methods: Twenty four intact human mandibular second premolars were selected for this study. These samples were endodonticlly treated, and randomly divided in to three groups of eight teeth each:
Group Ι: teeth restored with Euro post (prefabricated parallel sided stainless steel/ serrated posts).Group ΙΙ: teeth restored with custom cast posts design. Group ΙΙΙ: teeth restored with Easy post (prefabricated fiber reinforced composite post/smooth/tapered). Tensile failure loads were measured in the absence of crowns using an instron test machine at across head speed of 5 mm/min. Values were recorded in Newton .Mean values and standard deviations were analyzed with one way ANOVA test and the least significant differences test.
Results: Retentive failure loads were recorded for all test specimens; the means and standard deviation for each group were as follows: group Ι: 189±68.9; group ΙΙ:79.13 ±17.80and groupΙΙΙ:65.75±23.61.
Conclusion: Endodontically treated teeth restored with Euro post (stainless steel/parallel sided /serrated posts) showed significantly greater retentive forces than teeth restored with cast post and Easy post "fiber reinforced posts (tapered design)", also the difference in the mean retentive failure values between specimens restored with cast post and Easy post was not statistically significant.
Key words: Euro post, fiber reinforced posts, cast post, retention. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2)9-13)

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Article
Comparative study of the corrosion behavior between casting and recasting of three types of non- precious alloys

Authors: Mudher A. Abdul Jabbar
Pages: 14-19
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Background: The practice of recasting in dentistry became familiar long time ago and many studies concerned with the effect of recasting on the physical and mechanical properties of non-precious alloys but only few studies concerned with the effect of recasting on the electrochemical properties .The aim of this study is to evaluate the corrosion behavior of three types of non-precious alloys which are Co-Cr, Ni-Cr (hard type) and Ni-Cr (soft type) before casting and after recasting.
Materials and methods: Three types of dental alloys were used in this study Co-Cr and two types of Ni-Cr alloys (hard type used for denture base material and soft type used for crown and bridge ).A cylindrical disc-shape design was used in this study to prepare the specimen ,this in accordance to ASTM. The specimen were exposed to corrosion evaluation before casting and after recasting by potentiostatic polarization measurements .In addition to that the specimen were evaluated by microscopic examination before casting and after casting as well as after recasting
Results: The results which is concerned with Co-Cr alloys showed that the corrosion potential shifted to more negative values with increasing recasting operation while for Ni-Cr hard type the corrosion potential shifted to less negative potential indicating a decrease in its activity for corrosion .On the other hand ,the soft type of Ni-Cr demonstrated that the corrosion potential became slightly more negative with recasting indicating some increase in the activity of the specimen for corrosion .
Conclusion: Recasting generally increased the tendency of the alloys for corrosion as indicated by the behavior of Co-Cr and (Ni-Cr)2 alloys but the reverse behavior was observed with (Ni-Cr)1 alloy .Also the diffusion controlled corrosion was appreciably high on (Ni-Cr) alloys but recasting generally increased the (dcc) suggesting its effect in decreasing the ability of oxide film for corrosion protection.
Keywords: Ecorr, Icorr, dcc, tafel slop, βcathdic, βanodic . (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):14-19)

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Article
Evaluation of some physical properties of two permanent heat cure silicone soft lining materials

Authors: Amer M. Khamas --- Ali J. Abdul- Sahib
Pages: 20-25
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Soft lining materials has a key role in modern prosthodontics because of their capability of restoring health of inflamed and distorted mucosa, but with two major problems; water sorption, solubility, and lack of bond to the underlying denture base materials. The aim of this study was to examine water sorption and solubility for two types of permanent heat cure silicone soft lining materials (Permaflex and Molloplast-B), applied for different types of acrylic denture base surface and stored in artificial saliva to evaluate the tensile bond strength.
Materials and methods: Two types of permanent heat cure silicone soft lining materials was applied to different type of surfaces acrylic denture bases for tensile testing. Water sorption and solubility test was done according to ADA No. 12 specification for 1, 3, and 6 weeks intervals.
Results: There was no significant changes in sorption and solubility with time of water storage from (1st-- 3rd week), for Permaflex soft lining materials, and significant decrease water storage from (3rd -- 6th week) for sorption only, and for Molloplast –B soft lining materials no significant changes for sorption of water storage from (1st–3rd– 6th week), solubility revealed a significant changes with time for water storage from (1st – 3rd – 6th week).
Conclusion: This study indicated that heat cure soft lining materials shows some degree of water sorption and solubility, the lowest level was obtained by Permaflex soft lining material. Artificial saliva storage decrease the tensile bond strength for the two types of soft lining materials except for Permaflex sandblasted type of surface increase after artificial saliva storage.
Key words: Heat cure silicone soft lining material, acrylic denture base, water sorption and solubility, tensile bond strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2)20-25)

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Article
The effectiveness of a new diamond and carbide fissure burs in cutting amalgam and composite materials

Authors: Angham C. AL-Hashimi
Pages: 26-29
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Background: Frequently, new types of burs are developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cutting rates of a new diamond and carbide fissure bures on amalgam and composite materials.
Materials and Methods: The cutting study was performed on composite and amalgam an specimens the specimens were divided into groups and subgroups according to the types of bur and material of the specimens: Group I subgroup 1, composite specimens (10 diamond fissure burs), Subgroup 2, amalgam specimens (10 diamond fissure burs), Group II subgroup 1, composite specimens (10 carbide fissure burs), Subgroup 2, amalgam specimens (10 carbide fissure burs). Ten cuts were performed with each bar and a total of 400 cutting rates or CRs (mm/sec) were recorded. The CRs were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance test, least significant difference test and student t-test.
Results: There was no significant difference (P< 0.5) between CRs of group I for the 10 cuts, while a significant difference (P < 0.5) began to appear between CRs of group II subgroup 1 after cut 7 and in subgroup 2 after cut 8
Conclusion: Both diamond and carbide fissure burs are effective in cutting amalgam and composite materials, but still carbide fissure bure dulls readily.
Keywords: Effectiveness, burs, amalgam, composite. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2)26-29)

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Article
The effects of acetic acid and chlorhexidine gluconate as a cavity cleanser on the shear bond strength of compomer restorations

Authors: Raghad A. Mohammed
Pages: 30-32
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ABSTRACT
Background: Bonding of restorative materials to tooth structure has become one of the prime objectives of modern dentistry. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of compomer material to dentin washed with three cleanser agent.
Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted adult human maxillary first premolars teeth were utilized in this study. Each tooth was sectioned horizontally exposing the dentin surface. According to the type of cleanser agent used to wash the dentin surface; the teeth were divided into three groups of ten teeth each: Group I chlorhexidine cleanser with compomer; Group II acetic acid with compomer; and Group III distal water with compomer. The measurement for evaluation the shear bond strength of compomer to dentin by using Zwick universal testing machine
Results: The results showed that higher significant different between group I and group III also between group II and group III; however< there is no significant difference between group I and group II.
Conclusions: This present in vitro study concludes that the shear bond strength of compomer material to dentin can be enhanced by washing the exposed dentin with cleanser agents’ chlorhexidine and acetic acid instead of distal water.
Keywords: Shear bond strength, cleanser, compomer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2)30-32)

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Article
Effect of ozonated water on dentin bond strength

Authors: Hasanain M. HabeeB --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Pages: 33-37
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ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of ozonated water application on dentin shear bond strength.
Materials and Methods: Ten dentin samples per group were pretreated as follows: (I) untreated served as –ve control, (II) sterile distilled water for 10 seconds served as +ve control, (III) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Sultan-USA) for 10 seconds, (IV) 0.2% chlorhexidine (Corsodyle®, England) for 10 seconds, and (V) 4mg/L ozonated water (Ozonesolution-Enaly, USA) for 10 seconds. Samples were bonded with type II DBA (Unibond 2-Ventura, Spain) based on two clinical steps, etch, prime and bond combined and restored with a composite (Ventura-Similux, Spain) according to the manufacturer instruction. After storage in water at 37°C for 2 days and thermo-cycled for 500 cycles, shear bond strength was measured using Instron machine. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student t-test.
Results: There was high significant increase in bond strength for ozonated water treated samples compared to controls at P<0.01.
Conclusions: According to the circumstances of this study, ozonated water can be used successfully as cavity disinfectant after cavity preparation to increase the shear bond strength of dentin to composite.
Keywords: Ozonated water, dentin, bond. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):33-37)

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Article
Finite element analysis of stress distribution on a mandibular canine using marginal ridge rest and insical rest.

Authors: Wasmaa S. Mahmood
Pages: 38-41
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ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two types of rest design on the supporting tissue of natural canine.
Materials and methods: Finite Element Method was used to examine the stress on the supporting structure when applying a load of 100N on two types of rest design incisal rest and marginal ridge rest.
Results: Results showed that for the two types of rest design the maximum stress was concentrated at the apex of root surface, whereas stress demonstrated higher values at the middle area of root surface when speaking about marginal ridge rest.
Conclusion: Both designs accentuate the load on the apical area of tooth surface; although the marginal ridge rest is a conservative design hence it produces higher stress at the middle area of root surface
Key words: Rest seat, canine, stress, FEA. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2)38-41)

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Article
Interpretation of ground section of human dentin tissue

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Background: Thick ground sections from human teeth showed a considerable amount of details in dentin tissue, the purpose of this study was to prepare ground sections for dentin tissue that were in all aspects helpful in teaching purpose, because of their shortage in our oral histology labs.
Materials and methods: Fifteen permanent and five deciduous human teeth used in this study. Each tooth was ground by hand into two halves, section was 50-75 microns thick was made, which mounted on glass slide, the sections were cut mostly longitudinally, and few sections were transversely ground.
Result: The results are demonstrated throughout the figures, they showed a considerable amount of details in dentin tissue like as: dentinal tubules, primary and secondary curvature, branching of dentinal tubules in crown, root and bifurcation area, radicular tubules, in addition to dentinoenamel junction, mantle dentin, intergloubular dentin in crown and root, tomes granular layer, secondary dentin, seclerotic dentin and dead tract.
Conclusion: Ground sections for dentin tissue were gained, the study could be as a background for examination of special clinical cases, and the sections were shown to be beneficial for teaching purpose.
Keywords: Ground section, dentin, tomes granular layer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008;20(2): 42-44)

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Article
Stereomicroscopic evaluation of the adaptability of different retro filling materials (in vitro study)

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Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal interfaces between tooth structure and the retrofilling materials.
Materials & Methods: Thirty teeth were divided into six groups of five for each. The teeth were instrumented to a minimum of size no. 45 k-file, obturated with gutta percha, resected perpendicular to their long axes and prepared to receive a retrofilling. The teeth were filled with amalgam, glass ionomer cement or chemical-cured composite resin. Each filling material was either applied with dentin adhesive or without dentin adhesive. Photomicrographs were made & examined by four evaluators.
Results: Composite resin had better marginal adaptation than the amalgam & the glass ionomer cement, but the difference was non significant (p>0.05). In addition, the adhesive groups together had less marginal adaptation than the other groups and the difference was significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Composite resin retrofilling material had better marginal adaptation than other materials used and the dentin adhesive may have no effect on the quality of the adaptation.
Key words: Adaptation, retrofilling, amalgam. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):45-49)

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Article
An in vivo study to evaluate the clinical accuracy of Root Zx apex locator in vital and necrotic teeth

Authors: Mohammed A. Abd Albaqi --- Firas I. Hani
Pages: 50-52
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Background: Accurate working length determination is a very important aspect of root canal therapy. There have been many methods developed to estimate the length of a canal. One of the most accurate methods of determining the length of a canal is the use of an electronic apex locating device.
Materials and Methods: In this in vivo study twenty lower single rooted teeth were used, group A which involved ten vital teeth (extracted for orthodontic treatment) and group B which involved also ten non-vital teeth .The two groups were tested by the use of the Root Zc apex locator to estimate the working length.
Results: From the data obtained there was no difference in the clinical efficiency of the electronic apex locator in estimating the working length whether the tooth was vital or not.
Conclusion: The Root Zx apex locator was extremely accurate in determining the canal length when used in vital and non-vital teeth.
Keywords: Electronic apex locators, Root Zx apex locator. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):50-52)

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Article
Frequency and suppliers of removable partial dentures among group of Iraqi population

Authors: Basima M. Ali Hussein --- Intisar J. Ismail
Pages: 53-58
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Background: Need for dental services is generally considered as the treatment needs detect during oral
examination by a dental professional, regardless whether the patient demands care. If the patient with
prosthodontic treatment needs, essks, and receives care, this is effective demand.
Material and method: The potential need for Prosthetic treatment among group of Iraqi subjects were evaluated
by analyzing records of 986 patients attended to the dental college seeking for removable partial dentures (RPDs)
treatment in both sexes and distributed among different age groups.
Results: The results showed significant differences between male and female in different age groups, also highest
frequencies of RPDs were found in the female oldest age group, with increase in number of RPDs constructed by
progression in age. Regarding the type of kennedy classification of missing areas, it was shown that class III kennedy
classification is the most frequent condition is all age groups and in both sexes, 50.9% for upper arch and 41.0% in the
lower arch in whole sample. Patients seeked for upper and lower RPD treatment would be inclined to more frequent
(391=39.7%) condition.
Conclusions: Findings showed a strong positive association between frequency of kennedy classification and
increase wearing of partial dentures more in upper compared with lower .
Key words: Partial denture , need and demands. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):49-54)

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Article
Histological evaluation of bone-implant interface associated with biomimetic coated commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy implants

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Background: The clinical success of implants has been achieved not only because of the mechanical strength or excellent biocompatibility of the implant material but also because of other characteristics such as surface properties. In am attempt to modify the surface properties of an implant, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on the bone-implant interface of screw-shaped implants made from the commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy by histological analysis with optical microscope.
Materials and methods: The screws were biomimetically coated with calcium phosphate by immersion in a concentrated simulated body fluid (5 times), which simulates the inorganic part of human blood plasma, under static conditions in a biological thermostat at 37oC for 6 days. The uncoated screws were passivated with 28% nitric acid. The tibias of 15 white New Zealand rabbits were chosen as implantation sites for 4 implants (two from each material, one is uncoated and the other is biomimetically coated). After 2, 6, and 18 weeks of healing period, 5 rabbits were sacrificed for each period. The influence of modified surface on the bone-implant interaction was analyzed by histological testing with optical microscope.
Results: The results obtained from this experiment revealed that the quality of bone response was improved among the coated screws. Furthermore, the coated Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy implants had better properties than the coated commercially pure titanium implants.
Conclusion: Biomimetic coatings play an active role in the bone-remodeling process by creating a friendly surface for cell adhesion and proliferation, which is a key issue for bone regeneration.
Key words: Dental implant, bone-implant interface, biomimetic coating, Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):59-66)

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Article
Nucleolar organizer regions in giant cell lesions of the jaws in relation to clinico-pathological parameters

Authors: Balkees T. Garib
Pages: 67-70
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Background: The aim of this study was to clarify the proliferatiove activity of the multinucleated giant cells and cellular component in giant cell lesions of the jaw in correlation to their clinico-pathological features.
Materials and methods: This study was carried on 23 cases diagnosed as GC lesion of the jaw. Patient's personal and clinical information were collected from their files. H&E and sliver nitrate stains were applied on their formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections.
Results: The mean AgNOR count in MGC/cell was 49.83 and NORs/nucleus was 5.8, and 74% of them were grouped in large clusters and 26% were scattered. In PGCG the mean AgNOR count /MGC and /nucleus were significantly lower than that of CGCL (38.2 vs 59.5 and 4.6 vs 6.8 respectively, P<0.04). The mean AgNOR count of spindle and mononuclear cells were 4.7 in CGC lesions and 2.5 in peripheral lesions
Conclusion: Evaluation of AgNORs showed that both MGC and fraction of mononuclear cells in CGCG were significantly higher than that in PGCG.
Key words: Giant cell lesion, nucleolar organizer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):67-70)

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Article
Burning mouth syndrome in Iraqi patients: a preliminary study of 38 cases.

Authors: Fawaz Al-Aswad
Pages: 71-75
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Background: The complaint of burning sensation in the mouth can be said to be a symptom of other disease or a syndrome in its own right of unknown etiology. In patients where no underlying dental or medical causes are identified and no oral signs are found, the term burning mouth syndrome should be used. The aim of this study was to obtain base line information on the prevalence of the oral problems and clinical features co-existing with burning mouth syndrome patients.
Materials & Method: The study group consisted of 38 (11 males and 27 females) burning mouth patients, they were examined to evaluate the oral health status.
Results: Of 38 patients, who verbalized their complaints, 63.1% complained of subjective oral dryness, 26.3% had taste disturbances; the most prevalent site with burning sensations was the tongue 65.7%.
Conclusion: Burning mouth syndrome patients in our environment are principally women, other symptoms include dryness and altered taste is common in those patients.
Key words: Burning mouth syndrome. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):71-75)

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Article
Low energy 904-nm diode laser for the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP)

Authors: Hadeel Salman --- Muhanad A. Kashmoola
Pages: 76-78
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Background: Oral lichen planus is chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. The exact etiology is unknown but there are many factors associated with it. However there has been much research into immune and pathological mechanisms that underlie oral lichen planus. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is use in base on the concept that certain doses of specific wave length can turn on or off certain immuno cellular components or functions as well as aid in healing and reducing pain of the lesion. The aim of this study was to clinical evaluation of low level laser therapy, at certain dose, on symptomatic OLP.
Patients and method: six patients with symptomatic OLP treated with low level GaAs laser, 5 minutes time of radiation exposure twice a week, for four visits.
Results: Pain sensation and erythema were disappeared but white hyperkeratosis did not affected by laser therapy.
Conclusions: LLLT act as biostimulation that inhibit pain and inflammation in OLP but not hyperkeratotic area.
Keywords: Oral, lichen planus, laser. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):76-78)

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Article
Evaluation of immediate one stage reconstruction of the avulsive maxillofacial injuries

Authors: Ibrahim S. Gataa
Pages: 79-84
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Background: Avulsive maxillofacial injuries may cause significant functional and esthetic deformities so the subsequent management of this trauma becomes more controversial in terms of the time of surgical reconstruction. The aim this study was to evaluate the immediate one stage of reconstruction as a method of treatment.
Patients and methods: In this study 50 patients complaining from avulsed injuries to the facial area have been treated with in first 24hrs of injury by one stage of reconstruction of the hard and soft tissues defects. Different surgical techniques were used in this study in addition to evaluation of the general condition of the traumatized patients.
Results: The results were assessed according to the patient satisfaction, clinical examination, complications and the need of other reconstruction surgeries after a period of follow up. The over all results were good and very good in 39 patients (78%) and most of the managed patients need only minor surgical procedures after the treatment or they were satisfied with the result.
Conclusion: The primary one stage reconstruction was a useful method for management of patients with avulsed maxillofacial injuries if the general status of patient is suitable for such operation and surgical facilities is available this will minimize the patient's suffering and disabilities .
Key words: Avulsive injuries, bone graft, local flaps, blast injuries, (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):79-84)

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Article
Twelve months clinical comparison between modified Widman flap with or without enamel matrix derivative for the treatment of infrabony defects

Authors: Saif S. Saliem
Pages: 85-87
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Background: The aim of this study was to compare at 12 months after the surgery the treatment of deep infrabony defects with modified widman flap (MWF) to the treatment with the enamel matrix protein derivative.
Materals and methods: 5 male and 9 female with severe periodontitis were treated either with modified widman flap alone or with enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) (Emdogain®, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland). This was a randomized controlled longitudinal clinical trial of 12 months duration. Using a split-mouth design, each site was randomly assigned to treatment with modified widman flap alone or with EMD. All patients underwent initial therapy one month prior to surgery.
Results: At twelve months after the therapy, the sites treated with MWF showed a reduction in probing pocket depth (PPD) from 8.25 ± 1.84 mm to 3.79±0.95 mm and a change in clinical attachment level (CAL) from 9.66±1.82 mm to 5.21±1.78 mm. In the group treated with EMD, the PPD was reduced from 8.5±1.4 mm to 4 ±1.6 mm and the CAL changed from 10.3±2.28 mm to 6.05±1.96 .
Conclusion: within their limits, the present results indicate that: (i) at 1 year after surgery both therapies resulted in significant PD reductions and CAL gains, and (ii) the combination of modified widman flap with enamel matrix protein derivative does not seem to additionally improve the clinical results.
Key words: Modified Widman flap, enamel matrix, infrabony defects. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):85-87)

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Article
The relation of anterior and lateral cranial base lengths with mandibular morphology and facial heights

Authors: Yassir A. Yassir
Pages: 88-92
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Background: The cranial base is important in integrated craniofacial development and growth-especially the anterior cranial base, which has direct connections with the upper-middle face and integrates with the facial elements into a growth complex (ethmomaxillary complex). The aim of this retrospective cephalometric study is to find the relation between anterior (S-N) and lateral (S-Ar) cranial base lengths with mandibular morphology and facial heights.
Materials and method: The sample included 153 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi orthodontic patients who attend the Department of Orthodontics in the College of Dentistry-University of Baghdad. The sample divided according to the ANB angle into skeletal Cl I (40 females and 35 males), and Cl II (40 females and 38 males). Nine linear measurements were digitized and recorded using AutoCAD 2007 computer program, the data then analysed by SPSS version 15.00 computerized statistical analysis.
Results: Males had higher mean values for anterior and lateral cranial base lengths than females, with no significant difference between classes. Mandibular morphology and anterior facial heights positively correlated with anterior cranial base especially in males. Lateral cranial base positively correlated with posterior facial height in males and females, and with mandibular body length and total mandibular length in males.
Conclusions: The effect of gender was greater than the effect of skeletal classes for the anterior and lateral cranial base lengths. Anterior cranial base was mainly positively correlated with anterior facial heights in both genders, while lateral cranial base mostly correlated with posterior facial height.
Keywords: Anterior cranial base, mandibular morphology, facial heights (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):88-92)

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Article
The effect of aspartame and saccharin on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine against mutans streptococci

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Background: Although chlorhexidine is the most effective against dental plaque it is extremely bitter to prepare formulation, it is necessary to use flavoring and sweetening which can inhibit the antibacterial effect of rinse preparation.
Materials and Method: The effect of different concentrations of aspartame and saccharin on the antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine 0.2% against Mutans Streptococci was evaluated using the agar diffusion method and determination of MIC value of chlorhexidine alone and in presence of aspartame or saccharin was also done in this study.
Results: The results of this study demonstrate that at a concentration of 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% aspartame did not significantly inhibit the antibacterial activity of 0.2% chlorhexidine however the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine significantly reduced when increased the concentrations of aspartame up to 40% and MIC values increased when increased the concentrations of aspartame, while saccharin interfere with the activity of chlorhexidine 0.2% and significantly reduced the anti – mutans activity of chlorhexidine 0.2% at all the concentrations used in this study (6% - 60%) and MIC values increased when increased the concentrations of saccharin.
Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that aspartame may be used as sweetener and flavoring in concentrations up to 16% with chlorhexidine rinse.
Key words: Chlorhexidine, aspartame, saccharin, mutans streptococci. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):93-97)

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Article
Estimation of real distance between two points in computer aided X-ray dental image of Planmeca Proline PC with Dimax device

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Computer systems nowadays play an important role in medical life. The Planmeca Proline PC imaging device is used for dental purposes to capture images for head, face bones and teeth. It uses the X-Ray for image capturing but it’s software has some problem caused by the magnification inherent in all projection X-Ray techniques, which is how to draw an Image with real dimensions like real world or simply how to estimate the real distance between two point in captured image. This paper is about to design software that supplies the work of this device by estimating the distance between two points with real world dimensions in the X-Ray images that is captured by Planmeca Proline PC with Dimax software. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):98-103)

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