Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access


A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Contact info

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Table of content: 2009 volume:21 issue:1

The influence of posterior composite type and application technique on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth (an in vitro study)


Background: A restorative material with the potential to increase resistance to cuspal fracture is available to dentists
and the packable composite is one of them. This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the cuspal
fracture resistance of weakened maxillary premolar teeth with MOD preparations restored with different composite
materials and techniques.
Materials and Methods: fifty maxillary premolar teeth were divided into five groups (n=10). Class II MOD cavities were
prepared in forty specimens. Group A, were sound. Group B were prepared but not restored. Group C and D were
restored with successive cusp build up using Z250 microhybrid for group C and P60 packable for group D. Finally,
Group E was restored with bulk using P60 packable. A 5 mm diameter steel sphere contacted the buccal and lingual
cusps of the tested teeth until fracture occurred. The values obtained in this study were subjected to Analysis of
Variance (ANOVA) and student t – test was carried out between the two types of posterior composite materials.
Results: There's a high significant improvement of the fracture resistance of restored teeth using posterior composite
as compared to the unrestored ones, but; there's no difference of the type of the posterior composite material used,
or the type of placement technique used, while the sound teeth remained the strongest teeth compared with all the
other groups.
Conclusions: The study concluded that Posterior composite resin restoration whatever type or technique used,
showed a great improvement in the resistance to cuspal fracture.
Keywords: composite resin, successive cusp build up, fracture resistance. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1):1-4)


Depth of cure evaluation of four different light-activated composites using different curing modes

Authors: Ali A. Razooki Al- Shekhli
Pages: 5-8

Background: As light passes through the bulk of the composite material, the light intensity is greatly reduced due to
light absorption and scattering by resin composites, thus, decreasing the effectiveness of cure through the depth of
the composite layer. This study investigated the influence of different new curing modes (conventional and
experimental) and composite formulations on depth of cure using the ISO scraping test.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the depth of cure (ISO scraping method) of four conventional
composites after exposure to different curing modes. A two-piece aluminum mold with a diameter of 4mm and a
height of 8mm was used as a mold for the composite specimens.VIP light curing unit was used to deliver all the
curing modes for photo-curing of all the composite specimens in this study. Parameters included six curing modes:
Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II (PCII) plus three
experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode (PLPC), Prolonged
moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode (RHCC) for each of the
four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral). The
height of the cylinder of cured material was measured with a micrometer to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. This value was
divided by two (in compliance with ISO CD4049: 2000), and recorded as the depth of cure in mm for that specific
Results: Statistical analysis of the data by using the one-way analysis of variance revealed that, there is statistically
very highly significant difference for all the depth of cures between the curing modes and composite types.
Conclusion: This study indicated that, although, both curing mode and composite type significantly affect depth of
cure but the effect of composite composition on the depth of cure is more predominant than that of curing mode.
Key words: Resin composite, light curing modes, composite depth of cure. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1):5-8)


The effect of using different impression techniques and materials on vertical tissue displacement in free end extension ridges. (Dental survey and clinical study)

Authors: Amir. M. Khamas --- Rawia. N. AL- Dafaii
Pages: 9-14

Background: Various impression techniques used in the construction of free- end extension partial denture are based
on theories relative to the compressibility and behaviour of the soft tissue during impression making and during
function, the aim of the study was to measure vertical tissue displacement during impression making for free- and
extension using different impression technique and materials.
Material and methods: the study consisted of two parts (question are and clinical) the questionnaire was circulated
among (90) dentists at different working places, to see which impression technique they use in free- and extension. In
the clinical part (24) mandibular distal extension impression were made using three impression techniques and
materials (special tray with alginate, special tray with polyether and double tray with zinc- oxide eugenol impression
paste). The amount of vertical tissue displacement was measured on stone cast using (dial indicator dimension).
Results: The results of the survey showed that (44%) of the dentist tend to use special tray with alginate, and (38.1%) of
prosthodontist use double tray impression, the clinical part showed that there was significant difference between the
impression techniques.
Conclusions: The most popular impression technique used is special tray with alginate, which showed more tissue
displacement in the clinical part of the study, while the double tray impression technique showed the least
Keyword: Tissue displacement, free- end extension, impression technique. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1):9-14)


The effectiveness of carbide fissure bur in cutting dentin with light, moderate and heavy work load

Authors: Angham G. AL-Hashimi
Pages: 15-17

Background: The dentist believes that pressing harder on the tooth enhances the cutting effectiveness of the bur
performance. The aim of the study: was to evaluate the effectiveness of carbide fissure bur in cutting dentin with
light, moderate and heavy work load.
Materials and Methods: The cutting of carbide bur under different work load was evaluated on dentin specimens
mounted in acrylic blocks. Group I: Cutting performed with light work load (=25g), Group II: Cutting performed with
moderate work load (=100g), Group III: Cutting performed with heavy work load (=175g). Ten cuts were performed
with each work load and atotal of 30 cutting rates or CRs (mm/sec.) were recorded and were statistically analyzed
using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, student t-test.
Results: A significant difference (P< 0.5) appeared between CRs of group I and III, and between group II and III.
Conclusion: The effectiveness of carbide fissure bur in cutting dentin markedly reduced with heavy work load.
Keywords: Effectiveness, Carbide bur, Work load. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1):15-17)


Effect of ozonated water on adherent Mutans Streptococci (In vitro study)


Background: The aim was to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of ozonated water against adherent bacteria (in
Materials and Methods: Ten dentin samples per group were inoculated with bacterial suspension and treated as
follows: (I) untreated served as –ve control, (II) sterile distilled water for 10 seconds served as +ve control, (III) 5.25%
sodium hypochlorite (Sultan-USA) for 10 seconds, (IV) 0.2% chlorhexidine (Corsodyle®, England) for 10 seconds, and
(V) 4mg/L ozonated water (Ozonesolution-Enaly, USA) for 10 seconds. Swab taken from all samples and an inoculum
was spread on the selective medium MSB (HiMedia, India). Count of bacteria was recorded expressed in colony
forming unit (CFU) taking in consideration the dilution factor.
Results: There was high significant reduction in viable count of adherent M.S treated with ozonatd water 4mg/L
compared with the other groups at P<0.01 level.
Conclusions: According to the circumstances of this study, ozonated water was very potent antibacterial agent
against mutans streptococci.
Keywords: Ozonated water, Streptococci mutans, adherence. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 18-23)


The effect of dowel length on the retention of two different endodontic posts

Authors: Lamis A. Al- Taie
Pages: 24-27

Background: Several factors govern the retentiveness of endodontic posts, the shape of the post and its length are
among the essential factors.
This invitro study formulated to compare the retentive values of stainless steel, parallel sided, serrated posts (Euro
post) to fiber reinforced, tapered ,smooth posts (Easy post) at two embedment depth (5and 10 mm).
Materials and methods: Thirty two intact human mandibular second premolars were selected for this study. These
samples were endodonticlly treated, and randomly divided in to four groups of eight teeth each:
Group Ι: teeth restored with Easy post at embedment depth 10mm. Group ΙΙ: teeth restored with Easy post at
embedment depth 5mm. Group ΙΙΙ: teeth restored with Euro post at embedment depth 10mm. Group ΙV: teeth
restored with Euro post at embedment depth 5mm. Tensile failure loads were measured in the absence of crowns
using an instron test machine at across head speed of 5 mm/min .Values were recorded in Newton Mean values and
standard deviations were analyzed with one way ANOVA test and the least significant differences test.
Results: retentive failure loads were recorded for all test specimens; the means and standard deviation for each
group were as follows: group Ι: 65.75±23.6 ; group ΙΙ: 64.25 ±22.2, group: 189.5±25.9,and group ΙV: 221.1±27.
Conclusion: Endodontically treated teeth restored with Euro post (stainless steel/parallel sided /serrated posts)
showed significantly greater retentive values than Easy post (fiber reinforced composite /tapered/smooth posts), also
there was no significant difference in retentive values are achieved with both systems at 5mm and 10mm post
Key words: Euro post, fiber reinforced posts, post length, retention. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 24-27)


Assessment of consistency and compressive strength of manufactured dental base materials from enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment


Back ground: This study was done to assist consistency and, compressive strength of manufactured dental base
materials from enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment.
Materials and methods: The ratio of the elements of the manufactured base materials and the parameters of CO2
laser (15.92W/cm2 power density and 0.2 seconds exposure time) were detected from the pilot study. The standard
consistency test described in America dental association(ADA) specification No.8 was used so that all manufactured
base materials could be conveniently mixed and the results would be of comparable value and the compressive
strength test described by British standard specification for zinc polycarboxylate cement was used in this study,
Results: The results showed that a standard 0.5 ml of liquid (polycarboxylic acid) can be mixed with 350 mg of base
material that contains mixture of enamel powder ,hydroxyapatite and zinc oxide ,300 mg of base material that
contains Enamel powder and zinc oxide, and 400mg of base material that contains Synthetic Hydroxyapatite and
zinc oxide the manufactured base material that contains mixture of enamel powder and hydroxyapatite without
CO2 laser treatment has compressive strength of (48.36±2.07) MPa ,while the manufactured base material that
contains mixture of enamel powder and hydroxyapatite with CO2 laser treatment has compressive strength of
(62.47±2.52)MPa. However, the manufactured base material that contains enamel powder with CO2 laser treatment
has compressive strength of (66.08±2.33)MPa and the results also appeared that the compressive strength will
increases after one week storage.
Conclusion: The manufactured base materials that contains hydroxyapatite requires higher amount of powder to be
mixed with 0.5 ml polycarboxlic acid and the base material that contains mixture of enamel powder and synthetic
hydroxyapatite has higher compressive strength and the CO2 laser treatment will increase the compressive strength
of the manufactured base materials.
Key words: consistency, Compressive, manufactured base materials. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 28-32)


The effect of amalgam condensation techniques on the tensile bond strength using different dentin adhesives (in vitro study)

Authors: Abdul Munaim S. AL-Khafaji
Pages: 33-37

Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of the condensation techniques of the
amalgam on the tensile bond strength of the amalgam to dentin.
Materials and Methods: The occlusal enamel surfaces of the teeth were ground flat to exposed the dentin surfaces,
and polished with 600-grit SiC papers. The dentin surfaces were treated with one of the combinations of dentin
bonding agents and condensation techniques. The tensile bond strengths were determined with a Zwick Universal
Testing Machine.
Results: Statistical analysis of the result revealed that for the Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and the control
groups, hand condensation was better and the difference was highly significant (p<0.01) while for the Syntac singlecomponent
adhesive group , the mechanical condensation performed better and the difference was highly
significant ( p < 0.01) . For both types of condensation techniques, the Syntac single-component showed higher
tensile bond strength values than that of both Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and control groups ( p < 0.01 ) . The
Scotchbond Multi-Purpose showed higher tensile bond strength values than that on the control groups and the
difference was highly significant ( p<0.01 ).
Conclusions: For both types of condensation techniques, Syntac single-component performed the best in bonding
the amalgam to dentin. The two types of condensation techniques had different effect on the tensile bond strengths
of the amalgam to dentin using the dentin bonding agents.
Keywords: Amalgam, tensile bond, dentin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1):33-37)


The visible portion of upper anterior teeth at rest

Authors: Reem A. Al Obaidy
Pages: 38-40

Back ground: Esthetics has become a respectable concept in dentistry. In the past, the importance of esthetics was
discounted in favor of concepts such as function, structure and biology. In today's, treatment planning must begin
with well defined esthetic objectives. The visibility of upper anterior tooth surface with lip at rest is an important factor
in determining prosthodontic outcome. A study was therefore, undertaken to investigate the degree of visibility of
maxillary anterior teeth surfaces when the lip at rest.
Materials and method: 140 patients were examined. The entire subject had maxillary anterior teeth present with no
caries, restorations; sever attrition, mobility, or obvious deformities. The portions of upper anterior teeth that were
visible were measured vertically using millimeter ruler.
Results: females showed more of the maxillary central and lateral incisors than males, while the difference in canine
was not significant. With increasing age, the amount of maxillary anterior teeth that was visible at rest decreased.
Most subjects with shorter upper lips displayed more maxillary anterior teeth than those with longer upper lips.
Conclusion: The degree of visibility of maxillary anterior teeth is determined by muscle position that varies from one
person to another. These results provide practical guidelines for vertical positioning of the maxillary teeth.
Key words: Anterior dental esthetics, tooth visibility, lip line. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1):38-40)


Reliability of fovea palatinea in determining the posteriorpalatal seal

Authors: Yasmen T. AL – Alousi
Pages: 41-45

Background: The present study was carried out to study the position of fovea platinae in relation to posterior palatal
seal (post dam) in an Iraqi, population sample, whether in front, at or behind, and gender differentiations.
Material and methods: A clinical examination was carried out on 200 patients with edentulous maxillary arch,
attending prosthetic Department in the College of Dentistry, Baghdad University. Only 110 patients meet the study's
criteria. Each patient was examined for the location of vibrating line whether in front, at or behind the fovea
Results: The results showed that 50.9% of patients had their vibrating line at their fovea platinae, 44.5% had it in front
and 6.4% behind. There were highly significant differences between; age groups of patients, gender distribution of
patients, significant differences between; age group and gender of patients, and non significant differences
between gender and position of posterior palatal seal in relation to fovea palatinae.
Conclusion: The study concluded that fovea palatinae is: A reliable anatomical land mark that helps in determining
the posterior palatal seal (post dam). The majority of patients had their vibrating line at their fovea palatinae
Key words: Posterior palatal seal, post dam, fovea platinae, vibrating line. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 41-45)


Microleakage of Class II composite using different etching techniques

Authors: Zainab M. Abdul-Ameer
Pages: 46-48

Background: Microleakage in the gingival floor of class II composite restorations can compromise the marginal
adaptation of the filling material to the cavity edges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different
etching techniques on Microleakage of class II Composite filling.
Materials and methods: Sixty extracted caries-free human premolars were randomly divided into six groups
according to etching technique. In group A and B the dentin of the cavities were etched with 35% phosphoric acid
gel, in group C and D the dentin of the cavities were irradiated using a 320 μm Nd: YAG laser beam, in group E and F
the dentin surfaces were initially treated with the laser and then etched as in group A and B with 35% phosphoric
acid. Proximal class II cavities were prepared in all samples with the gingival floor one millimeter below the CEJ.
Cavities were restored according to research protocol. The samples were subjected to 2500 thermal cycles (5-55oC),
immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine solution, embedded in epoxy resin and cut centrally. Microleakage was scored and
collected data were statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance.
Results: More microleakage was detected in group C (p<0.05; variance analysis). The laser beam and acid-etching
showed no advantage compared to the acid-etching alone (p>0.05). Using the incremental technique significantly
decreased microleakage (P<0.02).
Conclusion: The Nd: YAG laser irradiation in cl II composite does not constitute an alternative to acid-etching. .
Samples restored with the incremental technique, and cavities etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel had the least
dye penetration and microleakage.
Keywords: Acid etching, Nd: YAG laser, resin composite. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 46-48)


Distribution and localization of ground substance of carbohydrate group in an inflammatory and phenytion induced gingival enlargement using histochemical method


Background: Gingival enlargement detected as a result of pathological changes or by induction of drugs such as
Phenytoin. Changes in distribution of macromolecules of glycogen, proteoglycan and glycoprotein in gingival
enlargement were observed by histochemical method. The aim of the study was to illustrate the localization and
distribution of ground substance in an inflammatory and Phenytoin induced gingival enlargement, using
histochemical methods.
Materials and Methods: Twenty two individuals, ten with inflammatory gingival enlargement, other ten with Phenytoin
induced gingival enlargement and two healthy person extraction of impacted 3rd molar as control .The specimens
were stained with periodic acid Schiff reagent (PAS).
Results: In the inflammatory gingival enlargement there is an increase in carbohydrate material production concern
to epithelial layer, basement membrane and underneath connective tissue showing reddish purple stain with PAS
reaction, while Phenytoin induced gingival enlargement showed increment in epithelial layer only.
Conclusion: Histochemical method by PAS stain used to show difference in distribution of carbohydrate group in
gingival specimens of inflammatory and Phenytoin induced gingival enlargement.
Key words: Gingival enlargement, Phenytoin, PAS stain. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry2009; 21(1): 49-52)


Oral findings and health status among elderly Iraqi patients, (aged 65 and above)

Authors: Fawaz Al-Aswad
Pages: 53-56

Background: The study hypothesis was that elderly patients with many concomitant diseases and drugs would have
different oral diseases, thus epidemiological information about their oral health is urgently needed in geriatric dental
care for diagnosis treatment and prevention. The aim was to obtain base line information on the prevalence of oral
problems and disease in elderly Iraqi patients.
Materials & Method: The study group consisted of 83 (43 males and 40 females) elderly patients, they were examined
to evaluate the oral health status.
Results: From 83 patients who verbalized their complaints 72% complained of dry mouth, 42% had burning mouth
syndrome and 48% had oral mucosal lesion. The commonest oral finding was denture stomatitis 30%.
Conclusion: This data suggests that there was considerable unmet dental need with significant oral disease in this
target group.
Key words: Geriatric dentistry,.saliva. BMS (J Bagh Coll Dentistry2009; 21(1):53-56)


Evaluation of oral hygiene, gingival health and dental knowledge among 4-12 years old children attending the dental hospital

Authors: Eman K. Chaloob
Pages: 57-59

Background: The main objective of all Dental Health Program is to prevent and control dental disease, Therefore this
study was conducted to evaluate the Oral Hygiene and Dental Health Knowledge of children that frequently
attended Pedodontic and Preventive Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.
Materials and methods: A sample of 102 children participated in this study was examined using plaque, gingival and
calculus indices for three times interval. Information about age and gender were collected and five questions
fabricated by specialist dealing with brushing technique, frequency of brushing, type of tooth paste and which type
of food or snacks that cause dental caries.
Results: Major reduction in the PlI, GI, CalI has been found, the dental health knowledge and behaviors of children
could be changed positively.
Conclusion: Periodic dental visit, with motivation, instruction and continuous removal of plaque could successfully
improve gingival condition. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 57-59)


Serum and salivary levels of proinflammatory cytokines as potential biomarkers in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma


Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the prevalent cancers of the body . If not treated at its early
stages, the prognosis will be poor. Early diagnosis of oral cancer may not be easy clinically because of its
resemblance to a number of benign lesions in the mouth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of
measurement of some proinflammatory cytokines levels in serum and saliva as biomarkers for early detection of oral
Materials and methods: The levels of Interleukins IL-1α, IIL-6, IL-8 and Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating
Factor (GM-CSF) in the serum and saliva of (30) patients with OSCC and (20) healthy (control) individuals were
measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Higher concentrations of serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were observed in patients with OSCC than the control
group (P<0.001). No significant difference was seen in serum IL-1 alpha and GM-CSF between patients with OSCC
and control group. The levels of IL-1 alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF in saliva showed significant increase in patients
with OSCC when compared with control group.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the levels of certain prinflammatory cytokines can be measured in serum and saliva
of patients with OSCC and healthy individuals. Detection of increased levels of these elements can be used as
biomarkers for early detection of oral cancer,
Keywords: oral cancer; saliva, serum, cytokine, interleukine. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 60-65)


Assessment of Magnesium and Calcium status in oral cancer patients

Authors: Marwan Al-Nimr --- Suad AL-Ani --- Seta A.Sarkis
Pages: 66-69

Background: The aim was to determine whether Mg and Ca ions could serve as tumor markers.
Materials and methods: A total sample of 53 individuals was studied that includes 33 patients with oral cancer and 20
well-matching control. Estimation of Mg and Ca levels in the lymphocytes of healthy individuals and patients, in the
normal and diseased tissues of patients were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: The values of both elements in the lymphocytes of patients were exchangeable according to the
histopathological diagnosis. They were generally elevated in comparison to the control. (Ca = (3.983±3.214mean
±SD), Mg = (2.598±2.364 mean ±SD). Decrease levels of either elements in the diseased tissues observed in
comparison to normal tissues in both sexes but it was more obvious in females than males (P<0.001 for Ca, P<0.002 for
Conclusion: Patients with oral cancer are immune suppressed and immune disturbance could be the cause of the
results found in this work.
Key words: Magnesium, Calcium, lymphocytes, tissues, oral cancer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 66-69)


The role of lipid peroxidation in the inducation and progression of chronic periodontitis

Authors: Taghreed F. Zaidan
Pages: 70-73

Backgrounds: Free-radical-induced lipid peroxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several
pathological disorders. This study was aimed to assess the degree of oxidative stress in patients with chronic
periodontitis by estimation of plasma and saliva lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), and the
antioxidants erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), plasma and saliva thiol.
Patients and methods: Fifty patients with chronic periodontitis with mean age of 32.6 ± 10.3 years and fifty healthy
control subjects with normal gingival age study, 5 mls of blood and 3 mls of unstimulated saliva was collected from
each subjects for estimation of plasma and saliva MDA, thiol and erythrocyte glutathione spectrophotometricaly.
Results: The results showed that significantly increased p<0.001 in periodontitis patient than in the control subjects,
while erythrocyte glutathione, plasma and saliva thiol were significantly decreased p<0.05 in periodontitis patients
than in the control.
Conclusions: Patients with periodontitis demonstrate more lipid peroxidation than healthy subjects. Imbalance
between oxidative stress and antioxidants may play a role in the pathogenesis of perodontitis.
Key words: Periodontitis, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 70-73)


Clinical observation of recurrent aphthous stomatitis in Sulaimania

Authors: Shokhan A. Hussien --- Shanaz M. Gaphor
Pages: 74-79

Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common recurring oral ulcerative condition in many parts of
the world, characterized by painful oral ulcerations recurring with varying frequency the aim of this Study: To: record
the distribution of aphthous ulcers in Sulaimani, find the clinical features and effect of local factors and medical
disorder on occurance of aphthous ulceration.
Patients and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 80 patients and seen in period from January 2008 to
August 2008. Complete medical history and full history of present illness was obtained, physical examination and
laboratory investigations were carried out to asses patients condition.
Results: In this study 80 patients were examined, 53 of them 66.25 % were females, 27 patients 33.75 % were males. 56
patients (70 %) had minor aphthous ulceration, 22 patients (27.5 %) had major aphthous ulceration, and 2 patients
(2.5 %) had herpetiform ulceration. In our sample the most common etiological factor of RAU was stress and anxiety
which constitute (45 %) followed by hematological deficiency and hormonal causes in which each of them
constitute (16.25 %), Behcet's disease (12.5 %), gastrointestinal diseases (10 %).
Conclusions: From this study the researcher concludes that: Recurrent aphthous ulcer is more common in females
than males. Minor aphthous ulceration is more common than major aphthous ulceration and herpetiform ulcer is a
very rare form of aphthous ulceration and is also seen in older age group. Minor aphthous ulcers occurs only in nonkeratinized
mucosa the most common site is lower lip, but major and herpetiform ulcers occur anywhere in oral
cavity including keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa.
Key words: RAU, clinical presentation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 74-79)


Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in different age groups

Authors: Abdul-Karim A. A. Al- Muhammadawi
Pages: 80-83

Background: Hypersensitivity of teeth is a common condition. It indicates that enamel or cementum is not present on
teeth cervical area and that dentine is exposed, therefore; it will be sensitive to stimuli like tactile, thermal, .etc.
Materials & Methods: Hypersensitivity was recorded as present or absent on probing the surfaces of teeth in 500 subjects
attending Oral diagnosis clinic, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. The subjects were examined for Tooth / root
exposure, Oral hygiene status, and cervical abrasions.
Results: Seventy five patients of 500 (15%) showed hypersensitive teeth and a total of 330 teeth were found to be
sensitive. Hypersensitivity was observed in 16 years of age and more, with highest incidence between 26-35 years. The
intraoral distribution showed that half hypersensitive teeth are the upper and lower premolars. The lower molars were the
less affected teeth.
Conclusion: The most affected intraoral areas on the vestibular surfaces of teeth, most frequently affected teeth are 1st
premolars. Correlation with other factors like root exposure and cervical abrasion suggests the occurrence of
hypersensitive teeth and to be enhanced by improper oral hygiene habits.
Key words: Dentine hypersensitivity, hypersensitive teeth, abrasion (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 80-83)


Prevalence and distribution of gingival recession and root caries in a group of dental patients in Ramadi city, Iraq


Background: With respect to increase in the rate of gingival recession in the adults and elderly people which is
considered as a risk factor for root caries ,the prevalence and attack rate of root caries may differ This study
determine the prevalence of both alterations among a group under study .
Subjects and methods: Three hundred and thirty six subjects ranging in age from 20 – 49 years divided into three age
groups of both genders (176 males and 160 females). Four surfaces were examined in each tooth. Gingival recession
was regarded as present when ever more than 1mm of root surface was exposed and its vertical width was measured
in millimeters from the cemento-enamal junction to the gingival margin in addition to the presence of caries on the
exposed surface.
Results: Gingival recession was observed in 52.4 % of the total sample (52.8 % in males and 51.9 % in females) and at
least in one dental surface in the affected teeth. The prevalence was found to increase with increasing age. First
molar teeth exhibit more surfaces with gingival recession. The average value was (21.6 %). 18 .5 % of the sample have
root caries .It increases as age and recession increase, it affects males (19.3 %) more than females (17. 5 %) and first
molar teeth (32.3) was mostly affected.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of gingival recession and root caries demonstrate attention must be provided by
dentist and people themselves, preventive measures must be conducted among population to control their increase.
Key word: Gingival recession, root caries, epidemiology(J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 84-87)


The effect of locally applied ciprofloxacin on the incidence rate of dry socket

Authors: Jabbar J. Sabur --- Emad A. Salman
Pages: 88-90

Background: Dry socket is a common and unpleasant local complication following the extraction and surgical
removal of teeth. This study was constructed to prevent or minimize this post operative complication.
Material and Methods: 81 patients were involved in this study, divided into two groups, an experimental group: the
extraction socket was irrigated intra and immediate postoperatively with 0.5ml/ socket Ciprofloxacin, and a control
group: the extraction site was irrigated in the same manner with normal saline.
Results: A total of 5 dry sockets were developed in this study, one case in the experimental group, and four cases in
the control group. The incidence rate of dry socket in the experimental group was 2.4% while in the control group
was 10%.
Conclusion: Although the incidence rate of dry socket was reduced from 10% in the control group to 2.4% in the
experimental group, but the statistical analysis showed no significant effect for the Ciprofloxacin in the reduction of
dry socket.
Keywords: Dry socket, Ciprofloxacin, incidence, prevention. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 88-90)


Closed reduction for comminuted mandibular fractures

Authors: Thaer Abdul Lateef
Pages: 91-97

Background: Closed reduction and indirect skeletal fixation is a well known modality for treatment of mandibular
fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate this modality as the treatment of choice for comminuted mandibular
fractures due to missile injuries.
Materials and methods: This study included 32 patients presented with comminuted mandibular fractures due to
missile injury. The patient ages ranged from 21-58 years, 26 of them were males and 6 females. Closed reduction with
the use of maxillomandbular fixation for 6 weeks was the modality of choice.
Results: The most common site was the body region 50%, complication rate (transient and permanent) was 53.1%
with significant bone loss in 13 patients 35.1%.
Conclusion: Initial conservative treatment found to be effective and the complex hard and soft tissue reconstructions
reserved later for definitive approach.
Keywords: Missile injury, comminuted fracture, closed reduction. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 91-97)


Hypodontia in Down’s syndrome patients


Background: The intention of this study was to quantify the occurrence of hypodontia in a group of individuals with
Down syndrome.
Materials and method: The sample consisted of 164 subjects with Down syndrome with an age ranged 14-18 years,
the subjects were examined clinically, when radiographs were in need, orthopantomograph, occlusal, or periapical
were often taken to confirm the diagnosis.
Results: The results show a notably high prevalence of hypodontia in individuals with Down syndrome (45.2%) being
higher in females (47.4%) than males (42.3%), the hypodontia in the maxilla was higher than in the mandible and on
the right side of females was higher than the left side, while males show on the left side was higher than the right side
though this difference was not significant. The number of congenitally missing teeth also in females was higher than in
males; the most congenitally missing teeth were the lower second premolars, upper lateral incisors, lower second
premolars and lower lateral incisors respectively. The distribution of peg–shaped lateral incisors was 15% and more
unilaterally than bilaterally.
Conclusions: This study reveals a high prevalence of hypodontia (missing teeth and peg-shaped lateral incisors) in
patients with Down syndrome. No explanation other than genetics is immediately available to explain why
hypodontia should represent another phenotypic expression of this trisomy
Keyword:Down's syndrome, Hypodontia, Peg-shaped lateral incisors. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 98-103)


Malocclusion of primary dentition among kindergarten children in Zayona part of Baghdad City

Authors: Shahbaa A. M. Al- Ajwadi
Pages: 104-106

Background: The aim was to evaluate the type of malocclusion in primary dentition to give the parents information
about their child future teeth in order to try to minimize the malocclusion in permanent dentition.
Materials and methods: An oral health survey was conducted among 200 kindergarten children aged 4-5 years from
randomly selected kindergarten in the Zayona part of Baghdad city. The numbers of females were 100 and the
numbers of males were 100.
Results: Highest percentage of children showed mesial terminal end( 60.5%) followed by flat terminal end( 29%) and
the smallest percentage for distal terminal end( 10.5%),high percentages of children showed Cl I Canine relation and
Cl I over jet relation followed by ClI and small percentage showed ClII canine and over jet relation.
Conclusion: Most children had mesial terminal end so will guide the permanent first molars to Cl I molar relation, and
most children had Cl I canine and over jet relation so we will expect the future permanent teeth will be within normal
over jet and canine relation.
Key words: Malocclusion, primary dentition, over jet. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 104-106)


Mandibular antegonial notch depth distribution and its relationship with craniofacial morphology in different skeletal patterns

Authors: Ausama A. Al-Mulla --- Yassir A. Yassir
Pages: 107-111

Background: Antegonial notch is a small concavity at the inferior surface of the mandible. The purpose of this study is
to identify the distribution of mandibular antegonial notch depth and its relationship with craniofacial morphology in
different skeletal patterns.
Materials and method: The sample included 191 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs (93 males,
98 females) collected from the Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. The
sample was divided into three groups according to the skeletal classes, and then each group divided according to
depth of mandibular antegonial notch into: shallow, medium, and deep groups. Sixteen angular and thirteen linear
measurements were used.
Results: Cl I had the highest percentage of medium antegonial notch. Cl II had the highest percentage of deep
notch, while Cl III had the highest percentage of shallow notch. Males had significantly deeper notch than females in
Cl I and Cl II. Significant difference found between males skeletal Cl II and Cl III. The craniofacial measurements
showed significant changes with the increase in antegonial notch depth variably in different classes.
Conclusions: Angular measurements of cranial base more concerned with mandibular morphology than linear
measurements. The increase in vertical growth pattern and backward rotation of the mandible in association with
the increase in notch depth appeared particularly in skeletal Cl II.
Keywords: antegonial notch, craniofacial morphology, skeletal patterns. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(1): 107-111)


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