Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2009 volume:21 issue:2

Article
The effect of the Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) addition on biological properties of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base material

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The most common materials used for fabrication of denture base are poly methyl methacrylate
(PMMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Biocompatibility is especially relevant to prosthodontics and other
restorative materials.
Materials and methods: Biocompatibility was evaluated in comparison with the control materials through
subcutaneous implantation in the rabbits. 50 specimens were prepared, 5 specimens for each period interval of
biological study. Excision biopsies were taken after 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Microscopically, the
count of the inflammatory cells was used as a parameter in the evolution of the tissue response in relation to the
tested material. The biological properties of the prepared material were evaluated in comparison with the control
denture base acrylic resin. Specimens were grouped to two groups:
Group 1: poly (methyl methacrylate) + methyl methacrylate as control. Group 2: poly (methyl methacrylate) 80%,
poly vinyl pyrrolidone 20% + methyl methacrylate as experimental.
Results: After 3, 7, 14 and 28 days there was no significant differences between means count values of experimental
and positive control sections.
Conclusion: The biolcompatibity of poly vinyl pyrrolidone was similar to poly (methyl methacrylate)
Key words: Biolcompatibity, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, polymethyl methacrylate.. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):1-4)

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Article
The effect of three different denture adhesives on the retention of mandibular complete denture (Comparative study)

Authors: Amer M. Khamas --- Ilham H. Al-Abdulla
Pages: 5-9
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Retention is one of the important factors in the success of the prosthodontic treatment. Retention is
affected by several factors which are physical, physiological, psychological, mechanical and surgical factors. The use of
denture adhesives improved the retention and stability of complete denture. The use of denture adhesives is indicated in
several cases , as in an immediate denture , flat ridge, patient with deficits in muscle control, xerostomic patient and
patient in need of psychological security the purpose of this study is to measure and compare the effectiveness of
denture adhesives (cushion, powder and cream protefix denture adhesive)in a well fitting mandibular complete denture
for flat ridge at various time intervals and to its relation with surface area of denture bearing mucosa.
Materials and methods: Ten edentulous patients with flat ridge, with age group (50-70) years were selected. New
complete dentures were constructed for them. A specially designed strain gauge force transducer and a strain indicator
unit were used to measure forces required to dislodge the denture from its foundation. Retention of mandibular
complete denture without adhesive and with the use of each type denture adhesives at intervals of 15minutes, 1hour
and 2hour were measured .The surface area of denture bearing mucosa was also measured.
Results and conclusion: This study revealed that there is a significant improvement in the retention of mandibular
complete denture for flat ridge after using three types' denture adhesives. Denture adhesives start their action
immediately and decreased with time. Powder was the most effective denture adhesives than cushion and cream.
Key words: Flat ridge, Denture adhesive, Strain gauge measuring device. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):5-9)

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Article
Assessment of visible light absorption using different curing cycles and colorant drinks. In vitro study

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study concerned with the stainability of acrylic resin cured by different methods of curing immersed
in different colorant drinks and time intervals.
Materials and methods: Thirty-six specimens were prepared, eighteen specimen were cured by conventional (short
cycle) and other eighteen specimens were cured by Ivomate or pressure curing then the specimens immersed in
different colorant drinks (Tea, Coffee and water), and the reading for amount of visible light absorption obtained at
the end of each time intervals then the values obtained statistically analyzed by both ANOVA Table and students
paired t-test .
Results: The short curing cycle significantly affect the color stability less than that of ivomate curing cycle when
compare the results by using ANOVA Table, while comparing the measurement of visible light absorption at the end
of each time intervals of both curing cycles by using student t-test show that samples made by using short curing
cycle significantly higher stain resistance than that made by ivomate curing cycle.
Conclusion: Color stability affected by porosity, residual monomer and fog percentage presents in the acrylic resin
samples .those variables directly affected by heat and pressure applied in the curing cycle .so that reducing the
heat and decrease pressure result in lowering their percentage.
Keywords: Acrylic resin, spectrophotometer, colorant drinks. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):10-13)

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Article
Post-gel polymerization shrinkage strain evaluation of four light-activated composites using different curing modes

Authors: Ali A. Razooki Al- Shekhli
Pages: 14-17
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: One of the ways of minimizing polymerization shrinkage of light-activated composites is by applying
short pulses of light energy, prepolymerization at low light intensity followed by final cure at high intensity (soft-start
polymerization) or a combination of both. This study investigated the influence of different curing modes on the postgel
polymerization shrinkage strain of different light- activated composites.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the Post-Gel Polymerization Shrinkage Strain of two mm thick
composite specimens after exposure to different curing modes. Parameters included six conventional curing modes:
Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II (PCII) plus three
experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode (PLPC), Prolonged
moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode (RHCC) for each of the
four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: Statistical analysis of the data by using the one-way analysis of variance revealed that, there was a
statistically significant difference for all the polymerization shrinkage strains with the composite type, curing mode
and post-curing-time.
Conclusion: Light intensity reduction and elongation of the curing time combined with pulse activation and soft start
polymerization (PLPC curing mode) resulted in significantly lower and gradual post-gel polymerization shrinkage strain
for all the light-activated composites being tested
Key words: Post-gel polymerization, Light curing modes, Polymerization Shrinkage strain. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(2):14-17)

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Article
A comparison of fracture strength of posterior composite and ceramic inlay materials

Authors: Wisam A. Najim --- Ma'an R. Zakaria
Pages: 18-22
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Patient demands for nonmetallic restorations have increased for esthetic reasons in posterior teeth,
especially due to the questionable biocompatibility of mercury-containing amalgam alloys. This study compared the
fracture strength of four different posterior inlay materials.
Materials and Methods: Four types of inlay material were tested (Herculite XRV™, Nulite F®, Fibrespan®, and In-
Ceram®). The specimens were distributed into four groups, each group contained ten specimens. The fracture
strength was determined for each specimen, using a Computerized Materials Testing Machine (Testometric AX) by
which mechanical loading on specimens was performed.
Results: Under the circumstances of this study, it was obvious that the In-Ceram® group had the highest value of
fracture strength (524.4 MPa.), followed by Herculite™ Group (307.08 MPa.), Nulite F® Group (176.44MPa.), and
Fibrespan® Group which scored the lowest value (110.84 MPa.). A statistical analysis of the results using One-way
ANOVA, and LSD tests revealed a highly significant level of difference between each of the four groups.
Conclusions. All systems showed sufficient fracture strength to be used clinically for posterior inlay fabrication.
Keywords: Fracture strength, Inlay materials. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):18-22)

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Article
Comparative study of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using different instruments and techniques (In vitro study)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: To compare the number of bacteria extruded apically from extracted teeth after canal instrumentation
using the nickel-titanium instruments (both Hand & Rotary ProTaper) and hand Stainless Steel instruments.
Methodology: sixty extracted single-rooted human teeth were used. Access opening was prepared and root canals were
then contaminated with a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis. The contaminated roots were divided into three
experimental groups of 20 teeth. Group 1, Rotary ProTaper group: the root canals were instrumented using Rotary
ProTaper instruments. Group 2, Hand ProTaper group: the root canals were instrumented using Hand ProTaper instruments.
Group 3, Hand Stainless Steel instruments group: the root canals were instrumented using Hand Stainless Steel instruments.
Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples
from the vials were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Colonies of bacteria were counted and the results were given as
number of colony-forming units. The data obtained were analysed using the one-way ANOVA analysis of variance and ttests
p value 0.05 as the level for statistical significance.
Results: There was no significant difference to the number of extruded bacteria between the Rotary & Hand (P>0.05 Non
significant) but there was significant difference between Rotary & Hand ProTaper and Hand Stainless Steel instruments
(P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Hand Stainless Steel instruments extruded more bacteria apically than Rotary & Hand ProTaper.
Keywords: apical extrusion, bacteria, engine-driven techniques. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):23-27)

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Article
An in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of three root canal sealers

Authors: Hiba A. Salman --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Pages: 28-31
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The antimicrobial agents are added to root canal sealers to improve their antibacterial effect. The
purpose of this study was to evaluate three root canal sealers (DORIFILL, ENDOFILL, APEXIT PLUS) for their antimicrobial
effect by using the agar diffusion test (ADT).
Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effect of three root canal sealers was tested by the agar diffusion test.
Fifteen petriplates . Five cavities , each one measuring 5ml in diameter and 4ml in depth ,were made in each agar
plates using cork poorer and then completely filled with the products to be tested. All plates were incubated for 72
hours at 37°C under aerobic conditions, and zones of inhibition were measured .Statistical analysis was conducted
using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), P value equal or greater than 0.05 was considered as a statistically
non significant, P value equal or greater than 0.01 and less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant, were
as P less than 0.01 was considered as statistically highly significant.
Results: All of the sealers caused bacterial growth inhibition. Their effectiveness, in descending order of antimicrobial
activity, was as follows: ENDOFILL DEXAMETHASONE, DORIFILL, APEXIT PLUS.
The sustaining period of the antimicrobial action of all types of sealers used in this study was 24 hrs only. No
antimicrobial activity was seen after 72 hrs.
Conclusions: Root canal sealers showed different inhibitory effects depending on their types and the bacterial strains
tested. Root canal sealers containing Dexamethasone and eugenol proved to be effective against the
microorganisms studied.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, endodontic treatment, roots canal sealers. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):28-31)

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Article
Evaluation of presence of voids in two different gutta percha obturation techniques: Thermafil, Soft Core (Low Heat) (an in vitro study)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Many attempts to achieve fluid tight seal in root canal obturation were tried since that most of failed
endodontic treatment were due to insufficient obturation like presence of voids at gutta percha sealer interface or sealer
canal wall and gutta percha canal walls interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the addaptability
of guttapercha root canal fillings a cheived with thermafill and soft core( low heat) of two sizes (size of MAF & a one size
less than MAF) (35 & 40 iso size) for each type of obturator through counting of voids numbers at guttapercha sealer
interface and sealer canal walls and gutta percha canal walls interface
Materials and methods: In this study 20 straight distal roots of 8 mm length were sectioned from freshly extracted lower
molar and were prepared using protaper system to f4 master apical file then grouped into 4 groups (5 sample for each
group). Group 1: The root canal in this group were luted using dorifill sealer which was applied by paper point to paint
canal wall by thin layer of sealer and then obturated using thermafill obturator (iso size 35) according manufacture
instructions. Group 2: The root canal in this group were luted using dorifill sealer which was applied by paper point to
paint canal wall by thin layer of sealer and then obturated using thermafill obturator (iso size 40) according manufactural
instructions. Group 3: The root canal in this group were luted using dorifill sealer which was applied by paper point to
paint canal wall by thin layer of sealer and then obturated using soft core (low heat) obturator(iso size 35) according
manufactural instructions. Group 4: The root canal in this group were luted using dorifill sealer which was applied by
paper point to paint canal wall by thin layer of sealer and then obturated using soft core (low heat) obturator(iso size 40)
according manufactural instructions. All samples were sectioned at five levels (1mm, 2.5 mm, 4mm, 5.5 mm and 7 mm)
from anatomical apex of the root. One hundred samples were examined using transillumination stereoscope at an
original magnification of 20 X and photographed by digital camera at special setting as recommended by
manufacturers mounted on microscope. The number of voids of each section was counted.
Results: The examination resulted in no voids in all sections of the samples in group 2,group3 and group 4 which were
obturated by iso size 40 of thermafill and iso size 35 & 40 of soft core (low heat) respectively.
Two voids were seen in fifth level of sectioning in two samples of group 1 which were obturated by iso size 35 of thermafill
obturator.
Conclusion: The presence of voids with the use of the thermoplasticized cone techniques is very rare.
Key words: Voids, thermafil, soft core. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):32-34)

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Article
A comparative study of apical microleakage by using different preparation and obturation techniques

Authors: Adel F. Ibraheem --- Mervat M. AL – Bakri
Pages: 35-38
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: When a tooth is treated endodontically, there are several objectives, which must be met for the root
canal therapy to be successful. One of those objectives is the complete obturation of root canal system. The purpose
of this study was to evaluate the apical sealing ability of root canals prepared by hand and rotary ProTaper system
and obturrated with Thermafil and ProTaper gutta percha points in comparison with conventional cold lateral
condensation by using dye penetration method.
Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human single straight canals (premolars) were collected and these teeth
were randomly divided into two groups of 30 specimens each.(Group A-rotary ProTaper, Group B-hand ProTaper),
and each group were divided into three subgroups of 10 specimens each.(Group A1,B1-Thermafil,Group A2,B2-
ProTaper gutta percha points, Group A3,B3 cold lateral condensation). Dorifil root canal sealer was employed as the
common sealant.
Results: The hand ProTaper was significantly better than rotary ProTaper at apical microleakage when Thermafil,
ProTaper gutta-percha point and lateral condensation were used. In group A both the highest and lowest mean
value for apical leakage were seen at lateral condensation technique (4.35) and Thermafil technique (1.35) while
the protaper g.p points was (2.75).In group B both the highest and lowest mean value for apical leakage were seen
at CLC (3.55) and Thermafil (1.1) while the protaper g.p points was (2.65).There was high statistically significant
difference between Thermafil, protaper g.p points and CLC techniques(p<0.05)
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that root canals prepared by hand protaper was significantly better than
rotary protaper at apical microleakage.The roots treated by Thermafil leak the least than protaper g.p points and
CLC techniques.
Key words: Apical seal, Thermafil, ProTaper gutta percha points, Lateral condensation. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(2):35-38)

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Article
Effectiveness of four different light-activated composites cure with different curing modes

Authors: Ali A. Razooki Al- Shekhli
Pages: 39-43
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ABSTRACT
Background: This study investigated the influence of different new curing modes on the effectiveness of cure of
different light- activated composites to examine their efficacy in satisfying composite adequate polymerization.
Materials and methods: This study investigated the hardness of the top/bottom surfaces and hardness ratio of two
mm thick composite specimens after exposure to different curing modes. Parameters included six curing modes:
Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II (PCII) plus three
experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode (PLPC), Prolonged
moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode (RHCC) for each of the
four different light-activated composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: Results reveled that, there was statistically very highly significant difference for all the hardness ratios with the
curing modes except the hardness ratio of Heliomolar composite where, there was an insignificant difference
because, the mean hardness ratio of Heliomolar composite with the first six curing modes (control, PDI, PDII, SS, PCI,
PCII) was not calculated because, the poor polymerization of Heliomolar bottom surfaces with these six curing
modes.
Conclusion: This study indicated that, clinical usage of Control, PDI, PDII, SS, PCI and PCII curing-modes is not
advocated to cure Heliomolar and Degufill Mineral composites while the experimental curing modes (PLPL, PMPC
and RHCC) satisfied effectiveness of composite cure for all the composites being tested.
Key words: Resin composite, light curing modes, microhardness, photo-activation and composite cure. J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(2):39-43)

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Article
Evaluation of the relation between occlusal vertical dimension with lingual frenum and depth of muco lingual reflection in Iraqi adult sample

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ABSTRACT
Back ground: The exact measurement of the natural vertical dimension is most essential in the successful practice of
many phases in dentistry, this study was performed to evaluate the use of anterior attachment of lingual frenum and
the depth of mucolingual reflection when recorded during function as a pre- extraction record to determine the
occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) in edentulous patients.
Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 30 dentate subjects, the age was ranged from (23-33) years old,
irreversible impressions of lower arches, stock trays, dental stone, surveyor and vernia gauge for measurements, the
vertical distance between the incisal edge of mandibular central incisor and the anterior attachment of lingual
frenum as well as the depth of mucolingual reflection was measured on the stone casts, t-test and one way analysis
of variance were used for statistical analysis of the data.
Results: The difference between males and females regarding the distance from the incisal edge of mandibular
central incisor and the anterior attachment of lingual frenum was statistically not significant (p>0.05) , also gender
had no effect on the measurements of the distance from the incisal incisal edge of mandibular central incisor and
muco lingual reflection depth.
Conclusion: The distance between the incisal edge of mandibular central incisor and the anterior attachment of
lingual frenum with the depth of muco lingual reflection may be used as a reliable land marks to determine occlusal
vertical dimension.
Key words: Occlusal vertical dimension, anterior teeth measurements, lingual frenum. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(2):44-47)

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Article
Frequency and suppliers of removable partial denturesamong group of Iraqi population

Authors: Basima M.A. Hussein --- Intisar J. Ismail
Pages: 48-53
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ABSTRACT
Background: Need for dental services is generally considered as the treatment needs detect during oral examination by a dental professional, regardless of whether the patient demands care. If the patient with prosthodontic treatment needs, essks, and receives care, this is effective demand.
Material and method: The potential need for Prosthetic treatment among group of Iraqi subjects were evaluated by analyzing records of 986 patients attended to the dental college seeking for removable partial dentures (RPDs) treatment in both genders and distributed among different age groups.
Results: The results showed significant differences between male and female in different age groups, also highest frequencies of RPDs were found in the female oldest age group, with increase in number of RPDs constructed by progression in age. Regarding the type of kennedy classification of missing areas, it was shown that class III kennedy classification is the most frequent condition is all age groups and in both genders, 50.9% for maxillary arch and 41.0% in the mandibular arch in whole sample. Patients seeked for maxillary and mandibular RPD treatment would be inclined to more frequent (391=39.7%) condition.
Conclusions: Findings showed a strong positive association between frequency of kennedy classification and increase wearing of partial dentures more in maxillary compared with mandibular .
Key words: Partial denture, need and demands (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):53-58)

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Article
Prevalence and technical quality of root canal treatment in Sulaimani patients (A radiographic evaluation)

Authors: Ranj Adil --- Raad S. Al-Marza
Pages: 54-58
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ABSTRACT
Background: This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and technical quality of root canal treatment in
Sulaimania subpopulation by using orthopantomographs.
Materials and methods: The panoramic radiographs of 704 Sulaimaniya adults attending the Dental College Hospital
of the University of Sulaimaniya were examined for endodontic treatment technique and its association with
periapical conditions.
Results: Out of the (704) cases examined, (40.7%) were endodontically treated. Periapical radiolucencies were found
in (19.50%) of all endodontically treated teeth. More than (37.3%) of the root-filled teeth were scored inadequate on
the basis of a criterion evaluating the level of the root canal filling.
Conclusion: The technical standard of root canal treatment in Sulaimaniya general dental clinics is disappointing.
The findings indicate that there is still a substantial need for postgraduate endodontic education in Sulaimaniya and
a need for specialists in endodontology.
Key words: Epidemiology, periapical diseases, radiographic evaluation, root canal treatment. J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2009; 21(2):54-58)

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Article
Palatal rugea patterns in relation to arch forms, depth of vaults and gender

Authors: Wasmaa S. Mahmood --- Faiza M. Hussain
Pages: 59-62
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ABSTRACT
Background: The aim is to determine whether rugea patterns had a relation to depth of vaults and form of maxillary
arches and to compare the number and shapes of rugea in edentulous men with those of edentulous women.
Materials and method: This study consisted of150 maxillary master cast of completely edentulous patient, the casts
were divided into three groups according to depth of the vault and form of the arches.
Results and conclusions: The findings were that curved and straight forms were the most common shape in the three
groups, also no significant gender differences were found regarding 10 , 20 and fragmental rugea, also we reported
that female had fewer rugea in the right side of the palate compared to male who have more on the right side of
palate.
Key words: Rugea pattern, arch, shape. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):59-62)

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Article
Evaluation of styloid process by 3-dimensional computed tomography in Iraqi samples

Authors: Bushra K. Waheed --- Ahlam A. Fattah
Pages: 63-67
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ABASTRACT
Background: The aims of this study were to measure the length and the anterior angulations of the styloid process
(SP) and to study its morphology by 3 – dimensional computed tomography reconstruction (3D -CT).
Materials and Methods: 3D-CT scan were performed for 90 Iraqi patients (38 females and 52 males), age range (17-
91years).The length and anterior angulations of SP were measured and its morphology was evaluated on3Dreconstructed
images which were obtained from those patients.
Results: The length of the bony SP on both sides varied from 0.9 cm to 6.2 cm, SPs were longer in males than females
and the right SPs were longer than the left SPs. The anterior angulations ranged between 57°-96°, According to the
morphological evaluation, absence of the SPs was not seen in this study. The total percentage of fragmented SPs
was less in males than females for both sides and the total percentage of the fragmented SPs in males and females
for both sides were less than the total percentage of non –fragmented SPs.The total percentage of regular SPs in
male on the right side was more than that in female group while the total percentage of regular SPs in male on the
left side was less than that in female group.
Conclusion: 3D- images reconstruction obtained with CT were a reliable method in obtaining abases line data for
evaluation of the SP, including its length, angulations, and the anatomical variations.
Key words: Morphological variation; length and angulations; three dimensional computed tomography; styloid
process. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):63-67)

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Article
Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Missan governorate

Authors: Ahlam Hameed Majeed --- Khalid Jabar Abid
Pages: 68-71
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ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Missan governorate
and to find out the possible associated factors related to such prevalence.
Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 8061 subjects 5-84 years old who randomly selected from different
places in Missan governorate over a period of 5 months examined for oral mucosal lesions. Clinical classification
performed according to WHO guidelines in November, 29/1995.
Results: Among the 5-84 year old subjects the overall prevalence of OML was found to be 4.64%. Recurrent aphthae
condition was observed most frequently (1.99%) followed by herpes labialis (0.93%), geographic tongue (0.84%),
denture stomatitis (0.36%), lichen planus (0.19%), hairy tongue (0.08%) oral leukoplakia (0.07%), angular chelitis and
median rhomboidal glossitis (0.06%), pseudomembranous (0.03) and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (0.01%).
Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia), herpes labialis, tongue lesions and
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis were more prevalent among men than women. Denture stomatitis and
recurrent aphthae were more common among women population.
Conclusion: Lesion prevalence differed significantly by age, sex, race/ethnicity, denture wearing and tobacco use.
Diagnosis of the wide variety of lesions that occur in the oral cavity is an essential part of dental practice. The most
common oral mucosal lesions is recurrent aphthous ulcer (1.997%) followed by oral herpes (0.93%) and the least
prevalent oral mucosal lesions is acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):68-71)

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Article
Clinical observation of recurrent aphthous stomatitis in Sulaimania

Authors: Shokhan A. Hussien --- Shanaz M. Gaphor
Pages: 72-77
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ABSTRACT
Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common recurring oral ulcerative condition in many parts of
the world, characterized by painful oral ulcerations recurring with varying frequency the aim of this Study: To: record
the distribution of aphthous ulcers in Sulaimani, find the clinical features and effect of local factors and medical
disorder on occurance of aphthous ulceration.
Patients and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 80 patients and seen in period from January 2008 to
August 2008. Complete medical history and full history of present illness was obtained, physical examination and
laboratory investigations were carried out to asses patients condition.
Results: In this study 80 patients were examined, 53 of them 66.25 % were females, 27 patients 33.75 % were males. 56
patients (70 %) had minor aphthous ulceration, 22 patients (27.5 %) had major aphthous ulceration, and 2 patients
(2.5 %) had herpetiform ulceration. In our sample the most common etiological factor of RAU was stress and anxiety
which constitute (45 %) followed by hematological deficiency and hormonal causes in which each of them
constitute (16.25 %), Behcet's disease (12.5 %), gastrointestinal diseases (10 %).
Conclusions: From this study the researcher concludes that: Recurrent aphthous ulcer is more common in females
than males. Minor aphthous ulceration is more common than major aphthous ulceration and herpetiform ulcer is a
very rare form of aphthous ulceration and is also seen in older age group. Minor aphthous ulcers occurs only in nonkeratinized
mucosa the most common site is lower lip, but major and herpetiform ulcers occur anywhere in oral
cavity including keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa.
Key words: RAU, clinical presentation. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):72-77)

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Article
The role of tumor suppressor protein Tp63 in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Authors: Giusseppe Pannone --- Suha A.H. Hindy
Pages: 78-81
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ABSTRACT
Background: The present study was conducted on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) which is the most common
oral malignancies with main objective of showing the expression of p63 in OSCC.
Materials and methods: This study comprised a total of (93) patients diagnosed as OSCC.,(62)males and (31) females.
The cases include: well differentiated SCC.(32)cases, moderately differentiated SCC.(40) and poorly differentiated
SCC.(21)cases. The expression of p63 gene was carried out on 4μm tumor sections using Immuno histochemical
staining of p63 antibody. The data demonstrated the mean percentage expression of p63 in well, moderately and
poorly differentiated SCC.
Results: Results showed that p63 expression was observed as positive diffuse reactivity in(38) cases (40.86%), positive
basal Para basal reactivity in (19)cases (20.34%), positive basal reactivity in (34) cases (36.56%) and negative
reactivity in( 2) cases (2.15%). Results also showed p63 expression was increased in high grade tumors of size >1.5cm
and metastatic dissemination of lymph nodes with diffuse and basal Para basal pattern of distribution.
Scoring analysis showed more than 50% of cases present with score 26-50% of expression.
Conclusion: These data found that the P63 nuclear positivity was extended from the basal- Para basal layers to the
whole epithelial layers in both moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, and P63 staining was more uniform and
homogenous for the well- differentiated tumor areas.
Key words: HNSCC= Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma; OSCC= oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(2):78-81)

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Article
Prospective study of adult subjects with gingivitis

Authors: Alaa O. Ali
Pages: 82-86
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The objective of this study was to monitor prospectively clinical parameters in subjects without signs of
destructive periodontal disease who were involved in a primary prevention programme, and to determine the
changes that occurred between yearly examinations over a 3-year period.
Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six subjects aged at least 20 years with a maximum of two tooth
sites with probing pocket depth (PPD)>4 mm and no proximal sites with clinical attachment loss participated in the
study. Primary prevention was provided at baseline of the study and then every 6 months. Plaque, bleeding on
probing (BoP) and PPD were scored at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 years.
Results: There were no significant changes in the plaque score over the 3 years. After year 1, the BoP score was
significantly improved with 5.6%, while no further improvement in BoP was found at years 2 and 3. The mean PPD
decreased from 2.3 to 2.1 mm over the 3 years (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Although some individuals exhibiting minor signs of periodontal pathology may have benefited from the
primary prevention, the overall clinical improvement was limited for such subjects in the present 3-year study.
Key words: Gingivitis, adults. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):82-86)

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Article
The role of plasmid stability and the associated resistant gene in the antimicrobial resistance of Fusobacterium spp. Isolates from chronic periodontitis

Authors: Ali A. Abdulkareem
Pages: 87-90
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The microbial composition of dental plaque is highly diverse. Fusobacterium spp. is gram negative, nonmotile,
anaerobic rods that are consider as part of the normal flora of oral cavity playing a major role in initiation &
progression of periodontal diseases. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the plasmid stability & the
association of the resistance gene with the plasmid in oral Fusobacterium spp. Isolated from subjects with chronic
periodontitis
Materials and Method: A total of 11 Fusobacterium isolates were taken from 32 subjects with chronic periodontitis
with average pocket depth range between 6- 8mm. Antibiotic susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials, DNA extraction,
plasmid profile analysis, curing, & conjugation & transformation were carried out on these isolates.
Results: The isolates showed variable degree of resistance to different antimicrobials but all were susceptible to
Doxycycline. Plasmid analysis of isolates, three major plasmid patterns were observed 3.1, 4.9 and 6.2-kb. In curing
experiments, resistance to Erythromycin, Penicillin, and Clarithromycin were lost together and their loss was
accompanied by the loss of a plasmid of 3.1-kb. Similarly, resistance was accompanied by the loss of a 6.2 -kb
plasmid. In transfer experiments, no resistance determinants were transferred by conjugation, indicating that they did
not harbor conjugative plasmid.
Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance among isolates is either plasmid- related for certain antibiotics or
chromosomally- mediated for the others.
Key words: Chronic periodontitis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, microbiology of periodontitis. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(2):87-90)

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Article
The relationship between periodontal disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with smoking

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and chronic
obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the presence of smoking as a risk factor by evaluating the periodontal
parameters and similarities between infecting microorganisms of the periodontium (dental plaque) and lower
respiratory tracts.
Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients with COPD were selected from the Chest and Respiratory Diseases
Institute/ Ministry of Health, while healthy subjects selected from Department of Periodontics at the College of
Dentistry / University of Baghdad, all participant of study and control groups were examined in the Department of
Periodontics .
Results: The statistical analysis showed significant differences in plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth
when comparing between study groups with the control group. No significant difference was found in the clinical
attachment loss between the two groups although the study group showed higher value. The microbiological
identification showed similarities in the types of aerobic microorganisms which causes the periodontal disease and
COPD exacerbations.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the study group had higher mean values of plaque index, gingival index,
probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss than the control group, both study and control group showed
the same types of microorganisms in plaque sample and in throat swab and patients with COPD showed lower rate
of salivary flow than those of control group.
Keywords: periodontal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, smoking. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(2):91-94)

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Article
Temporalis muscle flap in treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: TMJ Ankylosis is common sequalle of trauma to mandible and / or infection. The aim of the study was to
use and describes our surgical experience in treatment of TMJ ankylosis by the Temporalis muscle flap.
Materials and methods: In this study; 6 patients including 4 females and 2 males who have TMJ ankylosis were treated
in maxillofacial surgery department, Ramadi General Hospital, Anbar Dental College.
Results: Satisfactory surgical correction of temporomandibular joint ankylosis is obtained.
Conclusion: There is evidence for successful use of temporalis muscle flap in treatment of TMJ ankylosis.
Key words: TMJ, Ankylosis, Temporalis muscle flap. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):95-99)

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Article
Oral health condition among overweight children aged 6- 11 year old in Baghdad/ Iraq

Authors: Ban S. Diab --- Anhar A.A. Alsadi
Pages: 100-104
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The overweight and obesity have serious health consequences including the health of oral cavity. The
aims of the present study were to assess the oral health condition among the overweight children and compare
them with the normal weighted children of the same age and gender.
Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 478 children aged 6-11years that were selected from (4650)
children selected randomly from 12 primary schools. Two hundred and thirty nine normal weighted and 239
overweight children were included. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using Body Mass Index
specific for age and gender. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to Manji et al (1) plaque
index of Silness and Loe (2) was used for plaque assessment, gingival index of Loe and Silness (3) was used for gingival
health condition, Ramfjord index teeth (4) were applied to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition.
Results: The results showed that the caries experience among the overweight for the primary and permanent
dentition were significantly lower than that among the normal weighted children, while the mean of plaque and
gingival indices were found to be higher among the overweight children.
Conclusion: The weight status affects the oral health by decreasing the dental caries among the overweight children
and higher plaque and gingivitis.
Key words: Overweight, dental caries, gingival health condition, nutritional status. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):
100-104)

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Article
The effects of removable orthodontic appliance hygiene on oral flora

Authors: Dhilal H. Nisayif
Pages: 105-108
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cleaning removable orthodontic appliances on
oral flora.
Material and method: The sample consisted of 60 children aged 8- 14years divided into 4 equal groups (n=15). The
control group, group A: is the group of children with upper removable orthodontic appliance (UROA) cleaned their
appliances by brushing with sterile water only, group B: is the group those cleaned their appliances by using
cleansing tablets (EFFERVESCENT Cleanser Tablets) and group C: is the group those cleaned their appliances by
brushing with toothpaste. Swab samples were collected from the children using sterile swabs from the foam imprint
of the fitting surfaces of the appliances and from the palate, the swab streaked and then incubated aerobically for
24 hours at 37°C, with aid of microscopic examination and different types of biochemical tests reached to the
complete identification of microorganisms.
Results: There were 11 different types of microorganisms in group A while only 4 types in group B and C. The carriage
of microorganisms and their percentage were higher in group A than B; there were significant differences in the
percentage of microorganisms between the groups A and B, and between A and C groups.
Conclusions: Cleaning of removable orthodontic appliances with cleansing tablets effectively decreases the
carriage of microorganisms. Using of toothpaste in removable orthodontic appliances cleaning could be accepted
but using of cleansing tablets is better. Removable appliances would not affect oral hygiene adversely if proper
hygiene instructions were followed. This study presents useful information for removable appliance wearers in order to
take a good care to their appliances hygiene.
Key words: oral flora, removable orthodontic appliances, cleansing tablets. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2): 105-
108)

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Article
Backache as one of occupational hazards and diseases among 900 dentists in Baghdad city

Authors: Muhammad Al-Qaisi
Pages: 109-113
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The present survey was conducted among 900 dentists (462 males and 439 females) with different age
groups range from (23-68 years old), working in the city of Baghdad, in order to study different potential hazards and
the existence of various diseases related to their occupation. The prevalence of back pain was studied in relation to
age, sex and number of working hours.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out by mean of a questionnaire composed of 29 items about the
personal information, general health status, ergonomical factors and usage of different preventive measures.
Results and conclusion: The results showed that the musculo skeletal pain was the most frequent complaint of
dentists (87%), back pain was the most prevalent of the musculo skeletal disorders among dentist (67.67%) and more
frequently in the cervical area (Neck and shoulders) (47%). Upper limb pain significantly increased with age (P<0.01)
while no significant association was found between musculo skeletal pain in general with age. Back pain tended to
increase with age in lumber area (P<0.001). Dentists who performed exercises had less musculo skeletal pain and
complaints than those who did not. This points to the beneficical effect of physical exercises.
Key words: Backpain, dentistry (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2): 109-113)

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