Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2009 volume:21 issue:3

Article
The effect of the poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) addition on surface hardness and impact strength properties of heatcured acrylic resin denture base material

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Acrylic resin has been used successfully for almost 55 years in prosthetic dentistry. Although widely used
as denture base material, acrylic resin exhibits certain poor mechanical properties induce fracture. The hardness and
impact strength properties of the experimental and heat cured acrylic denture base material were done.
Materials and methods: Twenty specimens, 10 specimens for each experimental or control material were tested.
The biological properties of the prepared material were evaluated in comparison with the control denture base
acrylic resin. Group 1: poly (methyl methacrylate) + methyl methacrylate as control. Group 2: poly (methyl
methacrylate) 80% and poly vinyl pyrrolidone 20% + methyl methacrylate as experimental. The hardness and impact
strength properties of the experimental and heat cured acrylic denture base material were done.
Results: Evaluation of the hardness value for experimental material record number 171.22, while specimens of the
control material showed hardness value record number 112.80. The mean impact strength value of the experimental
material was 19.620 N/mm2 which are higher than that of the control material which is 14.604 N/mm2.
Conclusion: The higher hardness value for experimental group is due to the incorporation of PVP which may increase
stiffness. The impact strength of the experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group.
Key words: Poly vinyl pyrrolidone, acrylic, hardness, impact strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):1-5)

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Article
Evaluation of apical seal in endodontically filled teeth using different root canal preparation techniques

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ABSTRACT
Background: The main objectives of endodontic treatment are to remove the contents and irregularities from the root
canal, and to shape the canal to facilitate placement of the obturating materials. Aims of the study were to evaluate the
effect of different instrumentation techniques on spreader penetration depth, and to evaluate the effect of the spreader
penetration depth on the apical seal using stainless-steel and nickel-titanium finger spreaders.
Methods and Materials: Eighty extracted human teeth, with single and curved canals, were prepared by step-back, stepback
with Gates-Glidden burs, crown-down pressureless and standardized-taper root canal preparation techniques. All
teeth were obturated with gutta percha and sealer using stainless-steel and nickel-titanium finger spreaders for lateral
condensation, the depth of spreader penetration was measured. The apical 3-4 mm of all teeth was submerged in Pelikan
ink for 48 hours then splitted longitudinally for linear measurement of dye penetration through the apical foramen.
Results: Step-back with Gates-Glidden technique scored the least differences in spreader penetration depths and dye
penetration, when compared with step-back technique, crown-down pressureless technique, and standardized-taper
technique. Standardized-taper technique showed statistically greater differences concerning spreader penetration depth
and apical microleakage. No significant differences were found between step-back and crown-down pressureless
techniques.
Highly significant differences were evident when nickel-titanium and stainless-steel spreaders were compared in the stepback
technique, step-back with Gates-Glidden technique, and standardized-taper technique, and there was a significant
difference when they were compared in crown-down pressureless technique.
Conclusions: Regarding the differences between spreader penetration depths and apical leakage, step-back technique
with Gates-Glidden burs scored the best results when it was compared to the other groups. The quality of the apical seal
was related directly to the method of canal preparation. Step-back with Gates-Glidden technique, which permitted
deeper penetration of the spreader, resulted in a seal closer to the prepared length. Nickel-titanium spreader penetrated
deeper and provided better apical seal than stainless-steel spreader.
Key words: root canal preparation techniques, apical seal, nickel-titanium and stainless-steel spreaders. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(4):6-11)

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Article
The effect of root end etching on microleakage of gray mineral trioxide aggregate using light polarizing microscope

Authors: Zainab M. Kamel --- Rasha H. Jehad
Pages: 12-14
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ABSTRACT
Background: This in vitro study confirmed to compare the sealing ability of gray MTA in phosphoric acid etched and
non-etched root surface, using light polarizing microscope.
Material and methods: Twenty freshly extracted single rooted teeth with mature apices were selected. Root end
preparations were made using straight fissure carbide bur in a high speed turbine hand piece with a depth of 3mm.
Their final diameter was determined by the radius of the bur. Ten root ends were filled with grey MTA after etching the
root surface with phosphoric acid for 20 seconds and the other ten root ends were filled with grey MTA with no acid
etching. Specimens were examined using light polarizing microscope to determine the interface between the tested
material and tooth structure among the two groups. All teeth were coated with one layer of nail varnish and two
layers of sticky wax and immersed in a plastic tube containing Pelikan ink for 48 hours. The leakage in all the roots
was examined by means of stereomicroscope at X2 magnification.
Results: Root surfaces etched with phosphoric acid gel gave a statistically significant decrease in apical
microleakage when compared to non-etched root surfaces filled with grey colored MTA.
Conclusions: Acid etching of root-end surfaces affect the apical microleakage differently. Examination with
polarized light microscope showed that marginal gaps around the root–end filling were less in the etched group.
Acid etching has an effect on marginal adaptation of MTA when used as a retrograde filling material.
Key words: MTA, polarized light microscope, microleakage. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):12-14)

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Article
The shear bond strength of artificial teeth with denture bases

Authors: Nabeel Abdul Fatah --- Hussain. N.A. Ali
Pages: 15-20
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: fracture and deboning of artificial teeth from denture bases are common clinical problems which are
facing both the patient and the dentist. The optimal combination of artificial teeth with visible light cured (VLC)
denture base resin and the effect of thermocycling should be evaluated. This study was conducted to evaluate and
compare the shear bond strength of artificial teeth (acrylic and porcelain) with denture bases cured by water bath
and visible light under the effect of different surface treatments and the effect of thermocycling with artificial saliva.
Material and methods. Heat polymerized (Densply) and visible light polymerized (Elite) acrylic resins were used. Two
types of artificial teeth (acrylic, Florident) and (porcelain, Ivoclar vivadent) were prepared. Five specimens of each
tooth type were processed to each of the denture base materials after the application of different surface
treatments according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Five specimens for each type of artificial teeth without
surface treatments were also fabricated. Specimens were thermocycled and tested for strength until fracture with an
Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and student T-test. A
photomicrographic microscope was used to identify adhesive and cohesive failures within debonded specimens .
Results. The mean force required to fracture the specimens were obviously larger for heat cured specimens
compared with the light cured specimens. The most common failure was cohesive within the tooth or the denture
base. With each base materials, the artificial teeth which were treated with combined mechanical and chemical
surface treatment exhibited the highest shear bond strength. Thermocyclig had deleterious effect on the light cured
specimens. In general, heat polymerized groups failed cohesively within the artificial tooth. While the light cured
groups failed adhesively at the tooth denture base interface.
Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the type of denture base materials and surface treatments of the
denture tooth selected for use may influence the shear bond strength of the tooth to the base. Selection of more
compatible combinations of base and artificial teeth may reduce the number of prosthesis fractures and resultant
repairs.
Key words: Artificial teeth, visible light cured denture base, shear bond. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):15-20)

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Article
Effect of soft liner-denture base thickness on load transmitted to the underlying mucosa. A three dimensional finite element analysis

Authors: Abdalbasit A. Fatihallah
Pages: 21-25
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: In this study was designed to investigate the effect of thickness of different soft denture liner materials
on load transmission to the underlining with in fesses on modulus of elasticity and poison's ratio.
Materials and methods: Six models of dental stone cast made , soft denture liner represented by a biostar
thermoplastic sheet of different thickness (1,2,and 3mm) and the denture base thickness was represented by either
single layer or double layer of sheet wax , sheet wax converted to acrylic resin by the conventional method of curing
(short curing cycle used). The models was subdivided into six groups of combination thickness of soft denture liner
and denture base made from acrylic resin with the fixation of mucosal thickness to 1.5 mm for all models . The models
were sectioned at molar region to apply load of 60 N, models drawn by AutoCAD 2006 and export as SAT type of file
to ANSYS 5.4 program and Von-mises equivalent stresses collected at the mucosal–soft denture liner interface and
compared.
Results: Analysis of the data done by the application of ANOVA Table with LSD multiple comparisons. The result
revealed that 1mm and 2mm thickness of soft denture liner with the fixation of denture base thickness to 3mm and
when the elastic modulus of soft denture liner the same as that of mucosa ,minimal stresses reach to the mucosal-soft
denture liner interface.
Conclusion: 3 mm thickness of denture base material with 1mm and 2mm of soft denture liner produced the least
amount of stress transmitted to the underlining mucosa when the modulus of elasticity match that of mucosa
Key Words: Soft liner, acrylic denture base and finite elements stress analysis.

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Article
Evaluation of apical and lateral extrusion of sealer using different sized thermoplastized obturators

Authors: Hussain F. Al -Huwaizi --- Thanaa G. Neama
Pages: 26-30
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: A new product of thermoplasticized obturators (thermafill and soft core) had been used instead of
cold gutta percha. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the apical and lateral extrusion of two types
of sealers (zinc oxide eugenol, apexit plus) used in cold lateral condensation, thermafill and soft core obturation
methods.
Materials and methods: Fifty simulated single straight canals in clear acrylic resin blocks having lateral canals were
used. They were preprepared to resemble the root canal of the tooth, with MAF of size 40. They were divided into ten
groups, each group containing 5 samples. Group 1: cold gutta percha (lateral condensation) using apexit plus
sealer. Group 2: cold gutta percha (lateral condensation) using zinc oxide eugenol sealer. Group 3: thermafill size 35
using apexit plus. Group 4: thermafill size 35 using zinc oxide eugenol. Group 5: thermafill size 40 using apexit plus
sealer. Group 6: thermafill size 40 using zinc oxide eugenol sealer. Group 7: soft core obturator size 35 using apexit plus
sealer. Group 8: soft core size 35 using zinc oxide eugenol. Group 9: soft core size 40 using apexit plus sealer. Group
10: soft core size 40 using zinc oxide eugenol sealer.
Result: The groups obturated using apexit plus sealer showed higher mean of apical extrusion than groups obturated
using zinc oxide eugenol sealer. The mean of the apical extrusion was higher in all thermoplasticized obturators
groups than cold gutta percha group. Thermafill group size 35 showed lower mean of lateral extrusion than soft core
size 35, 40 and lateral condensation.
Conclusion: Cold gutta percha group showed the lowest mean of apical extrusion. Thermafill obturators size 35
group showed the lowest mean of lateral extrusion.
Key words: Apical, lateral, extrusion, sealer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):26-30)

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Article
Effect of different metal surface treatments on microleakage of the two types of acrylic resin: Heat cure and light cure at Co/Cr interface

Authors: Shatha S. Al-Ameer --- Firas A. Farhan
Pages: 31-36
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ABSTRACT
Background: The microleakage (M.L) at the metal-resin interface in a removable partial denture may results in
discoloration, fluid percolation, and acrylic resin deterioration. Enhancing resistance to microleakage at this interface
may improve the long-term union between the two materials (alloy and acrylic resin). The aim of this study was to
determine the effect of various metal surface treatments on microleakage and bonding between the metal alloy
and acrylic resin used in the fabrication of a removable partial denture.
Materials and Methods: Sixty rectangular Co/Cr samples (50 mm x 25 mm x 1 mm) were prepared and they had a
grid pattern, which formed 50 squares which then divided into 2 groups according to the type of acrylic resin
received each one 30 samples {A- for heat cure resin (HCR), B- for visible light cure resin (VLCR)} which were
subdivided according to the type of surface treatments into 3 subgroups each one 10 samples (A1 B1 for Air
Abrasion -- A2 B2 for Metal Prime II (MP II) application -- A3 B3 for combination of Air Abrasion and Metal Primer II
application). Each sample was divided into experimental half (treated) and a control half (untreated). The samples
were thermocycled (3000 cycles, 5 °C to 50 °C with a dwell time of 1 minute) after application of resin, and placed in
sodium fluorescein (0.2 g / 1000 mL) dye solution (Uranine dye, BDH chemicals Ltd Poole, England) for 48 hours. If the
penetration of the dye was not more than half of the square it was recorded half square and if it was more than half
it was recorded as one square.
Results: The results showed that the subgroup that received Air Abrasion + Metal Primer II surface treatments for both
types of resins HC and VLC (A3 and B3) had the least M.L values, followed by the Air Abrasion subgroup (A1 and B1).
Subgroups that received Metal Primer II alone (A2 and B2) showed the highest M.L value than the other subgroups.
All Co/Cr samples with VLCR showed less dye penetration than that of HCR whether with surface treatment or
without suggesting higher binding of resin with the Co/Cr surface.
Conclusion: A combination of air abrasion and MP II for light cure samples showed the highest reduction in M.L
compared to all other types of surface treatments and to HCR. MP II alone was less effective in reduction of M.L than
other surface treatments. The use of VLCR with different metal surface treatments revealed greater reduction in M.L
than that when used HCR even when there is no surface treatment.
Keywords: Co/Cr- heat and light cure resin interface, metal surface treatments, microleakage. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2009; 21(4):31-36)

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Article
The influence of impression techniques of distal extension removable partial dentures on the periodontium of the abutment teeth

Authors: Hikmat J.AL.Judy
Pages: 37-40
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: the purpose of this study was to compare the periodontal status in patients receiving partial dentures
constructed from conventional and altered cast impression techniques.
Materials and Methods: twenty patients receiving mandibular bilateral distal extension removable partial dentures
were assigned for treatment, the patients divided into ten patients receiving partial dentures constructed from
conventional impression technique and other ten patients receiving partial dentures constructed from an altered
cast impression technique. The periodontium of the last abutments had been evaluated using gingival bleeding
index and probing pocket depth, the first score have been made at time of insertion, the second score made after
3days of insertion, the third score after 10days of insertion, the fourth score after 30 days of insertion, the fifth score
after 45 days of insertion and the last score was made after 60 days of insertion. Student t-test had been made to
evaluate the periodontal conditions at different time intervals.
Results: the results revealed that there would be a decrease in both periodontal indexes scores with time.
Conclusion: the use of altered cast impression technique for distally extended removable partial dentures will result in
a less stress concentration on the abutment teeth resulting in a proper periodontal health and reducing damage of
periodontal tissues this will be in addition to proper oral hygiene being established.
Key words: Impression technique, distal extension, periodontium, last abutment. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):37-
40)

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Article
A comparative study to evaluate the effect of immediate versus delayed dowel space preparation on the apical seal of Epiphany obturation system with different obturation techniques (An in vitro study)

Authors: Samar A.H. Yasin --- Abdul Kareem Al-Azzawi
Pages: 41-46
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ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of immediate versus delayed dowel space
preparation using rotary instruments (peeso reamers) on the apical seal of roots filled with epiphany obturation
system by two different obturation techniques: Lateral condensation technique and Thermo-plastic Injection
technique (Obtura II).
Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted human teeth with single and straight canals were used in this study.
These teeth were cleaned and their crowns were removed at the cemento-enamel junction, the roots were
instrumented using the step-back technique, instrumentation was accomplished by using the Gates-Glidden drills
with copious irrigation of 2.5% NaOCL and 17% buffered solution of EDTA was used as the final rinse to remove smear
layer. All roots of all groups were obturated with epiphany obturation system and the roots were randomly divided
into 4 groups (10 teeth for each group): Group A (Lateral condensation technique + immediate dowel space
preparation), Group B (Lateral condensation technique + delayed dowel space preparation), Group C (Thermoplastic
Injection technique (Obtura II) + immediate dowel space preparation) & Group D (Thermo-plastic Injection
technique (Obtura II) + delayed dowel space preparation). The roots of groups A & C received dowel space
preparation immediately after obturation using peeso reamers to a depth that left 5mm of the filling material
apically while the roots of groups B & D received dowel space preparation after one week storage in 100% humidity
condition at 37Cْ in an incubator. The external surfaces of all roots were coated by two layers of sticky wax except
for apical 2 mm and then were submerged in 2% methylene blue dye for 3 days at 37 C.ْ After that all roots were
longitudinally sectioned for linear measurement of dye penetration through the apical forman using a
stereomicroscope at X40 magnification with calibrated scale ocular grid.
Results: The results showed that for immediate dowel space preparation group C showed the lowest mean of dye
leakage (1.525 mm) while for delayed dowel space preparation group D showed the lowest mean of dye leakage
(2.335mm).
Conclusion: Significantly less apical leakage in roots obturated by thermo-plastic Injection technique than those
obturated by lateral condensation technique for both immediate & delay dowel space preparation and highly
significant less apical leakage in roots received immediate dowel space preparation than those received delayed
one despite the type of obturation technique.
Keywords: Epiphany obturation systems, obtura II, dowel space preparation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):41-46)

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Article
Effect of microwave disinfection on some properties of gypsum products

Authors: Shorouq M. Abass
Pages: 47-52
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ABSTRACT
Background: Dental casts can be contaminated by saliva and blood from patient’s mouth through impression
materials, record bases, trial dentures...etc. Different methods were used to disinfect the dental cast; e.g. immersing
in, spraying with, or incorporating the disinfectant directly into the dental stone powder. These methods produced an
adverse affect on the properties of dental stone. This study was intended to evaluate the effect of different methods
of microwave disinfection; immersing in water, NaCl solution, or in dry air on the reproduction of details and surface
hardness of type III and type IV gypsum products at different time intervals.
Materials and methods: A microwave oven was used to disinfect type III and IV dental stone at 850 watt for 10
minutes while immersed in water, 40 % Sodium chloride solution, and in dry air during the disinfection procedure.
Surface hardness of the dental stone samples was evaluated by using the Brinell hardness test at different time
intervals; after 1hour, 2 hours, 24 hours, and after one week of start of mixing. Reproduction of details of the dental
stone samples was also evaluated.
Results: The surface hardness was significantly different for all the test groups at different time intervals except for the
water group after 1 and 2 hour for type III dental stone. The dry air group and water group were insignificantly
different after1hr for type IV dental stone. The test for reproduction of details showed no significant difference for all
the test groups except for NaCl group which was significantly different, the score was 2 which was clinical
insignificant.
Conclusion: Microwave disinfection can be used for dental stone casts while in dry air for type III & immersed in water
for type IV, with no effect on reproduction of details and with least adverse effects on the surface hardness of the
gypsum products.
Key words: Gypsum, microwave, disinfection, surface hardness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):47-52)

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Article
The effect of cleaning and sterilization on the torsional properties of protaper rotary Nickel Titanium endodontic instrument

Authors: Majida K.W. AL-Hashimi --- Yahya A. Abd
Pages: 53-59
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ABSTRACT
Background: The torsional properties of rotary nickel titanium endodontic instrument may be affected by cleaning
and sterilization. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the number of cleaning procedures involving
immersion in NaOCl with two different concentrations (1% and 5.25%) and sterilization procedures (autoclave and
dry heat) on the torsional properties of protaper rotary nickel titanium instrument when subjected to clockwise
torsional load). The types of defects for the fractured instruments also were studied.
Material and methods: A total of ninety rotary protaper finisher F3 instruments were divided into 3 groups. Group 1
comprises of ten instruments were subjected to neither cleaning nor sterilization cycles and assigned as the control
group. Group 2 and group 3 were subjected to five and ten cleaning and sterilization cycles respectively. Each
group comprises of forty instruments, twenty of them soaked within 1% NaOCl and the other twenty were soaked
within 5.25% NaOCl, ten of each these twenty instruments, were sterilized with autoclave while, the other ten
instruments were sterilized with dry heat oven. Then, all instruments were subjected to a clockwise torsional load until
fracture, the torsional moment and angular deflection at fracture were calculated. Then the fractured instruments
examined to detect the signs of distortion.
Results: The results show a statistically significant reduction in the torsional strength after cleaning and sterilization
cycles regardless the concentration of NaOCl, type and number of sterilization cycles. For the angular deflection,
there was a highly significant reduction, where, the number of cycles was the most influencing factor for reduction
of the angular deflection whereas, the concentration of NaOCl and the type of sterilization were show no significant
influence on the angular deflection. The examination of the fractured instruments show a signs of plastic deformation
of the spirals, unwinding, reverse winding, reverse winding with tightening of the flutes of the instruments or a
combination of all these signs.
Key words: Torsional strength, angular deflection, NaOCl, nickel titanium. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):53-59)

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Article
Low and high density lipoproteins in serum and saliva of ischemic heart disease patients

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ABSTRACT
Background: Coronary artery disease is one of the main reasons of early death in humans; the initiation of the
atherosclerotic plaque is ascribed to focal accumulation of lipids. Saliva provides an inexpensive, non invasive and
accessible diagnostic element. The aim of this study was to assess Low and high density lipoproteins cholesterol in
ischemic heart diseased patients and to assess the role of saliva as a diagnostic tool for this biochemical analysis.
Materials and Methods: Eighty subjects were enrolled in this study, forty patients were diagnosed as ischemic heart
disease (IHD), their ages ranged between 42-80 years, and forty individuals were age and sex matched healthy
looking volunteers. Lipid profile has been estimated for all the serum and salivary samples.
Results: the mean level of serum total cholesterol (TC) in healthy controls was higher than that of IHD patients, but it fail
to reach a significant level. The mean levels of salivary TC in healthy controls were significantly higher than that of IHD
patients. The mean levels of serum and salivary HDL in healthy controls were significantly higher than that of IHD group.
There were no significant differences between serum and salivary LDL of IHD patients compared to healthy controls.
The levels of TC, HDL, and LDL are more significant in saliva than in serum in IHD patients compared to healthy controls.
Conclusions: Ischemic heart disease is associated with significant decrease in serum and salivary HDL and non
significant decrease in serum and salivary LDL. Saliva is more significant than serum in this biochemical analysis.
Key words: Ischemic heart diseases, high density and lipoprotein. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):60-64)

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Article
Oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and uric acid in ischemic heart disease patients

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ABSTRACT
Background: When the oxidant-antioxidant balance is disturbed in favour of reactive oxygen species (ROS),
oxidative stress occurs, which is damaging to tissues. Oxidative stress and ROS have been reported to be related to
the pathogenesis of many diseases including ischemic heart diseases. The aim of this study was to assess oxidative
stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and the antioxidants uric acid (UA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum
and saliva of ischemic heart diseased patients.
Materials and Methods: Eighty subjects were enrolled in this study, forty patients were diagnosed as ischemic heart
disease (IHD), their ages ranged between 42-80 years, and forty individuals were age and sex matched healthy
looking volunteers. MDA, UA and SOD have been estimated for all the serum and salivary samples.
Results: The mean levels of serum and salivary MDA, UA, and SOD in IHD patients were higher than that of healthy
controls. Age was the most important explanatory factor that affects salivary MDA, UA, and SOD.
Conclusions: Ischemic heart disease patients are associated with increased oxidative stress which has been
represented by increased MDA levels and increased antioxidants UA and SOD in serum and saliva.
Key words: Ischemic heart diseases, oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, uric acid. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(4):65-71)

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Article
Assessment of interproximal alveolar bone level in insulin dependant diabetes mellitus patients by using direct digital intra oral imaging system

Authors: Ahlam A. Fatah --- Ghassan A. Abbas
Pages: 72-75
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ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on interproximal
alveolar bone level radiographically at posterior teeth except third molar and correlate this effect with age, gender
and duration of the disease.
Materials and methods: The study was completed by the participation of 70 individuals (study group: 35 patients;
control group: 35 patients), their ages are ranging between (20-30) years. The age of the subjects was divided into
two groups: First age group: from (20-25), second age group: from (26-30). Study group subjects consist of 8 male and
27 female while control group subjects consist of 10 female and 25 male.
Results: A statistical analysis were computer assisted using SPSS version 13 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).
Inferential statistics using Two independent sample t-test and ANOVA that There is highly significant difference in
interproximal alveolar bone level between control and study groups for both gender (male and female) at the
second age group (26-30) years, also for male at the first age group (20-25) years. On the other hand, non significant
difference was found between control and study groups for female at first age group (20-25) years.
Conclusion: There is highly significant effect for duration of disease on interproximal alveolar bone level, non
significant effect was found for age on interproximal alveolar bone level and non significant difference was found
between male and female, upper and lower jaws, right and left sides on interproximal alveolar bone level
measurements for insulin dependant diabetes mellitus patients.
Key words: Interproximal alveolar bone, diabetes mellitus, digital intra oral imaging. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(4):72-75)

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Article
Evaluation of salivary immunoglobulin A and interleukins IL-1 alpha and IL-8 in psoriatic patients with and without geographical tongue

Authors: Tania Faeq --- Sabah Saka --- Hajer I. Abdullah
Pages: 76-81
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ABSTRACT
Background Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder presenting in various clinical types. Oral lesions
in psoriasis patients are rare and have been clinically presented described as white plaques, erythematous patches,
or ulcerations. An increased prevalence of erythema migrans has been reported.
Aims of the study This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psoriasis and geographical tongue
and determine the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), IL1α and IL8 in psoriasis patients, as well.
Materials and methods Clinical oral examinations had been done for fifty patients with psoriasis as well as fifty, age
and gender, matched control subjects for detecting the presence of geographical tongue and report any oral
mucosal changes. Samples of whole unstimulated mixed (resting) saliva were collected from all participants then
investigated for the level of SIgA, IL-1α and IL-8 by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).
Results: The incidence of geographical tongue was higher among psoriasis patients (20%), in comparison to control
group which was (4%).The mean value of salivary IgA was reduced in psoriasis patients, with and without
geographical tongue cases. But the reverse result appeared with IL1α and IL8. This picture reflects a clear
immunological background for geographical tongue that goes at the same direction of psoriatic immunopathology.
Conclusion: Geographical tongue could be an oral manifestation of generalized pustular psoriasis. Psoriasis patients
showed significantly lower concentrations of salivary IgA compared to control.
Key words: Psoriasis, Geographical tongue, salivary secretory IgA, Interlukins. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):76-81)

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Article
Assessment of salivary flow rate and secretory immunoglobulin A and oral mucosal changes in acute myeloid leukemia before and after the induction phase of chemotherapy

Authors: Mays Rafid --- Sabah Saka --- Hajer I. Abdullah
Pages: 82-89
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ABSTRACT
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological disorder characterized by the presence of immature
hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and blood. These malignant cells do not differentiate normally, and thus
may block the differentiation of the remaining normal hematopoietic precursors. Chemotherapy is the treatment of
choice of AML. The aim of the study was to determine the salivary flow rate and the S-IgA secretion rate in AML
patients before and after chemotherapy and to assess oral mucositis after chemotherapy and to report any other
oral mucosal manifestations.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients just diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia participated in the
study. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects. Clinical oral examination took place at the time of the
diagnosis, and again one month following chemotherapy.
Results: The most serious oral complication is the mucositis which developed in (52.5%) of AML patients after
chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy the salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion rate were significantly lower than
their values in healthy subjects (p<0.001and p<0.007), after chemotherapy, a further reduction in their values was
detected. AML patients with oral mucositis presented with lower S-IgA level compared with their counterparts with
no mucositis (p<0.02).
Conclusion: Oral mucositis is a common and serious problem during chemotherapy. The salivary flow rate and S-IgA
levels are significantly reduced in AML patients undergoing chemotherapy which in turn affect general oral health
status.
Keyword: Acute myeloid leukemia, chemotherapy, mucositis, salivary S-IgA. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):82-89)

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Article
The prevalence of oral and dental developmental anomalies among 14-17 years Iraqi students in Missan governorate

Authors: Wasan H. Younis --- Mohanad J. Najm
Pages: 90-95
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of study was to find out the prevalence of developmental anomalies in teeth and oral hard
and soft developmental tissues among a sample of 14-17 years students in Missan Governorate and compare it with
the prevalence rates of these anomalies in the central and northern parts of Iraq.
Materials and Method: Oral examination of 3046 students(1506 males and 1540 females) aged 14-17 years were
preformed in 30 secondary and intermediate schools in Missan Governorate(20 schools in Al-Amara city the capital
of Governorate and 10 schools in different provinces).
Results: Oro-dental developmental anomalies seen in 1036 students represents 33.9% of the studied sample, 47.6%
males and 52.4% females. There was a significant statistical difference between them. Dental anomalies constituted
78.8%, while oral soft tissues anomalies and oral hard tissues anomalies constituted 19.9% and 1.3% respectively.
Most of oro-dental developmental anomalies were present in 16 years age group in the sample. Environmental
diffuse opacity was the most common oro-dental developmental anomalies (5.1%)in studied sample, fissure tongue
(4.9%) represents the most common anomaly of tongue and oral soft tissues anomalies in the sample.
Conclusions: The study shows that Missan Governorate has the higher prevalence rate of microdontia than other
Iraqi cities which was 4.8%. Maxillary lateral incisor was the most common congenitally missing tooth or to appear
small (microdent) and mandibular second primary molar was the most retained primary tooth in the studied sample.
Keywords: Oral anomalies, dental anomalies, oral diseases. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):90-95)

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Article
Aurora B kinase expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Authors: Lehah Al-Azzawi --- Suha A.H. Hindy
Pages: 96-98
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The present study was conducted on oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) which is the most common
oral malignancies with main objective of showing the expression of Aurora B in OSCC and its correlation
to clinicopathological parameters.
Materials and Methods: This study comprised a total of (65) patients diagnosed as OSCC,(48) males and (17) females.
The cases include: well differentiated SCC.(32)cases, moderately differentiated SCC.(25) and poorly differentiated
SCC.(8)cases. The expression of Aurora B protein was carried out on 4μm tumor sections using Immuno histochemical
staining of Aurora B antibody.
Results: Results showed high expression of Aurora B in the most cases of OSCC with a mean expression about (48.66),
in addition to that results showed that the expression of Aurora B was increased with the progression of histological
grade and stage of tumor.
Conclusion: Aurora B over expression and its correlation with progression of tumor stage and grade may indicate the
association of Aurora B expression with the aggressiveness of tumor.
Key words: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):96-98)

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Article
Periodontal health status and treatment needs among the young adult and adults in Al–Anbar governorate-Iraq

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: Periodontal diseases are serious infections that, if left untreated, may lead to tooth loss. The value of
the CPITN is that it permits rapid examination of a population to determine periodontal treatment needs..
Material and methods: A periodontal health survey, using the WHO methodology (1997), was conducted among 906
subjects; of those 466 were females and 440 were males, with age range 15-54 years of old. The selection was done
randomly among people living in AL- Anbar Governorate. . By using of WHO periodontal probes, the community
periodontal index (CPI), the treatment needs (TN) were measured for each subject. The number of lost permanent
teeth was also recorded.
Results: The males were found to have worse periodontal conditions than females and a significant age difference
was present. All subjects had experienced periodontal disease where gingival bleeding was 12.8%, calculus 24.6%,
shallow pocket of 4-5 mm 23.5%, and deep pocket of 6mm or more 6.5%, respectively. Almost all subjects of this
populations needed oral hygiene instructions, scaling and /or removal of overhangs (TNO, TN1, TN2) and 12.8% of
them needed complex periodontal treatment (TN3). The mean number of lost permanent teeth was higher in
females than in males, and increased with age.
Key words: Periodontal disease, adults. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):99-102)

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Article
Salivary antioxidants and physicochemical characteristics related to periodontal disease among a group of old adults

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas --- Ban S. Diab
Pages: 103-107
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Abstract

Background: Old adults experienced pronounced oral changes. Saliva composition particularly the antioxidants showed significant changes with advancing age. The aims of this study were to assess salivary antioxidants and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) levels in addition to salivary physicochemical characteristics and their effect on periodontal disease among a group of old adults in comparison with middle-aged. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of all old adults (35 subjects) aged 55-65 years in comparison with all middle-aged (35 subjects) aged 30-40 years at the Textile factory in Mosul city who fitted the criteria of the study. Periodontal disease was evaluated by using the gingival index, periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary flow rate and pH were determined. Salivary samples then were chemically analyzed for the detection of salivary antioxidants (total protein, albumin, vitamin E, vitamin C and uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) in addition to salivary constituents as urea, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium. Results: Antioxidants level (total protein, albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C) was lower among old adults compared to middle-aged ones with significant difference for vitamin C only. Malondialdehyde was slightly higher among old adults with no significant difference. Statistically no significant difference could be found regarding salivary flow rate and pH between the two age groups. Salivary constituents (urea, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium) showed no significant difference between the two age groups. Mean gingival index was highly significantly higher among old adults. The extent of pocket depth was higher among old adults at ≥4 and ≥5 mm thresholds but ≥7 mm threshold was absent among them. Clinical attachment level extent was higher among old adults at all thresholds of severity. Salivary albumin revealed inverse significant correlation with severe thresholds of clinical attachment level (i.e. ≥7, ≥8, ≥9 mm). Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) showed positive highly significant correlation with ≥9 mm attachment level threshold among old adults. Salivary flow rate revealed inverse correlation with almost all clinical attachment level thresholds among old adults. Conclusions: Periodontal disease revealed higher severity among old adults. Salivary antioxidants and physicochemical characteristics were found to affect periodontal health status among old adults


Article
Salivary antioxidants and physicochemical characteristics related to dental caries experience among a group of old adults

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas --- Ban S. Diab
Pages: 108-112
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Abstract

Background: Old adults are regarded as an important target group with special oral health needs. Salivary gland structure and saliva composition particularly the antioxidants are subjected to significant changes with advancing age. The aims of this study were to assess salivary antioxidants and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) levels in addition to salivary physicochemical characteristics and their effect on dental caries among a group of old adults in comparison with middle-aged. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of all old adults (35 subjects) aged 55-65 years in comparison with all middle-aged (35 subjects) aged 30-40 years at the Textile factory in Mosul city who fitted the criteria of the study. Dental caries was recorded through the application of D1-4 MFS index. Plaque and calculus indices were used for recording oral cleanliness. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary flow rate and pH were determined. Salivary samples then were chemically analyzed for the detection of salivary antioxidants (total protein, albumin, vitamin E, vitamin C and uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde) in addition to salivary constituents as urea, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium. Results: Salivary antioxidants level (total protein, albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C) was lower among old adults compared to middle-aged ones with significant difference for vitamin C only. Malondialdehyde was slightly higher among old adults with no significant difference. Statistically no significant difference could be found regarding salivary flow rate and pH between the two age groups. Also salivary constituents (urea, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium) showed no significant difference between the two age groups. Caries experience (DMFS) was highly significantly higher among old adults (28.71±9.15) compared with middle-aged (20.68±8.53). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed inverse highly significant β coefficient for vitamin E and salivary flow rate on DS among old adults. Conclusion: Dental caries revealed higher severity among old adults. Salivary antioxidants and physicochemical characteristics were found to affect dental caries experience among old adults


Article
Nose and skeletal patterns, is there a relationship?

Authors: Mohammed Nahidh
Pages: 113-117
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ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length and projection with the sagittal and
vertical jaw parameters.
Material and method: One hundred digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs were selected from the files of the
patients attending the orthodontic clinic in the College of Dentistry at Baghdad University and classified according to the
ANB angle into class I and class II (50 cases for each group). Eleven skeletal and 2 nasal soft tissue parameters were
measured using AutoCAD program. Independent samples t-test was used to evaluate the genders and classes differences
and Pearson coefficient of correlation was used to show the relationship between the nasal and skeletal parameters.
Results: The results indicated that the males had longer and prominent noses in both classes. On the other hand, there was
non-significant correlation between the sagittal relation and the nasal parameters, while there was significant correlation
between the facial heights and nasal parameters.
Conclusion: The noses in males were longer and more prominent than females. The sagittal relation parameters had no
influence on the nasal parameters in contrary to the facial heights.
Key words: Nasal length, projection, skeletal relations. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):113-117)

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Article
Dental caries in relation to salivary parameters and immunoglobulins among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children

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ABSTRACT
Background: Low caries – experience in Down's syndrome individuals was observed. These observations have been
questioned by many researchers whether they are inherently resistant to caries or not. Therefore, the aim of this study
was to measure the changes in the level of pH, flow rate, buffer capacity as well as IgA and IgG in stimulated saliva
and their relation to dental caries among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children.
Materials and Methods: Fifty institutionalized children with Down's syndrome and 50 normal children aged 7-10 years
old were included in this study. DMFS and dmfs indices were assessed according to Muhlemann's criteria and
stimulated whole saliva samples were collected. The average salivary flow rate was measured from the total volume,
and salivary pH and buffer capacity was determined using pH meter. Salivary IgA and IgG levels were determined
by single radial immunodiffusion technique. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.
Results: The DMFS and dmfs scores were significantly lower in Down's syndrome children than the control group (P<
0.01, P< 0.001respectively). A slightly higher value of pH was found among study compared to the control group (P>
0.05). Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in Down's syndrome children (P< 0.001), while buffer capacity was
significantly higher in those group (P< 0.01). Salivary IgA and G were significantly higher in Down's syndrome children
(P< 0.001).
Conclusion: This study suggests that Children with Down's syndrome present a better buffer capacity which may
explains a lower caries – experience compared to normal children.
Key words: Down's syndrome, dental caries, salivary secretory IgA. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):118-124)

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Article
Evaluation of the relationship between caries–experience and nutrients intake in children with Down's syndrome

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ABSTRACT
Background: Lower caries – experience in Down's syndrome individuals was determined. The precise cause is still
unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the nutrients consumed in diet and their relations to caries -
experience among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children.
Materials and Methods: Fifty institutionalized children with Down's syndrome and 50 normal children aged 7-10 years
old were included in this study. DMFS and dmfs indices were assessed according to Muhlemann's criteria .The dietary
history was assessed through the use of food frequency questionnaire, it consists of food items commonly consumed
in Iraq, and this was achieved from the Nutrition Research Institution in Baghdad province. All data were analyzed
using SPSS version 13.
Results: The DMFS and dmfs scores were significantly lower in Down's syndrome children than the control group (P<
0.01, P< 0.001respectively). The mean daily intake of protein (gm) was slightly higher among the control group
compared to the study group (P> 0.05), while calcium (mg) was highly consumed by Down's syndrome children (P>
0.05). Vitamin C (mg) was significantly higher in consumption among Down's syndrome children than control group
(P< 0.01).
Conclusion: The effect of most of nutrients intake on caries – experience of primary teeth was seems to be similar
among Down's syndrome and normal children.
Key words: Down's syndrome, Dental caries, protein, calcium, vitamin C. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):125-130)

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Article
The antibacterial effects of ellagic acid on Mutans Streptococci in comparison to Chlorhexidine

Authors: Mohammed AL Kasiey --- Saadi J. Muslim
Pages: 131-134
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ABSTRACT
Background: Ellagic acid is a nutraceutical contains a naturally occurring poly-phenol compound that has strong
anti-oxidant and anti carcinogenic properties. According to previous researches ellagic acid has anti-viral, antibacterial.
Mutans streptococci are the most cariogenic microorganism responsible for initiation of dental caries.
Ellagic acid is used in treatment of several diseases besides its effect on periodontal disease.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to test the effects of Pomegranate extracts (ellagic acid) on
growth, adherence effects and acidogenicity of Mutants Streptococci.
Results The results showed that, all concentration of ellagic acid were effective in inhibition of Mutans Streptococci,
The inhibition increased with increasing the concentration of ellagic acid, starting from 0.625 to 10 mg/ml. However
the concentration of ellagic acid 5, 10 mg/ml showed stronger effects than chlorhexidine 0.2% and deionized water.
Conclusion: The effects of both 5, 10 mg/ml ellagic acid were tested on the viability counts of salivary Mutans
Streptococci in vitro. The results showed that, highly significant differences (P<0.001) were reported between 5, 10
mg/ml of ellagic acid when compared to control in the reduction of viable counts of Mutans Streptococci in vitro,
on the other hand, the effective concentrations of ellagic acid 5 and 10 mg/ml were able to inhibit the adherence
of mutans streptococci to teeth surface and to retard the process of acid production of mutans streptococci in vitro.
Stimulated salivary samples were collected from (18) volunteers before and after rinsing. The results showed
Chlorhexidine o.2% and de-ionized water after half an hour in reducing the counts of salivary Streptococci and
Mutans Streptococci .The antibacterial effects of ellagic acid seem to remain for more than two hours.
Keywords: Mutans Streptococci, ellagic acid, Chlorhexidine. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):131-134)

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