Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2009 volume:21 issue:4

Article
An evaluation of the effect of modified Carisolv gel with different time of application on micro leakage of repaired light cured composite restoration

Authors: Haitham J. Al-Azzawi --- Ammar Aziz
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of modified Carisolv gel on micro leakage of repaired light
cured composite restoration with different time of application (5, 10 and 15) minutes.
Materials and methods: Twenty eight specimens were prepared using translucent plastic mold of dimension (8 mm
diameter and 2.5 mm depth), divided into 4 groups according to application time of Carisolv gel. All specimens
treated with phosphoric acid 35% followed by Swisstec SL bond, GA (Carisolv 5 minutes + Swisstec total etch bond),
GB(Carisolv 10 minutes + Swisstec total etch bond), GC(Carisolv 15 minutes + Swisstec total etch bond), GD control
group using Swisstec total etch bond without using of Carisolv gel. All specimens were stored in artificial saliva
solution for one month, finishing of composite surface with coarse aluminum oxide abrasive disc, repair has been
done for all specimens, thermo cycling between two water baths (5±2 and 55±2)°C has been done. Specimens
were stored in bottles containing metylene blue dye for 2 days, sectioned with a special sectioning device.
Microleakage was analyzed by reading the linear penetration of the dye in mm using stereomicroscope with a
reflected light under the magnification of 4X, data was collected an analyzed using ANOVA and t-test.
Results: GC exhibited less micro leakage than GB, and GB showed less micro leakage than GA and GD showed
higher micro leakage than other groups
Conclusion: Time of Carisolv gel application has a significant effect on microleakage, increasing exposure time to a
certain limit decreases micro leakage.
Key words: Carisolv, application time, composite repair. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):1-5)

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Article
The influence of two chelating agents used in two different working times on the microleakage of packable composite resin used in post space (in vitro study)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Weakened teeth are not strengthened by the placement of a post but retention of restoration is
enhanced by using a post. Restoration with adhesive materials offers many advantages over the use of traditional
materials, like transmission of functional stresses across the bonded interface to the peridontium, with potential to
reinforce the weakened tooth structure. Cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation leave a layer of debris
that covers the walls of the cavity and root canal, known as smear which can be removed with a chelating agent.
This in vitro study conducted to evaluate the effect of two different chelating agents used in two different times of
application on the microleakage of packable composite resin (Filtek P60 shade) used in post space.
Materials and method: Fifty, human, freshly-extracted mandibular premolars were selected. After crown sectioning
and conventional endodontic treatment, parallel post spaces 5mm in depth and 2mm in diameter were prepared
using pesso burs (LARGO No.6). Then the specimens were randomly divided into five groups as follow: Group1
(control): The post space was filled with packable composite without previous using of chelating agent. Group2
(experimental): The post space was flooded with 17% EDTA for 5 minutes prior filling with packable composite.
Group3 (experimental): The post space was flooded with 10% citric acid for 5 minutes prior filling with packable
composite. Group4 (experimental): The post space was flooded with 17% EDTA for 10 minutes prior filling with
packable composite. Group5 (experimental): The post space was flooded with 10% citric acid for 10 minutes prior
filling with packable composite. After thermocycling and immersion in methylene blue, the teeth were sectioned
longitudinally and dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicrscope, microleakage was recorded in mm.
Results: ANOVA test and least significant difference (LSD) test were used to analyze the results and to show the
difference between groups. Results expressed statistically highly significant reduction in microleakage value among
all groups; with the lowest mean microleakage value was in group5 in which citric acid was used for 10 min.,
followed by group4 in which EDTA was used for 10 min., followed by group3 in which citric acid was used for 5 min.,
followed by group2 in which EDTA was used for 5 min., and control group showed the highest microleakage value.
Conclusion: From the results of the present study, it is clear that the application of a chelating agent prior using acid
etch and adhesive system with composite resin filling material will significantly reduce microleakage value of the
restorative material.
Key words: Microleakage, Packable composite, Post, Chelating agent. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 6-9)

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Article
Color change measurements of heat cure fiber reinforced acrylic resin denture base. A comparative study

Authors: Kais G. Zia
Pages: 10-12
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim was to find out the effect of different food beverages on fiber reinforced acrylic resin in
comparison with conventional acrylic resin.
Materials and Methods: Acrylic blocks were made by incorporation of glass fibers into the polymer and flasked in
stone models of special sizes then deflasked and divided into four groups each composed of five specimens stored
into Tae, Coffee, Pepsi cola and Distilled water for different periods of time and compared with conventional acrylic
resin by the use of visible light spectrophotometer.
Results: There were significant differences between the four groups of the same material compared with
conventional acrylic resin especially with aging under visible light spectrophotometer.
Conclusion: it is better to use conventional acrylic without fiber reinforcement for fabrication of dentures to retain
their colors for longer periods of time without changes in the oral environment.
Key words: acrylic resin, denture bases, fibers. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 10-12)

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Article
Assessment of diametral tensile strength and microhardness of manufactured dental base materials from enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or with out CO2 laser treatment

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study was done to assess diametral tensile strength and microhardness of manufactured dental
base materials from enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment.
Materials and methods: The ratio of the elements of the manufactured base materials and the parameters of CO2
laser (15.92W/cm2 power density and 0.2 seconds exposure time) were detected from the pilot study. The diametral
tensile strength test described by British standard specification for zinc polycarboxylate cement was used in this study
and microhardness test was performed on acrylic blocks with holes containing the manufactured base materials by
Vicker`s microhardness testing machine.
Results: The results showed that the manufactured base material that contains mixture of enamel powder and
hydroxyapatite without CO2 laser treatment has diametral tensile strength of (12.2±0.7)MPa and ( 42.95±2.8) Kg/mm2
microhardness, the manufactured base material that contains mixture of enamel powder and hydroxyapatite with
CO2 laser treatment has diametral tensile strength of (15.9±0.8)MPa and (58±1.7) Kg/mm2 microhardness. The
diametral tensile strength showed that it will increase after one week storage.
Conclusion: The base materials that contains mixture of the enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite has higher
diametral tensile strength and microhardness value than other base materials and CO2 laser treatment will increase
diametral tensile strength and microhardness value.
Key words: Diametral, microhardness, enamel, hydroxyapatite. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 13-18)

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Article
Assessment of setting time and solubility of manufactured dental base materials from enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: This study was done to assist setting time, solubility of manufactured dental base materials from enamel
powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 lasers treatment.
Materials and Methods: The ratio of the elements of the manufactured base materials and the parameters of CO2
laser (15.92W/cm2 power density and 0.2 seconds exposure time) were detected from the pilot study, the setting time
and solubility tests described by British standard specification for zinc polycarboxylate cement was used in this study
Results: The results showed that the manufactured base material that contains mixture of enamel powder and
hydroxyapatite without CO2 laser treatment has (29.47±2) minutes setting time, and (1.136 ±0.5)% solubility, while the
manufactured base material that contains mixture of enamel powder and hydroxyapatite with CO2 laser treatment
has (26.1±3.8) minutes setting time, and(2.66± 0.5)% solubility. While the manufactured base material that contains
hydroxyapatite powder with CO2 laser treatment has (16.7±4.5) minutes setting time, and (1.78±0.5) % solubility.
Conclusion: The manufactured base materials that contains enamel powder has longer setting time and the CO2
laser treatment will reduce the setting time of all types of the manufactured base materials, the base materials that
contains synthetic hydroxyapatite has higher solubility than other base materials and the CO2 laser treatment will
reduce the solubility of the manufactured base materials.
Key words: Setting time, solubility, laser. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 19-23).

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Article
Effect of microwave disinfection on some properties of gypsum products

Authors: ShorouqM. Abass
Pages: 24-29
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Dental casts can be contaminated by saliva and blood from patient’s mouth through impression
materials, record bases, trial dentures...etc. Different methods were used to disinfect the dental cast; e.g. immersing
in, spraying with, or incorporating the disinfectant directly into the dental stone powder. These methods produced an
adverse affect on the properties of dental stone. This study was intended to evaluate the effect of different methods
of microwave disinfection; immersing in water, NaCl solution, or in dry air on the reproduction of details and surface
hardness of type III and type IV gypsum products at different time intervals.
Materials and methods: A microwave oven was used to disinfect type III and IV dental stone at 850 watt for 10
minutes while immersed in water, 40 % Sodium chloride solution, and in dry air during the disinfection procedure.
Surface hardness of the dental stone samples was evaluated by using the Brinell hardness test at different time
intervals; after 1hour, 2 hours, 24 hours, and after one week of start of mixing. Reproduction of details of the dental
stone samples was also evaluated.
Results: The surface hardness was significantly different for all the test groups at different time intervals except for the
water group after 1 and 2 hour for type III dental stone. The dry air group and water group were insignificantly
different after1hr for type IV dental stone. The test for reproduction of details showed no significant difference for all
the test groups except for NaCl group which was significantly different, the score was 2 which was clinical
insignificant.
Conclusion: Microwave disinfection can be used for dental stone casts while in dry air for type III & immersed in water
for type IV, with no effect on reproduction of details and with least adverse effects on the surface hardness of the
gypsum products.
Key words: Gypsum products, microwave, disinfection, surface hardness, reproduction of details. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 24-29).

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Article
Comparison of transverse strength of repaired visible light-polymerized resin to pressured auto polymerizing and conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin

Authors: Amer H.M.Khamas --- Ghassan A. Al-Taie
Pages: 30-32
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The flexural strength of a material is the load at which the material fractures under bending load. The
aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different repair methods (light cure, short cycle, Ivomate) on
transverse strength of acrylic resin denture base.
Materials and methods: Thirty specimens were prepared and were divided into three groups, ten (heat cure)
specimens repaired with heat cure acrylic and ten (heat cure) specimens repaired with heat pressure steam cold
cure acrylic, other ten (light cure) specimens repaired with light cure acrylic resin. The measurement of transverse
strength of the specimens under three –point loading using Instron- Testing machine was made.
Results: The higher values of transverse strength were recorded in specimens repaired with cold cure acrylic using
Ivomate curing method. The light cure repair acrylic was significantly inferior than other groups there was a non
significant difference between heats cure (short cycle) and cold cure (Ivomate) repaired acrylic resin.
Conclusion: The curing method has a considerable influence on transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin. The
pressured cold cure acrylic repairs are the best material in comparison with heat cure and light cure acrylic repairs.
Keywords: Acrylic resin, Instron machine, light curing, Ivomate curing. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 30-32).

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Article
The effect of different packing methods, silinated glass fiber incorporation and Co-Cr framework involvement on the fit of acrylic denture base at the posterior palatal region

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ABSTRACT
Background: Presence of teeth and deep palatal shape decrease the fit of acrylic resin denture to the master cast
especially at the posterior region as well as the conventional packing system involves removal of the flasks from the
press to the clamp that create pressure discontinuity may also aggravate the unfit of denture base. The purpose of
this study is to investigate the effect of tension packing system, incorporation of silinated short glass fiber, and Co-Cr
framework involvement on the fit of acrylic resin denture base at the posterior palatal region of deep palate model
in presence of teeth.
Material and Method: A silicon mold was used to prepare a (60) type VІ stone master cast ,(30)casts were used in
conventional packing system and the other half for tension packing system ,where each main group were
subdivided into three sub groups (control , silinated short glass fiber, and Co-Cr framework involved groups) each
consist of( 10) samples. Acrylic dough was prepared and packed, in tension packing system the flasks were placed
between the metal plates of tension device and the screws nuts were tightened before the final definitive closure,
short curing cycle was undertaken. Short glass fiber groups samples were prepared using the same conventional
denture base construction steps except for the addition of silinated short glass fiber(4mm) in (2%) concentration. Co-
Cr framework was fabricated to occupy2/3 of palate, then acrylic resin –metal combination denture base were
constructed. Samples were cut anterior to the posterior palatal seal area. The gap space between the acrylic base
and the master cast was measured by travelling microscope.
Results: The results showed different fit of acrylic denture base to the cast at the different points in each sample
where the ridge crests and the marginal borders points showed good fit in contrast to the mid palatal points that
revealed the poorest fit in all the tested groups. The Co-Cr groups showed the highest fit, followed by glass fiber
groups while, the poorest fit were in the control groups.
Conclusion: It is concluded that Co-Cr framework involvement, incorporation of silinated glass fiber, and/or tension
packing system had increased the fit in different grades.
Key words: Fit, Packing, Co-Cr, Silinated glass fiber. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 33-38).

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Article
Mechanical and histological significance of Nigella Sativa Oil extract on bone-implant interface

Authors: Mohammed S.A --- Alnajar S.S.A
Pages: 39-43
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The new trend of coating implants with biological molecules has result in improvement in
osseointegration. Natural plants can provide biological molecules which are biocompatible, abundant in source, has
low cost and can be modified to host properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of coating implant
with black seed oil extract on the strength of bone implant interface mechanically and histologicaly.
Material & methods: Forty eight CpTi screw shaped implants (3.75mm in diameter, 8 mm in length) were placed in the
tibiae bone of twelve New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received 4 implant (2 uncoated and 2 coated with black
seed oil extract by dip coating technique). Twelve implants removed after each healing period of 2, 6 and 12 weeks
using digital torque meter device constructed for the purpose of this study and four implants removed with bone
block for histological study at each healing period.
Results: The mean removal torque values for coated implants were higher significantly than the uncoated implants
over different time periods. In addition the histological picture show improved quality of bone response among the
coated screws.
Conclusions: The coated implants seemed to be well tolerated by the bone since no adverse tissue reaction was
evident and they have better torque resistance and appear to produce osteophilic surface favoring early
osseointegration.
Key words: nigella sativa, dip coating, dental implant, biochemical modification. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):
39-43).

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Article
Determination of the vertical dimension by cranio-facial measurement using clinical and cephalometric analysis (comparative study)

Authors: Abbas F. AL-Huwaizi --- Hadeel A. Al-Dhaher
Pages: 44-47
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ABSTRACT
Background: Evaluating the maxillo-mandibular vertical dimension is of great importance in constructing successful
denture prosthesis, whoever it is a tedious process which may be misinterpreted leading to false readings. Hence with
the aid of cephalometric analysis a cephalogram may present a graphic representation of a problem to be met. This
study aimed to introduce a new mathematical method for determination the occlusal vertical dimension (O.V.D.).
Materials and methods: The first part was conducted to derive a clinical ratio between the O.V.D. and the ear-eye
distance, as well as to derive a radiographical ratio between the same distances using a computerized calibration
system on a lateral cephalometric view. The sample of this part consists of 34 dentate subjects (17 male and 17
female) of age range between 21-23 years old. The second part of this study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of
clinical and radiographical application of the ratios that were derived from the first part in estimating the O.V.D. from
the ear-eye distance measured in dentate subjects. The sample used in this part was 14 subjects (7 male and 7
female) of the same age range for the clinical and radiographical ratio.
Results: The clinical ratio of O.V.D./ear-eye distance is of significance in determination of O.V.D. for both dentulous
and edentulous subjects, while the radiographical ratio of O.V.D./ear-eye distance is of significance in determination
of O.V.D. in dentulous subjects only. There is a highly significant difference between the male and female ear-eye
distance (clinically) and significant difference between male and female ear-eye distance radiographically. As well
as, there is a non significant correlation between the clinical O.V.D. with ear-eye distance in male but significant in
female and total groups, and there is a significant correlation between them radiographically in female but of non
significant correlation in male and total groups.
Conclusion: the ratio of O.V.D./ear-eye distance could play a helpful role in the determination of O.V.D.
Keywords: Vertical dimension, cephalometric analysis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 44-47).

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Article
Serum and Salivary levels of polyamines as potential biomarkers in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma

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ABSTRACT
Back ground: Oral cancer is one of the prevalent cancers of the body and is one of the 10 most common causes of
death. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for over 90% of these tumors. The aim of this study was
designed to detect biochemical markers in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and to
evaluate their validity in monitoring and diagnosis.
Patients and Methods: The level of polyamines in the serum and saliva of (30) patients with OSCC and (20) healthy
individuals as control group was measured. Polyamines (spermidine and spermine) were determined by high
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in both serum and saliva of patients with OSCC and control group.
Results: The total serum and salivary polyamines level of OSCC were significantly higher than the control group
(P<0.001). Both salivary and serum polyamines level were reliably accurate test in separating between OSCC
patients and control group since the area under the ROC curve for both serum and salivary polyamines was one
which is significantly higher (different ) from that of an equivocal test of 0.5. There was significant difference in salivary
spermine level among OSCC patients in relation to lesion status. Spermine levels were reduced in recurrent lesion
especially with metastases. There were significant differences in serum polyamines level among OSCC patients in
relation to duration of the disease (P<0.05).
Conclusion: From the results of the presents study, it can be concluded that detection of polyamines in serum and
saliva are useful and valuable diagnostic markers in diagnosis and early detection of OSCC.
Keywords: Oral cancer; polyamines; OSCC. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 48-53)

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Article
Immunohistochemical expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and Vimentin in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Authors: Ahlam H.Majeed --- Afrah A.Khalil
Pages: 54-58
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of stratified squamous epithelium; it occurs in
different sites and has potential destructive growth and invasive with distant metastasis. The aims of the study were
to evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and Vimentin immunohistochemistry and to correlate them
with the clinicopathological parameters in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Materials and methods: twenty prospective and eleven retrospective paraffin- embedded formalin- fixed blocks of
oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Haematoxylin & Eosin stain (H & E) and
immunohistochemical staining was done by using monoclonal antibodies for anti-matrix metalloproteinase and anti-
Vimentin.
Results: positive immunohistochemical staining for MMP-9 was seen in 100% of collective cases while it was seen in
93.5% for Vimentin.
Conclusions:There was no correlation found between the two markers. MMP-9 expression was found in all cases with
no correlation with clinicopathological parameters so it can be used as a diagnostic tumor marker rather than a
prognostic marker. Vimentin was expressed in most OSCC cases with significant correlation with tumor size and
stage. Vimentin can be used as a good prognostic tumor marker.
Key word: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Matrix metalloproteinase-9, Vimentin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):
54-58).

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Article
Nucleolar organizer regions in giant cell lesions of the jaws in relation to clinico-pathological parameters

Authors: Balkees T. Garib
Pages: 59-62
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: It is to clarify the proliferatiove activity of the multinucleated giant cells and cellular component in giant
cell lesions of the jaw in correlation to their clinico-pathological features.
Materials and methods: This study was carried on 23 cases diagnosed as GC lesion of the jaw. Patient's personal and
clinical information were collected from their files. H&E and sliver nitrate stains were applied on their formalin fixed
paraffin embedded tissue sections.
Results: the mean AgNOR count in MGC/cell was 49.83 and NORs/nucleus was 5.8, and 74% of them were grouped
in large clusters and 26% were scattered. In PGCG the mean AgNOR count /MGC and /nucleus were significantly
lower than that of CGCL (38.2 vs 59.5 and 4.6 vs 6.8 respectively, P<0.04). The mean AgNOR count of spindle and
mononuclear cells were 4.7 in CGC lesions and 2.5 in peripheral lesions
Conclusion: evaluation of AgNORs showed that both MGC and fraction of mononuclear cells in CGCG were
significantly higher than that in PGCG. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 59-62).

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Article
Evaluation of immunoglobulines versus natural salivary defense in controlling recurrent herpes simplex lesions

Authors: Rajaa Al-Jobori --- Ihsan A. Kumail
Pages: 63-69
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: There has been no precise correlative study for evaluating the role of immunoglobulines versus salivary
natural defense in controlling recurrent oro-labial herpes simplex infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the
efficiency of immunoglobulines versus natural salivary defense in preventing recurrent lesions.
Method: This study was conducted on 88 healthy dental students in oral diagnosis clinic of Dentistry College/
Mustansirya University from October 2007 to December 2007. Evaluation of defense components was done by
identifying and measuring the level of serum anti-HSV1 IgG, salivary secretory IgA and salivary hypothiocyanite in
seropositive subjects with and without recurrent oro-labial herpetic lesions.
Results: It was found that the level of serum anti-HSV1 IgG was high in seropositive subjects with recurrent lesions and
low in seropositive subjects without recurrence, while the level of salivary hypothiocyanite anion was markedly higher
in seropositive subjects without recurrence than seropositive subjects with recurrence.
Conclusion: The natural salivary defense factor – Hypothiocyanite- was able to control recurrent lesions of HSV 1
when its concentration is ≥ 90 μM, while immunoglobulines are not efficient in controlling recurrence of the lesion.
Key words: immunoglobulines, natural defense, recurrent herpes lesion. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 63-69).

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Article
Efficacy of low level diode laser in skin wound healing (experimental study)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Wound healing is a complicated, interactive, integrative process involving cellular and chemotactic
activity, the release of chemical mediators and associated vascular response which includes number of phases:
inflammatory phase, proliferative phase and remodeling phase. Low level laser therapy can be more effective in the
three overlapping phases of wound healing. Biostimulation appears to have an effect on the cellular level, by
increasing cellular function and stimulating various cells. The aim of present study was to evaluate histologically the
efficacy of low level diode laser on skin wound healing in animal model (histological study).
Material and methods: The experimental study was performed on seven healthy local bred rabbits. Four incisions
were done in each side at dorsal surface of each rabbit. The wounds at the right side were irradiated by low level
diode laser while the wounds at left side were left without irradiation as a control group. Animals were divided into
two groups according to laser parameters: 1- Group A includes three rabbits and the wounds were irradiated by
1.25W/cm2 power density, 20 sec. exposure time. 2-Group B includes four rabbits and the wounds were irradiated by
1W/cm2 power density, 50 sec. exposure time. Histological specimens were taken at 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day for
microscopical examination concerning inflammatory cells infiltration and epithelial cell layer thickness.
Results: Results show obvious reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration and more epithelization in laser treated
wounds compared with control wounds. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between two groups.
Conclusion: Low level diode laser (790-805nm) has beneficial effects in enhancement of soft tissue wound healing
process histologically.
Key words: Low level laser therapy, Diode laser, Wound healing, Biostimulation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 70-
74).

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Article
Chronological age estimation by radiological measurements on digital panoramic image among Iraqi sample (Forensic odontological study)

Authors: Mohammed H. Al-Saadi --- Lamia H. Al-Nakib
Pages: 75-79
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Age estimation has become increasingly important in forensic sciences, from the earliest times of
human history teeth were considered to be an indicator of age. The aim of the study is to estimate the chronological
age for Iraqi sample by the application of Kvaal’s technique on digital panoramic image and Comparing between
the real age and the estimated age.
Materials and methods: One hundred digital panoramic images were collected at random from patients of whom
the age ranged from 20 to 59 years. According to the reported technique, six teeth were selected on the digital
panoramic images: in maxilla the central and lateral incisor and second bicuspid, and in mandible the lateral incisor,
cuspid and first bicuspid. The same exclusion criteria as in the original paper were respected. Statistical analysis was
carried out in order to spot significant differences between the chronological age and the calculated age.
Results: When the age was calculated based on measurements of all six teeth or of all three mandibular teeth, no
significant differences were found between the real age and the calculated one. In all other instances using the
individual teeth separately or using all three maxillary teeth statistical analysis revealed significant differences.
Also the most nearest tooth from age estimation point of view is the maxillary central incisor and the distant tooth is
the mandibular canine and the nearest age group from age estimation point of view was happened in thirtieth
group While the farthest results between the real age and the estimated age was happened in fiftieth group.
Conclusion: no significant difference between the real age and the estimated age based on the digital panoramic
image, the most promising results obtained when we using in this method the six teeth all together or at least the
three mandibular teeth or the maxillary central incisor alone.
Key words: Forensic, Odontology, Panoramic. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 75-79).

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Article
The detection of human papilloma virus- 16, in relation to P53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma by in situ hybridization

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ABSTRACT
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity constituted a major health problem and can be a leading
cause of death. Several studies link high risk Human papillomavirus -16 to oral squamous cell carcinoma as an
important etiological factor. Several molecular markers have also been the subject of an intense research work,
trying to clarify their role in oral carcinogenesis. Of these, the cancer suppresser gene P53 has been extensively
studied. Aim of the study: 1. to detect the association of the molecular markers Human papillomavirus -16, in relation
to P53 in the oral Squamous cell carcinoma using in situ hybridization technique. 2. To correlate Human
papillomavirus -16 with clinical data (age, sex, risk factors grade &stage).
Material & Methods: Tumor tissues from 33 patients with newly diagnosed as oral squamous cell carcinoma & who
were surgically treated collected, formalin fixed & paraffin embedded. Sections on charged slides were made from
each tissue block and submitted to in situ hybridization technique utilizing Human papillomavirus -16, P53 cDNA
probes.
Results: Human papillomavirus -16 was localized by in situ hybridization specifically within the nuclei of cancer cell it
was detected in (27) (81.8%) of 33 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. By using in situ hybridization P53 were
detected in (93.9%) cases. There was no significant correlation between the Human papillomavirus -16 &P53
positivity. Most of Human papillomavirus -16 positive patients were within the age group (50-59) years. However, there
was no significant correlation between Human papillomavirus -16 positive &age. No significant correlation was
found to sex &risk factors either. Most of cases were moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (79%).
however no significant correlation was detected regarding histopathological grading or clinical staging with Human
papillomavirus -16, & P53.
Conclusions: Being highly associated with Human papillomavirus -16 must be searched for in cancer tissues of such
patients.
Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Human papillomavirus -16, P53, in situ hybridization. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2009; 21(4): 80-85).

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Article
Different treatment modilities of RAU

Authors: ShanazM. Gaphor
Pages: 86-88
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ABSTRACT
Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common recurring oral ulcerative condition in many parts of
the world, characterized by painful oral ulcerations recurring with varying frequency. The aim of Study: To: investigate
the most effective treatment of RAS according different treatment modalities.
Patients and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 80 patients and seen in period from January 2008 to
August 2008. 80 patients that had recurrent aphthous ulcers were classified in to four groups according to the
treatment modalities: Group I: Contained 20 patients, they were given a mixture of teaspoonful of each of (alarmin,
dexon, and malox) syrup as mouth rinse three times daily. Group II: Contained 20 patients, they were given
tetracycline capsule (250 mg) as suspension in one spoon water used as rinse and spit four times daily. Group III:
Contained 20 patients, they were given chlorhexidine mouth wash (0.02%) three times daily and Triamcinolone
acetonide (kenalog) 0.1-0.5 % in orabase four times daily. Group IV (Placebo group): Contained 10 patients, they did
not take any treatment, we just gave them water colored with industrial food color.
Results: In this study 80 patients were examined, 53 of them 66.25 % were females, 27 patients 33.75 % were males.
Post-treatment daily observation on [first, third and sixth day] we looked for pain relief, reduction in size of ulcers, and
complete healing. Whole groups were included in the post-treatment observation that were took the treatment in
the first day of appearance of their ulcers. In the first day of observation, the pain disappeared in patients of group I,
the intensity of pain reduced in patients of groups II and III, but patients of placebo group their pain remained as it
was. In the third day of observation the patients of group I showed reduction of size and disappearance of erythema
of their ulcers, while patients of other groups their pain reduced, but ulcers' sizes remained as it was. In the sixth day
of observation we noted that patients of group I had complete healing of their ulcers, patients of the groups II and III
had reduction of ulcers' sizes.
Conclusions: From this study the researcher concludes that: The mixture of (alarmin, dexon, and malox) syrup
seemed to be the most effective type of local medication in treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration, patients
that took that kind of treatment had short healing time and earlier pain relief than patients that took other types of
treatments.
Key words: RAU, clinical presentation, treatment. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 86-88).

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Article
Effects of cigarette smoking on the clinical attachment loss &gingival recession among sixth year medical students in Baghdad

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The association between smoking duration and periodontal disease controlling for age was statistically
significant, also smoking exposure and periodontal disease is a dose- dependent relationship. The amount of
cigarettes consumption had a significant effect on clinical attachment loss and gingival recession.
Materials and methods: The influence of the amount and duration of cigarettes smoking on both clinical attachment
level and gingival recession were investigated in 100 sixth year male medical students (50 were non –smoker) of
mean age =24years old, at 3 medical colleges in Baghdad.Self administrated questionnaire and a clinical
examination for PLI, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession
was carried on among them.
Results: 58% of smokers had been smoking for less than 5years while 42%of smokers had been smoking for more than
5 years. Regarding the amount of smoking 34% smoked less than 5 cigarettes per day, 50%of smokers smoked (5-20)
cigarettes per day, while 16% smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day. Smokers showed significantly higher mean of
plaque index, clinical attachment loss and gingival recession. No significant difference in both gingival bleeding and
the mean of pocket depth was found between the smokers and non-smokers.
Conclusion: It may be concluded that, even at such an early age and in spite of a good oral hygiene standard,
tobacco consumption affects the periodontal health and such effect is a dose dependent especially for periodontal
attachment loss and gingival recession. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 89-91).

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Article
Measurement of mesiodistal axial angulation of the teeth in class I malocclusion in adults

Authors: Layth M. K. Nissan
Pages: 92-96
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The study of the axial inclination of the individual teeth to each other is the most important step in the
process of case study and this study aimed to provide a description of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the
maxillary and mandibular teeth in cases of class I malocclusion.
Materials and methods: The values of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the teeth were measured for 20 subjects (10
males and 10 females) from orthopantomograph using computer program and comparisons were made between
the right and left sides and between males and females.
Results: showed that the mean values of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the teeth were higher in males than in
females, and higher on the right side in upper and lower arches than on the left side for males, females and total
sample, however; there was no statistically significant difference between the groups.
Conclusion: This study provided a good description of the mesiodistal axial angulation of the maxillary and
mandibular teeth in cases of class I malocclusion.
Keywords: mesiodistal axial angulation, class I malocclusion, orthopantomograph. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4):
92-96).

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Article
A comparative lateral cephalometric study between class III malocclusion and class I normal occlusion

Authors: Shahba'a A. Mohammed
Pages: 97-103
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the craniofacial cephalometric measurements
between Class III malocclusion and Class I normal occlusion in Iraqi adults.
Materials and methods: 30 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs for 15 males and 15 females were selected
from the files of the patients attending the Orthodontic clinic in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad with
an edge to edge and anterior cross bite incisor relation to represent the Class III. Another 30 digital true lateral
cephalometric radiographs for 15 males and 15 females for under and postgraduate students in the same college,
with Class I molar relation, ANB angle ranged between 2-4°, and overjet and overbite between 1-4 mm, were
selected to represent Class I normal occlusion sample. 24 skeletal and dental measurements (14 angular and 9 linear
measurements and one ratio) were measured using AutoCAD program. Independent samples t-test was used to
evaluate the classes differences in each gender.
Results and Conclusions: In comparison with Class I normal occlusion, Class III sample had: shorter posterior cranial
base length and smaller saddle angle for both genders, retrognathic maxilla in males and normal in females, shorter
maxillary length, prognathic mandible and chin position, longer mandibular length in females and normal in males,
smaller ramus height in males, steeper mandibular plane with more obtuse gonial angle, decreased posterior facial
height, normal total anterior facial height in males and decreased in females, proclined maxillary incisors as well as
retroclined mandibular incisors with larger inter-incisal angle.
Key words: Class III, cephalometrics. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 97-103).

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Article
The relation between ramus notch depth and some of the craniofacial measurements in different skeletal patterns

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the ramus notch depth and some of the
craniofacial measurements in Iraqi adults with skeletal Cl I, Cl II and Cl III; and to find out if there were any differences in
the ramus notch between the skeletal classes.
Materials and method: The sample consisted of 174 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqis aged
between 18-25 years old (85 females and 89 males). Seven linear and six angular measurements were analyzed using
AutoCAD (2007) software computer program. Descriptive statistics and gender differences were done for the
measurements. ANOVA test compared the ramus notch depth between the skeletal classes, while Pearson correlation
coefficient test was used to identify the correlations between ramus notch depth and other measurements.
Results: From linear measurements only the ramus notch depth was not significantly different between genders. Nonsignificant
differences of the ramus notch depth between the skeletal classes were revealed by ANOVA test. Significant
positive correlations of the ramus notch depth were found with the ramus length, total anterior facial height, lower
anterior facial height, posterior facial height and the saddle angle for the total sample.
Conclusions: The ramus notch depth is not affected by gender or sagittal jaws relationship. The increased ramus notch
depth may be one of the signs of the long face syndrome without openbite. Deep ramus notch is associated with the
mandibular retrusion or backward position of the ramus.
Key words: Ramus notch, craniofacial measurements. skeletal patterns. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 104-108).

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Article
The antimicrobial effect of aqueous & alcoholic extracts ofeucalyptus leaves on oral Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli& Candida albicans (an in vitro study).

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Mizraqchi --- Firas H. Qanbar
Pages: 109-112
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The antimicrobial properties of the plants constituents have been known for many years and have
been used against a wide variety of bacteria and fungi including oral pathogens. The purpose of this research is to
find out and to compare between the antimicrobial properties of eucalyptus leaves aqueous and alcoholic extracts
on the most cariogenic bacteria in mouth (Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli) and against Candida albicans.
Materials and methods: Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli & Candida albicans were isolated from 25 saliva samples
from dental students. These isolates were purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristics and
biochemical tests. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were prepared from eucalyptus leaves in different concentrations
and estimated in mg/ml. Chlorhexidine 2mg/ml (0.2%) was used in the in vitro experiments while absolute ethanol
used as control. Susceptibility of Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli and Candida albicans were tested by agar
diffusion technique.
Results: There was statistically highly significant difference (p<0.001) between different concentrations of the aqueous
and alcoholic extracts on the sensitivity of the isolates, whilst the alcoholic extract was more effective than aqueous
extract just at low concentrations. At 100mg/ml and 150mg/ml the alcoholic and the aqueous extracts were better
than the 2mg/ml Chlorhexidine in relation to Mutans streptococci and Candida albicans. Minimum bactericidal
concentration for the aqueous extract was 5-8mg/ml, 6-10mg/ml and 3-7mg/ml for Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli
and Candida albicans respectively while that of the alcoholic extract was 4-8mg/ml, 6-10mg/ml and 2-6mg/ml in
relation to Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli and Candida albicans respectively.
Conclusion: Leaves extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) showed antimicrobial action against Mutans streptococci,
Lactobacilli and Candida albicans.
Key words: eucalyptus leaves, extracts, oral mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, Candida albicans. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 109-112).

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