Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access


A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Contact info

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Table of content: 2010 volume:22 issue:1

The influence of different light curing systems with different curing depth on the microhardness of packable composites.

Authors: Ali H. Al – Khafaji --- Ala`a J. Kadum
Pages: 1-6

Background: Adequate polymerization of resin composite is considered to be very important factor. The aim of this
study was to evaluate and compare the influence of different light curing system (conventional QTH, LED and PAC
units) with different polymerization depth (0-1,1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 mm) on microhardness of two types of packable
composite (Filtek p60 & Surefil).
Materials and Methods: Two types of packable composites (Filtek p60 and Surefil) were tested. Thirty hemi cylindrical
specimens (5mm diameter x 6mm height) were made for each material. Photo-activation was performed using
conventional QTH, light emitting diodes (LED) or plasma arc (PAC).Exposure times were 40 seconds for QTH and LED
lights, and 12 seconds for the PAC light. After one day of storage, the microhardness test was measured at 5mm
depth intervals (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 mm).
Results: The microhardness of packable composite resins (Filtek p60) showed a significantly higher microhardness
than packable composite (Surefil) in all light activation systems and in all depth intervals. The LED light curing system
produced superior mean microhardness value followed by conventional QTH and PAC light curing systems
respectively. And all of the tested composite resins groups with the three different types of light activation systems
showed a significant decrease in the microhardness with the increase of depth.
Conclusion: The microhardness of packable composite is affected by the type of materials, light curing systems and
curing depths.
Key words: microhardness, packable composite, light curing systems, curing depths. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;


Effectiveness of cure evaluation of four light-activated composites using different curing modes

Authors: Ali A. R. Al- Shekhli
Pages: 7-10

Background: The degree of polymerization of resin composites generally decreases from the surface of the
restoration inwardly. Ideally, the degree of polymerization of the composite should be the same throughout its depth
and the hardness ratio should be very close or equal to one and can be considered a good indicator for optimal
composite polymerization. This study investigated the influence of different new curing modes on the effectiveness of
cure of conventional light- activated composites to examine their efficacy in satisfying composite adequate
polymerization (hardness ratio ≥ 0.8).
Materials and methods: This study investigated the hardness of the top/bottom surfaces and hardness ratio of two
mm thick composite specimens after exposure to different curing modes. Parameters included six conventional
curing modes: Control (C), Pulse Delay I (PDI), Pulse Delay II (PDII), Soft-start (SS), Pulse Cure I (PCI), and Pulse Cure II
(PCII) plus three experimental curing modes of higher energy density: Prolonged low-intensity pulse cure mode
(PLPC), Prolonged moderate-intensity pulse cure mode (PMPC) and Rapid high-intensity continues cure mode
(RHCC) for each of the four different light-activated composites being tested (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar, Herculite
XRV and Degufill Mineral).
Results: Results revealed that, there was a statistically significant difference for all the hardness ratios with the curing
modes except the hardness ratio of Heliomolar composite where, there was an insignificant difference because, the
mean hardness ratio of Heliomolar composite with the first six curing modes (control, PDI, PDII, SS, PCI, PCII) was not
calculated because of poor polymerization of Heliomolar bottom surfaces with these six curing modes.
Conclusion: This study concluded that, conventional curing modes had failed to cure Heliomolar and Degufill Mineral
composites adequately while the experimental curing modes of high energy density (PLPL, PMPC and RHCC) had
satisfied effectiveness of composite cure for all the composites being tested.
Key words: resin composite, light curing modes, microhardness test. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):7-10


Ear lobes as facial landmarks for determining the occlusal plane

Authors: Bayan S. Khalaf
Pages: 11-13

Background: Difficulties arise when attempting to imagine the interpupillary line and comparing it with the Fox plane
guide and not more difficult than holding any instrument over the movable pupils just to demonstrate the
interpupillary line. The aim of this study was to introduce ear lobes as alternative landmarks for the interpupillary line
during orientation of the occlusal plane. Also, the other aim was to compare the ear lobes with the pupils of the eyes
to verify that they were indifferent as anatomical landmarks.
Materials & methods: The alternative landmarks, ear lobes, were presented and the method for orienting the occlusal
plane with these landmarks was introduced. Digital pictures of 30 subjects, who participated in the study, were
analyzed to compare the parallelism of the interpupillary line with the ear lobes.
Results: The results of this study showed that the interpupillary line was parallel with the line drawn between both ear
lobes for the same subject.
Conclusion: The ear lobes were reliable and dependable alternative landmarks for the orientation of the occlusal
plane and could be used with less effort than that of the conventional method utilizing the interpupillary line.
Key words: earlobe, landmark, occlusal plane. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):11-13


An evaluation of three lubricants in reducing human enamel wear (In vitro study)

Authors: Lamis AL-Taie
Pages: 14-17

Background: Management of tooth wear from grinding presents a significant clinical challenge .Acrylic night guards
are often used to protect the teeth. The long term objective is to find a simple approach to control tooth wear as an
alternative to the use of night guards. This in vitro study aimed to assess the effectiveness of three lubricants in
reducing enamel wear.
Materials and Methods: Thirty two extracted human third molar were selected, randomly assigned in to four groups of
eight teeth each ,teeth were sectioned longitudinally in to two halves (buccal and lingual ),the sectioned specimens
were apposed each other in an electro mechanical wear machine under a load of 3 Kgs. The machine simulated
tooth grinding for (20000) wear cycles. The experiment was repeated for another (20000)wear cycles under four
different conditions: Group I: without using lubricants. Group II: The use of dry lubricant (Calcium Fluoride Ca F
powder). Group III: The use of Olive -Oil. Group IV: The use of combination of Calcium Fluoride /Olive-Oil slurry. Wear
rates of enamel were quantified by weighing the specimens before and after the use of lubricants. Analysis of
variance ANOVA test was performed between experimental groups to test the differences of wear rates among the
four groups.
Results: All three lubricants reduced enamel wear significantly when compared with wearing specimens with out
adding lubricants. Wear rates were significantly less for Olive-Oil, and Ca F /Olive- Oil slurry compared with Ca F
alone, while there was no significant difference between the use of olive oil alone and the use of Ca F/Olive- Oil
Conclusion: It was confirmed that each of the three lubricants reduced the wear rates of enamel substantially during
tooth grinding when compared with wear rates of enamel without lubricant. This study also confirmed that Olive-Oil is
very effective lubricant.
Key words: Enamel wear, lubricant, Olive oil, Calcium Fluoride (Ca F). J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):14-17.


Prevalence of dental attrition among 5-11 years old children in Sulaimaniya city

Authors: Soolav F. Al-Hadithy --- Raad S. Al-Doory
Pages: 18-20

Background: Dental attrition is one of the problems affecting the tooth structure. The aim of this study was to
determine the prevalence of dental attrition in Sulaimaniya Kurdish children.
Materials and methods: A sample of 132 children aged 5-11 years in Sulaimaniya city was examined according to
Hansson and Nilner classification.
Results: The results showed that girls had higher attrition scores than boys and most of the diagnosed dental wear
was of a grade I and mostly in the canine regions. Dental wear of primary teeth was found mostly in the canines
while dental wear of permanent teeth was found mostly in the incisors.
Conclusion: Dental attrition was found to be higher in primary teeth than in permanent teeth.
Keywords: Dental attrition, prevalence, children. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):18-20.


Lactate dehydrogenase in serum and saliva of ischemic heart disease patients


Background: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme detectable in cytoplasm in almost every cell of the
human body, which becomes extracellular upon cell death. Therefore, its extracellular presence is always related
to cell necrosis and tissue breakdown. The aim of this study was to assess LDH in ischemic heart diseased patients
and chronic periodontitis patients and to assess the role of saliva as a diagnostic tool for this biochemical analysis.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty individuals were enrolled in this study; forty of them were patients
having ischemic heart diseases (IHD); sixty patients were age and sex matched risk groups (thirty patients with
hypertension and thirty with diabetes mellitus type 2); the last group was age and sex matched apparently
healthy control individuals. Serum and saliva samples have been taken from each subject for LDH analysis.
Periodontal status have been determined using the clinical periodontal sum score (CPSS).
Results: the mean activity of serum LDH was significantly higher in IHD patients compared to healthy controls & risk
groups, while salivary LDH was highest in relation to highest score of chronic periodontitis (CPSS).
Conclusions: Serum LDH is highly significant in predicting IHD patients, while salivary LDH increases with chronic
periodontitis progression.
Key words: Ischemic heart diseases, chronic periodontitis, and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2010; 22(1):21-24.


Possible effects of chemical weapons used in Halabja martyr city at 16th march 1988 on developing oral and dental tissues


Background: The development of oral and dental tissue is a complex process regulated by genes that are very
sensitive to disturbances in the environment. Although many studies were conducted in different parts of Iraq,
Halabja city is different; it had been subjected to chemical weapons in 1988, that if not produce death, it is
expected to produce developmental anomalies.
Methods and methods: A total of 457 persons were selected and divided to include 3 age groups, those born before
1971 (control group), those who were in utero during 1988 (group2), and those born in 1993 in Halabja city (group3).
Full extra-oral and intra-oral examination was carried out to diagnose any existing anomalies.
Results: Oro-dental anomalies were associated with history of parents’ exposure to chemical weapons (r = 0.3); no
sex difference was detected. Clinically missing teeth and retained deciduous teeth were the predominant
anomalies(11%) and correlated with history of parents’ exposure to chemical weapons predominantly in group2
(r=0.24). Enamel hypoplasia and local enamel opacities observed in 9.85%; macroglossia, fissured tongue, and
ankyloglossia were seen in 6.13%.
Conclusion: History of the exposure to chemical weapons effects teeth number, structure, and tongue anomalies.
Clinically missing teeth and retained deciduous teeth were the predominant anomalies.
Key words: Halabja city, chemical weapons, developmental anomalies. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):25-30.


Oral and dental problems among thalassaemic patients in Diyala governorate


Background: Thalassaemia is a genetic disorder leading to anemia, the disease is originally wide spread in the
Mediterranean Basin. This study was carried out to identify some sociodemographic factors, oral and dental
problems among thalassemic patients, in Diyala governorate.
Subjects and Methods: The study sample included 110 patients 65 of them males and 45 females, from the
thalassemic clinic in AL –Battool hospital in Diyala governorate 68 patients from the original sample; aged 6-20 years
were examined for oral and dental problems.
Results: It was seen that 11.8% of the males, 16.2% of the females had class 11 occlusal defect, 17.6% of the males,
11.7% females had gingivitis and 10.3%, 22% of the male and female respectively had bad oral hygiene.
Conclusions: Thalassemic patients had oral and dental problems, and recommend promotion of oral and dental
cares services in this clinic.
Key word: Thalassemia , oral and dental problems. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):31-34.


Control of recurrent oro-labial herpes simplex lesions by in vivo enhancement of salivary peroxidase system

Authors: Rajaa Al-Joubori --- Ihsan A. Kameel
Pages: 35-41

Background: Many studies have been conducted to enhance the salivary innate defense factors against bacteria;
this study was conducted to enhance the salivary natural peroxidase system in vivo to prevent recurrent herpes
simplex type 1 infection.
Subjects and methods: This study had been carried out on 40 healthy subjects (mean age 22), who were suffering
from recurrent oro-labial lesions. A mouth rinse was made to stimulate the salivary peroxidase system to produce
hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) at an antimicrobial level; the rinse was tried on 30 subjects for 100 days, while the rest were
the control.
Results: It had been shown that the use of the rinse led to generation of OSCN- ≥ 100 μM which was highly efficient in
reducing recurrent oro-labial herpes simplex lesions in study group.
Conclusion: The properties of a mouth rinse that increases the in vivo generation of salivary OSCN- are: H2O2 3 mM,
KSCN 1 mM in PBS pH 5.5, the rinse volume is 5 ml and the time of rinsing is 2 minutes.
Key words: recurrent oro-labial herpes simplex lesion – peroxidase system. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):35-41.


Prevalence of severity and sex distribution oftempromandibular disorders and other related factorsamong a sample of Sulaimani university students

Authors: Soran M. Hameed --- ShanazM. Gaphor
Pages: 43-49

Back ground: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have been recognized as a common orofacial pain condition.
The term (TMDs) refers to a group of disorders characterized by pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the
periauricular area, or the muscles of mastication, TMJ noises (sounds) during mandibular function and deviations, or
restriction in mandibular range of motion.the aim of this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, severity and
sex distribution of signs and symptoms of (TMDs) among the young adults. And to evaluate their relation to oral
parafunction habits, recurrent headache, history of past events and occlusion.
Patients and Methods: A total of 500 university students (250 females, 250 males), ages ranged between 18-26 years,
were interviewed and examined for evaluating the symptoms and signs of TMDs. Anamnestic dysfunction (Ai) of
Helkimo (1974) was used to determine the severity of the subjective symptoms. Clinical dysfunction (Di) of Helkimo
(1974) was used to estimate the severity of the signs of TMDs.
Results: results showed that prevalence of one or more symptoms of TMDs was 27%, while the prevalence of one or
more signs of the TMDs was 63.8% which was generally mild in severity. Mild anamnestic symptoms (Ai0) were found
in 18.8%, severe symptoms (AiI) were found in 8.4%, while mild clinical signs DiI, moderate clinical signs DiII and severe
clinical signs (DiIII) were found in (47.4%, 14%, 2.4%) respectively.
Conclusion: Signs and symptoms of the TMDs were relatively high in the university students. An etiology of the TMDs
remains unclear but mostly appears to be multifactorail.
Keywords: TMDs, prevelance, Helkimo index. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):42-48.


Relationship between interlukine- 1 alpha andpolyamines levels in serum and saliva as potentialbiomarkers in the diagnosis of oral squamous cellcarcinoma


Back ground: Oral cancer is one of the prevalent cancers of the body and is one of the 10 most common
causes of death. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for over 90% of these tumors. The aim of this
study was designed to detect biochemical markers in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma
patients and to evaluate their validity in monitoring and diagnosis and to correlate relation ship between IL-1
alpha and polyamines. .
Patients and Methods: The level of polyamines in the serum and saliva of (30) patients with OSCC and (20)
healthy individuals as control group was measured. Level of proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin 1α (IL-1α) was
detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyamines (spermidine and spermine) were
determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in both serum and saliva of patients with OSCC
and control group.
Results and Discussion: Salivary IL-1 alpha was useful in the diagnosis of OSCC patients. The total serum and
salivary polyamines level of OSCC were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.001). Both salivary and
serum polyamines level were reliably accurate test in separating between OSCC patients and control group.
There was significant difference in salivary spermine level among OSCC patients in relation to lesion status.
Spermine levels were reduced in recurrent lesion especially with metastases. There were significant differences
in serum polyamines level among OSCC patients in relation to duration of the disease (P<0.05).
Conclusion: There was a significant weak correlation between salivary IL-1α and salivary spermine (r=0.377)
(p<0.05). From the results of the presents study, it can be concluded that detection of polyamines in serum and
saliva are useful and valuable diagnostic markers in diagnosis and early detection of OSCC.
Keywords: Oral cancer; polyamines; Interleukin 1α (IL-1α); OSCC. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):50-54.


The effect of a mouth rinse containing chlorhexidine & fluoride on plaque & gingival bleeding

Authors: Abdul Majeed H. Al Ani
Pages: 55-57

Background: The aim of this study was to test the effect of a rinse with 0.05% Sodium Fluoride and 0.05% chlorhexidine
(CHX) on plaque and gingival inflammation compared with a placebo without these agents.
Patients & methods: In a double – blind study, 39 adults with > 20 teeth and CPITN score > 1 but < 4, randomized into
test and control groups.
Results: After baseline assessments for plaque index, bleeding on probing, teeth were professionally cleaned.
Subjects were asked to rinse for 30 seconds with 10 ml of the respective test or placebo rinse after normal oral
hygiene for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in the 2 groups at baseline with respect to either plaque
(PLI) or bleeding scores (BOP). After sealing and 8 weeks use of the test rinse, there was significant reduction (P<
0.001) in both (PLI) and (BOP). The control group showed no significant reduction in plaque scores after 8 weeks, but
a significant (P<0.05) reduction in (BOP).
Conclusion: This reduction was significantly greater (P< 0.001) in the test group than in the control. It is concluded
that, as an adjunct to normal oral hygiene, the chlorhexidine/fluoride rinse had an inhibitory effect on (PLI) and (BOP)
Key words: Plaque; gingival bleeding; chlorhexidine; fluoride. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):55-57.
الخلاصة :
الغرض من هذا البحث هو اختبار تاثير استعمال غسول الفم ٠٫٠٥ ٪ فلوريد الصوديوم و ٠٫٠٥ ٪آلورهكسدين على الصفيحة الجرثومية والتهاب اللثة ، مع مقارنة بالمحاليل
الخالية من هذه المواد المذآورة اعلاه بعد تنظيف الاسنان اليومي بالفرشاة لدى ( ٣٩ ) شخص بالغ في اختيار عشوائي مزدوج ، وقسموا عشوائيا الى مجموعتين ، مجموعة تخضع
ومجموعة تخضع لاستعمال محلول خالي من هذه المادتين . لتاثير استعمال المحلول المحتوي على المادتين المذآورة
في بداية البحث تؤخذ القياسات الاولية للصفيحة الجرثومية والنزف اللثوي اولا ثم يقوم الاشخاص المتطوعين الى تنظيف اسنانهم بالفرشاة يوميا وبعدها يقوم الاشخاص
باستعمال غسول الفم اما بمحلول يحتوي على المادتين المذآورتين اعلاه او بمحلول خالي من هاتين المادتين ولمدة ( ٣٠ ) ثانية بمقدار( ١٠ مل) . ويتم هذا لمدة ( ٨) اسابيع في بداية
الفحص الاساسي للاشخاص تبين انه لا يوجد اي فرق واضح بالنتائج بالنسبة للمجموعتين من ناحية الصفيحة الجرثومية ونزف اللثة .
ولكن بعد التنظيف عند طبيب الاسنان والتنظيف اليومي للاسنان بالفرشاة واستعمال المحلول المحتوي على المادتين المذآورتين اعلاه لمدة ( ٨) اسابيع تبين ان هناك
انخفاض في مستوى الصفيحة الجرثومية والنزف اللثوي اآثر من المجموعة الثانية التي تستعمل غسول الفم الخالي من هاتين المادتين المذآورتين .
نستنتج من هذا البحث بان استعمال غسول الفم المحتوي على مادة الكلورهكسدين وفلوريد الصوديوم هو آعامل اضافي ومساعد لعملية التنظيف اليومي بالفرشاة في اظهار انخفاض
واضح جدا للصفيحة الجرثومية والنزف اللثوي .


Incidence of injury to lingual nerve during surgical removal of lower third molar teeth

Authors: Akeel S. Abd Alsada
Pages: 58-61

Background: The precise anatomic location of the lingual nerve in relation to the lingual cortex of the posterior
mandibular third molar is clinically significant because lingual nerve subjected to injury during varieties of oral and
maxillofacial surgery especially in the surgical removal of impacted lower third molar.
In this study we find the incidence of injury to lingual nerve as a complication of surgical removal of impacted third
molar. Fifty dental patients of 20-25 years old, male and female, 25 cases were done by me and other 25 cases were
done by my colleagues in the maxillofacial department in the college of dentistry-university Sulaimani, suffering from
impacted lower third molar tooth, subjected to surgical removal of these teeth, we study the incidence of injury to
lingual nerve in form tip of the tongue parasthesia for one month postsurgery. The aim of study is that to find the
incidence of injury to lingual nerve during surgical removal of fully impacted lower third molar tooth and factors
affecting this surgery.
Materials and methods:, 84 third molars surgery of mucoperiosteal marginal soft tissue flap of buccal approach were
carried out under local anaesthesia by using surgical set for tooth extraction, 4.0 black silk suture to close the wound.
Results:, The incidence of injury to the lingual nerve is 2.8% as a temporary sensory disturbance , while no patient 0%
of permanent of sensory disturbance.
Conclusion:, The incidence of injury to the lingual nerve can be reduced by careful clinical evaluation, proper
surgeon’s experience, and wide anatomical knowledgement during surgical removal of impacted lower third molar
Key words: Lingual nerve. Impacted lower third molar. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):58-61..


The prevalence of root exposure and its relation to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures

Authors: Fakhri A. Alkaisi
Pages: 62-64

Background: Tooth root Exposure is the denudation of the tooth root surface due to apical movement of the gingiva
&it is a common clinical finding in adults. Prevalence of tooth root exposure related to mechanical oral hygiene
procedures was recorded and correlated to tooth brushing.
Materials and methods: 550 patients were involved in this study. Their ages range from 20 to 59 years. Root exposure
measurements & Oral hygiene status were examined,
Results: 31.47% of the cases exhibited root exposure of 0.5 mm or greater .The occurrence of root exposure was
.found to vary from 20.39% of all subjects in the (20-29 years) age group to 40.6% of the subjects in the (50-59 age
group. Root exposure increased in both numerical occurrence and linear dimensions with age. Males showed
greater exposure than females of the same age group; also exposure occurred most often on facial surfaces of
maxillary cuspids and bicuspids. Individuals with good oral hygiene showed greater exposure than those with poor
oral hygiene
Conclusions: The possibility of developing such lesions in gingiva should not prevent dental professionals from
recommending the mechanical method of supragingival plaque control measures (tooth brushing & inter dental
cleaning aids) by the proper instruction of the right technique of brushing that may not induce or increase an existing
Key words: Gingival recession, prevalence. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):62-64.


Evaluation of salivary enzymes activities among patients with chronic periodontitis

Authors: Khulood A. Alsafi --- Mustafa J. Abdul-Hadi
Pages: 65-67

Background: The cells of periodontium contain many intracellular enzymes like (alkaline phosphatase ALP, aspartate
aminotransferase AST and alanine aminotransferase ALT) that are released outside into the saliva and gingival
crevicular fluid GCF after destruction of periodontal tissue during periodontitis. The aim of this study is to determine
the activities of these enzymes in saliva and its relation to the clinical periodontal parameters during chronic
Materials and methods: Measurements of plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing
pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were taken from sixty subjects (thirty with chronic
periodontitis and thirty with healthy periodontium), only male were included and saliva was collected from them and
subjected to biochemical analysis of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase ALP, aspartate aminotransferase AST and
alanine aminotransferase ALT levels.
Results: Statistical analysis of the results revealed the presence of a highly significant difference in the enzymatic
activity between healthy and chronic periodontitis subjects with absence of any correlation between the activities of
these enzymes and the clinical periodontal parameters except between alanine aminotransferase ALT and PLI
(Pvalue :0.049) and between alkaline phosphatase ALP and BOP (P value: 0.041).
Conclusions: It can be concluded that these enzymes are good biochemical markers and helpful in early diagnosis
of chronic periodontitis.
Key words: Saliva, enzymes, chronic periodontitis. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):65-67.


The effect of food simulants on corrosion of simulated fixed orthodontic appliance

Authors: Ausama Al-Mulla --- Afaf H. Hussien
Pages: 68-75

Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances were considered as a source of human exposure to different elements used in
manufacturing of these appliances. Physical and chemical properties of food and liquids can affect the corrosion of
these appliances. This study was designed to determine the effect of dietary simulating liquids and artificial saliva on the
corrosion rate of fixed orthodontic appliances.
Materials and Methods: a seventy set of fixed orthodontic appliances (Ortho Technology, USA) each one simulated half
maxillary arch was used. These were divided in to seven groups according to the immersion solution: artificial saliva,
distilled water, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, corn oil, and 1% citric acid, the immersion done at 37° for 28
days. The measurement of the released ions was done by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and
Spectrophotometer. The orthodontic sets was Weighed before and after each immersion period.
Results: The results revealed that the higher amounts of ions were released on the first 7 days, and the higher levels of ions
were released in acidic solutions, and the least amount of the ions were released in corn oil and distilled water solutions.
The results of weighing the orthodontic sets revealed that all the appliances has a higher weight at the end of the study.,
Conclusion: The corrosion rate of orthodontic appliances increases with decreasing the PH of the solutions, and the
presence of oil decreases the corrosion rate of these appliances.
Key words: corrosion, food, ion release, ph. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):68-75).


Effect of in-dental clinic bleaching agents on the releases of mineral ions from the enamel surfaces in relation to their times intervals

Authors: Mohammad Al-Casey --- Afnan AL-Shimmer
Pages: 76-78

Background: Alterations of the enamel after topical application of bleaching agents, presenting as major
consequences are: ions release, increased superficial roughness, stronger bacterial attachment and hardness
alteration. The aims of the study: To evaluate the effects of two different types of bleaching agents for vital teeth by
using with light source on the release of ions ( Calcium and phosphate ions ) from the enamel surface.
Materials and methods: Fifty three sound enamel surface for calcium ions release and Fifty three sound enamel
surface for phosphate ions, were subject to treated with bleaching agents ( 35% hydrogen peroxide and carbamide
peroxide ) and then application of light and laser radiation to activate the bleaching agents. Spectrophotometer
and Buck scientific atomic absorption spectrophotometer, were used to measure the ions release from enamel
Results: highly significant increase in the release of ions ( calcium ions ), while significant increase in the release of ions
(phosphate ions ) in relation to the times intervals.
Conclusions: In this study showed that release of calcium ions from enamel surface after treated with both 35%
carbamide peroxide and 35% hydrogen peroxide increase with increase the time and compared with release of
phosphate ions release and control groups.
Key word: Enamel surface, Ions release, Bleaching agents. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):76-78.


The effect of glucocorticosteroid medication on orthodontically induced root resorption (An experimental study on rats)

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib --- Haraa S. AL-Shaibany
Pages: 79-82

Background: Many patients use drugs on a daily basis, and all these drugs have therapeutic effects, as well as side effects
that may influence the cells targeted by orthodontic forces. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different
courses of glucocorticosteroid treatment on orthodontically induaced root resorption.
Materials and method: A 'Split- mouth design performing orthodontic tooth movement in 30 male Wistar albino rats divided
into three groups: control (n = 10), acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 10). Acute and chronic groups received corticosteroid
treatment (5 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone) for 3 and 7 weeks, respectively, while no pharmacological treatment was
performed in the control group. The upper right 1st molar was moved mesially for 21 days in all three groups with a closingcoil
spring delivering 20 g of force to cause orthodontic tooth movement by means of fixed orthodontic appliance. A
histopathological based assessment method for the percentage of root resorption was performed at the coronal and apical
level on both compression and tension sites of the non-appliance and appliance sides.
Results: The results revealed that the acute group showed significantly more root resorption at the compession-coronal level
compared with the control and the chronic course group.
Conclusion: The percentage of root resorption is increased significantly in steroid treated groups compared to control group,
therefore; steroid administration will influence the occurrence of root resorption.
Key words: Glucocoricosteroid; orthodontics; rats; root resorption. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):79-82.


Effect of derum (Juglan Regia L. Bark) extracts on Mutans Streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vitro study)

Authors: Athraa' M. Al-Waheb --- Maythaa' S. Kadum
Pages: 83-87

Background: Derum is one of the natural "chewing sticks" obtained from the bark of walnut tree (Juglan regia L.) and
used mainly by women in some countries as a tooth brush and as a dye for cosmetic purpose. This study was
conducted to test the effect of derum extracts on growth, adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci in
comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% as control positive and de-ionized water as control negative.
Materials and methods: Derum extracts were prepared by two methods (water and alcohol). Stimulated saliva were
collected from volunteers of dental students/University of Baghdad (21-23 years), from which Mutans Streptococci
were isolated, purified and diagnosis according to morphological characteristic and biochemical test. In vitro
experiments were done to evaluate the effect of different types of derum extracts on growth, adherence and
acidogenicity of mutans streptococci.
Results: Both types of derum extracts were effective in the inhibition growth of Mutans Streptococci and inhibition
increased with the increasing concentrations. Viability counts of mutans streptococci in comparison to control, at
concentrations (20% and 30%) both types of derum extracts there were statistically significant reduction in the counts
of Mutans Streptococci. Both types of derum extracts (water and methanol) at concentrations (10% and 20%) were
effective in prevent adherence and retardation of acid formation.
Conclusion: Both types of derum extracts (water and methanol) were succeeded to prevent growth, adherence
and acid production of Mutans Streptococci.
Key words: Walnut tree, juglan regia Linn, Mutans Streptococci, antimicrobial. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):83-87.


Salivary insulin hormone in relation to caries – experience among insulin-dependent diabetic children

Authors: Sulafa El-Samarrai --- Nadia Al-Rawi
Pages: 88-90

Background: Diabetic children are a specific group who requires a proper dental care and a special preventive
program. This can be achieved not merely by studying the distribution and severity of oral diseases but also by the
understanding of their etiological factors. The objective of this study was conducted to investigate the severity of
dental caries among insulin dependent diabetic children in relation to salivary insulin hormone.
Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 60 diabetic children (30 with long duration) and (30 newly
diagnosed), in addition to 30 control healthy non diabetic children. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity
through the application of decayed missing filled surfaces (1). Stimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary
samples were chemically analyzed, for detection of insulin hormone.
Results and conclusion: The mean value of salivary insulin hormone concentration was higher in the control group.
Difference was statistically highly significant. Statistically significant correlation was found in insulin hormone with (DS)
fraction in the long duration diabetic group.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, insulin hormone, dental diseases. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):88-90


Evaluation of buccal corridor in posed smile for Iraqi adults sample with Class I normal occlusion

Authors: Ausama A. Al-Mulla --- Sajid C.A. Al-Ramahi
Pages: 91-97

Background: The purposes of this study were to determine the soft tissues parameters that affect the buccal corridor
widths, to determine the difference of buccal corridor widths between both sides in both genders and in normal and
gingival smile line groups, and to correlate the buccal corridors widths with face width and smile index for sample of
Iraqi adults with Class I normal occlusion.
Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 Iraqi adults (30 males and 30 females) aged 18-25 years with
Class I pattern. It was classified into two groups; the first group (totaling 30 adults, 15 males and 15 females) had a
gingival smile line. The second group (totaling 30 adults, 15 males and 15 females) had a normal smile line. Clinical
examination and digital frontal photograph with posed smile were performed for each individual. Six linear soft tissue
parameters were measured for each photograph using AutoCAD program 2008. Descriptive statistics and
independent sample t-test were performed to evaluate the buccal corridor widths in both normal and smile line
groups quantitatively. Correlation analysis was obtained between buccal corridors and other soft tissue
Results and Conclusions: The following results were obtained: the buccal corridor width was smaller in normal smile
than gingival smile line males and females. Buccal corridor width was larger in males than in females in normal smile
line group, and larger in females than males in gingival smile line group. There was significant difference between
right and left buccal corridor widths in normal smile line group and no significant difference in gingival smile line
group for both genders. There was direct correlation between buccal corridor widths and outer commissural width in
normal smile line group, and direct correlation between buccal corridor widths and face width, but statistically non
significant. There was no significant correlation between buccal corridor widths with smile index.
Key words: Buccal corridor, posed smile, normal occlusion. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):91-97.


Comparison of the calcified barrier formed by calcium hydroxide paste and MTA during apexification procedure

Authors: Sarah T. AbdulQader
Pages: 98-100

Background: Apexification had been found to be high effective in the management of immature necrotic
permanent teeth. It is the induction of an apical calcified barrier or the creation of an artificial barrier across an open
apex against which filling material can be packed. The aim of this study was to evaluate appearance, thickness,
and time needed for the apical calcified barrier formation by using calcium hydroxide paste and MTA.
Materials and Methods: Forty premolars with single root canals were prepared to simulate an open apex of 1mm
diameter. These roots were divided into 2 groups: group A consists of 20 roots filled with Ca(OH)2 paste and group B
consists of 20 roots filled with MTA. Each root was placed in a polyethylene vial containing synthetic tissue fluid. The
presence of apical calcified barrier of each root was checked at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. At the end of the test
period, each root was taken out and the thickness of the formed apical calcified barrier was measured by vernier.
Results: All samples have calcified barrier at the end of 8 weeks. This barrier formed in 55% of the roots filled with
Ca(OH)2 paste at the beginning of 3rd week and in 40% of the roots filled with MTA at the beginning of 5th week. The
calcified barrier that formed by Ca(OH)2 paste had a chalky and irregular surface while that formed by MTA had a
glassy and regular surface. There was a highly significant difference in the thickness of this barrier between these two
Conclusions: The apical calcified barrier can be formed without the involvement of Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath.
There was a difference in the appearance of the calcified barrier formed by Ca(OH)2 paste and MTA. The apical
calcified barrier formed earlier and faster and was thicker in the roots filled with Ca(OH)2 paste as compared with
those filled with MTA.
Keywords: Apexification, Calcium hydroxide past, MTA. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):98-100.


Effect of ultrasonic cinnamon extract on the microhardness and microscopic features of artificial root caries, compared to fluoridated agent

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi --- Shaimaa T. Al-Baldawy
Pages: 101-104

Background: Cinnamon has a long traditional in use as a popular mouthwash, breath freshener and food flavoring,
in addition to its medical benefits. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ultrasonic extract of cinnamon
on the microhardness before and after artificially initiated carious lesion of the outer dentin-root surface compared
with sodium fluoride and de-ionized water.
Materials and Methods: Thirty teeth of upper first premolars extracted from 11-14 year old patients, referred from
Orthodontic Department, College of Dentistry, Baghdad University. They were randomly divided to four study groups
and one control group. After production of initial carious like lesion of outer dentin surface, the teeth were immersed,
for four minutes of selected agents which were ultrasonic cinnamon extract (0.5%, 1% and 5%), sodium fluoride 0.05%
and de-ionized water. Then each tooth was rinsed and storage with de-ionized water. This procedure was repeated
daily for one week. Teeth were subjected to Vicker’s microhardness and microscopic examination before and after
the pH cycle and following the treatment with the selected solutions.
Results: Ultrasonic cinnamon extract and sodium fluoride were successful in elevation of the microhardness values of
demineralized dentin surface, this was statistically highly significant for cinnamon extract at (0.5% and 1%), and
sodium fluoride 0.05%, but significant with 5% cinnamon extract concentration, while the microscopic examination of
dentin-root ground section under light microscope revealed that zone of remineralization in dentin was seen after
treatment with all concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 5%) of ultrasonic cinnamon extract, and sodium fluoride, but it
revealed more with 0.5% cinnamon extract concentration.
Conclusions: The three concentrations of ultrasonic cinnamon extract were effective in remineralization of the outer
dentin-root surface; which was reflected by increase in dentin microhardness values.
Key words: Cinnamon, Microhardness, Root caries. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):101-104.


Oral health status and dental treatment needs in relation to salivary constituents and parameters among a group of patients with thyroid dysfunction

Authors: Sulafa k. El-Samarrai --- Yamama A. Al-Rubbaey
Pages: 105-108

Background: Thyroid dysfunction is a common disorder especially in women; this study was conducted to investigate
the effect of salivary constituents' changes on the dental, gingival and periodontal disease among patients with
thyroid dysfunction.
Materials and methods: A sample composed of 60 females patients with thyroid dysfunction (30 with primary
hyperthyroidism and 30 with primary hypothyroidism) (study groups), their age range was 20-25 years, while control
group composed of (30 females) matching with age, all females were examined using the criteria of WHO1987, and
periodontal parameters which include plaque index (PlI), calculus index (CalI), gingival index(GI), and Ramfjod index
for the loss of periodontal attachment.
Results: The total mean values of caries experience were found to be highest in the study groups as compared to the
control group, the same results were found for the all periodontal parameters. Salivary pH and flow rate were
observed to be lower among study groups compared to control group. There were weak correlations between
salivary organic and inorganic constituents and caries experience for both study and control groups.
Conclusion: Patients with thyroid dysfunction showed highly significant differences in dental caries and periodontal
diseases compared to control group. Patients with thyroid dysfunction need special attention for their dental health.
Key words: Thyroid dysfunction, dental caries experience, salivary composition. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):105-


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