Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2010 volume:22 issue:2

Article
Probability of bacterial contamination and transmission through prosthodontic and radiographic dental practice

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: This study is dealing with one of the expected problem of daily work in dentistry. It is an attempt to give
more attention to the hazard of bacterial contamination through specific dental tasks of prosthetic and radiography.
This study aims to study the hazard of transmission of bacteria during prosthetic and radiographic work by using
bacteriological measurements and investigations.
Materials and Methods: This study is designed to investigate 75 samples of three groups of swabs which were related to
hands, stone casts and x-ray films and subjected to usual microscopic finding and culture media.
Results: The data was collected in tables and figures and show different types of bacteria according to usual
microscopic finding and culture media.
Conclusion: Different types of bacteria were found in various related materials like Gypsum Cast, and X-ray films.
Key words; Bacteria, Prosthodontics, Dental radiographic. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):1-6).

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Article
The effect of cyclic immersion in cola drinks on the surface microhardness and surface roughness of different composite filling resin materials

Authors: Luma M. Baban --- Ali Sa’ad Abu-Naila
Pages: 7-11
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of cola drinks (Regular and Diet) on the
surface microhardness and surface roughness of three types of composite resins; Filtek P60 (Packable composite),
Tetric-N-Ceram (Nanohybrid composite) and Swisstec (Conventional composite, and to measure the neutralisable
acidity of cola drinks.
Materials and methods: Total number of 180 samples are prepared, 60 samples for each type of composite, were
divided into two main groups 30 subjected for microhardness test (by Vickers hardness tester) and 30 subjected to
surface roughness test (by profilometer). in which composite samples were alternately immersed manually, 5
seconds each, in cola drink and artificial saliva for 10 cycles at room temperature which repeated three times a day
(8am,4pm,12am) at 8hours intervals for one week.
Results: Surface microhardness results showed that both types of cola drinks affect the Filtek P60 (packable)
composite resin significantly while their effect was with high significant difference for Swisstec (conventional)
composite and Tetric-n-Ceram (nanohybrid) composite resin, so the influence of cola drinks was material
dependent. Surface roughness results showed that Filtek P60 (packable) composite resin non significantly affected
by regular Pepsi and significantly in diet Pepsi, while Tetric-n-Ceram (nanohybrid) composite and Swisstec
(conventional) composite showed a high significant difference in both cola drinks, so the influence of cola drinks
was material dependent. All types of composites tested in this study showed reduction in VHN values and
increasing in means of Ra values after 7 days of immersion in artificial saliva, but the effect was a non significant.
Conclusions: Both cola drinks showed reduction in means VHN values and increasing in means Ra values for all types
of composites for all groups. Regular Pepsi is less in their erosive potential and need lesser amount of NaOH to reach
the neutrality than diet Pepsi.
Keywords: Pepsi cola, composite, microhardness, roughness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):7-11).
الخلاصة
الغرضمن ھذه الدراسة المختبریة ھو لبیان تأثیر نوعین من مشروبات الكولا (المنتظم والخالي من السكر) على الص لادة المجھری ة والخش ونة الس طحیة عل ى ثلاث ة ان واع م ن
حشوات الراتنج المركب وھي م ن ن وع فلتی ك ب ٦٠ (مرك ب مت راص)،وتتری ك-ن-س یرام (نانوھ ایبرد)، وسویس تیك (مرك ب تقلی دي)، حی ث تغم ر عین ات حش وات الكومب وزت بص ورة
متوالی ة وبش كل ی دوي لم دة خم س ث واني ف ي مش روب الك ولا ث م خم س ث واني ف ي اللع اب الص ناعي لم دة عش ر م رات ف ي درج ة ح رارة الغرف ة وتك رر ھ ذه العملی ة ثلاث ة م رات ف ي
الیوم( ٨صباحا، ٤مساءا، ١٢ صباحا) ولأسبوع واحد.
ت م تحض یر ١٨٠ ) عین ة، ٦٠ ) لك ل ن وع م ن ان واع ال راتنج، والت ي قس مت ال ى ٣٠ )عین ة لغ رضفح صالص لادة المجھری ة بواس طة جھ از فك رز لقی اس الص لادة و ٣٠ ) عین ة
لغرضفحصالخشونة السطحیة بواسطة جھاز البروفیلومیتر. لكل نوع من انواع م ادة ال راتنج قس مت ال ٣٠ ) عین ة كلآت ي: المجموع ة الاول ى: عشْ رة عین اتِ غطس ت ف ي البیبس ي ك ولا
المنتظم, المجموعة الثانیة: عشْرة عیناتِ غطست في شرابِ البیبسي كولا القلیل السكّرِ المجموعة الثالثة: عشْرة عیناتِ غطست في اللعابِ الإصطناعيِ
بین ت ألنت ائج أن مش روبات الك ولا أظھ رت نقص ان ف ي ق یم مع دلات الص لادة المجھری ة وزی ادة ف ي ق یم مع دلات الخش ونة لك ل المج امیع لك ل ان واع ال راتنج المرك ب. ال راتنج
المركب فلتیك ب ٦٠ مركب متراص) ملك اعلى قیمة للصلادة المجھریة متبوعا بسویس تیك (مرك ب تقلی دي) ث م تتری ك-ن-س یرام (نانوھ ایبرد) بص ورة متوالی ة .مش روبات الك ولا اث رت
عل ى الص لادة المجھری ة لل راتنج المرك ب فلتی ك ب ٦٠ (مرك ب مت راص) بف ارق احص ائي بینم ا ك ان الت أثیر ذا ف ارق احص ائي ع الي لك ل م ن المرك ب سویس تك و المرك ب تتری ك-ن-
سیرام،لذا تأثیر مشروبات الكولا ك ان ذا تابع ا مادی ا. مش روب البیبس ي الك ولا الخ الي م ن الس كرأظھر نقص ان ف ي ق یم مع دلات الص لادة المجھری ة وزی ادة ف ي ق یم مع دلات الخش ونة لك ل
المجامیع لكل انواع الراتنج المركب اكثر من مشروب البیبسي كولا المنتظم. قیاس معادل ة الحموض ة لمش روبات الك ولا كش ف ان البیبس ي المن تظم یحت اج ال ى كمی ة اق ل م ن (ھیدروكس ید
الصودیوم) للوصول الى الحیاد من البیبسي الخالي من السكر بالرغم من ان حموضة البیبسي المن تظم اكث ر م ن البیبس ي الخ الي م ن الس كر.مق اییس الخش ونة الس طحیة اظھ رت انھ ا كان ت
عند المركب تتریك-ن-سیرام (نانوھایبرد) الأوطأ متبوعة بالمركب فلتیك ب ٦٠ والمركب سویستك على التوالي. نتائج الخش ونة أظھ رت أن مش روبات الك ولا اث رت عل ى المرك ب فلتی ك
ب ٦٠ بفرقة غیر ھام احصائیا في البیبسي المن تظم م ع ف رق ھ ام ف ي البیبس ي الخ الي م ن الس كر، بینم ا المرك ب تتری ك-ن-س یرام والمرك ب سویس تك اظھ را فرق ا ع الي الاھمی ة ف ي كلت ا
مشروبات الكولا، لذا تأثیر مشروبات الكولا كان ذا تابعا مادیا. كل انواع المركبات المفحوصة في ھذه الدراس ة أظھ رت أظھ رت نقص ان ف ي ق یم الص لادة المجھری ة وزی ادة ف ي الخش ونة
بع د ٧ ای ام م ن الغم ر ف ي اللع اب الإص طناعي،لك ن التأثیرك ان ذا ف ارق احص ائي غی رمھم

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Article
Effect of Pepsi cola beverage on microhardness of composite resin polymerized with different curing lights (In vitro study)

Authors: Anas F.M. Al-Aubaydi
Pages: 12-15
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Pepsi cola was reported to reduce composite surface microhardness also the microhardness of
composite resin affect by the type of light curing device, so the aim of this study was to compare between the
effect of Pepsi cola on microhardness of composite resin cured with conventional and LED light cures.
Material and methods: Sixteen disc specimens (10* 2mm) were fabricated from one type composite resin
(Composan LCM.). Half of the specimens were polymerized with (Astralis 5) conventional LC and the other half
with (Woodpecker) LED light cure. Vickers surface microhardness (VHN) was analyzed after 24 hrs aging in
distilled water. The specimens submitted to a five minutes immersion in Pepsi cola three times daily interrupted
by immersion in distilled water at (37 C˚). Surface microhardness measurements were done at 30, 60 day
intervals. Data were submitted to paired t-test.
Results: In comparison with the baseline readings there were high significant differences (P<0.000) in
microhardness of tested composite for both differently cured groups at the 1st and 2nd moths immersion period.
No statistical significant difference was found in microhardness for conventional and LED cured composite
neither for baseline, and nor for post immersion periods values.
Conclusion: Pepsi cola reduce microhardness of both differently cure composite groups and this reduction in
microhardness was increased with time. The difference in light curing device did not interfere with the softening
effect of Pepsi cola on composite resin.
Key words: Beverage, Pepsi cola, LED, composite microhardness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):12-15).

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Article
Prosthodontist’s ability to detect parallelism of two lines used in occlusal plane determination

Authors: Bayan S. Khalaf
Pages: 16-21
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Prosthodontists estimated the parallelism of the occlusal plane to different anatomical landmarks,
which was somewhat arbitrary and depended mainly on their vision. The aim of this research was to assess the
degree of accuracy of prosthodontists in determining the parallelism of two lines. This research was aimed to assess
which technique would be more accurate for the prosthodontist to distinguish parallelism; the comparison of the
occlusal plane with the interpupillary line or with the inferior border of the earlobes.
Materials and methods: Twenty eight prosthodontic specialists were included in this research. Illustrations of two lines
with different tilts were presented to the participants to distinguish whether parallel or not. These illustrations were
divided into two groups; the first group was with lines close together, used with the earlobes and occlusal plane, and
the second group was with lines farther apart, used for the interpupillary line and occlusal plane.
Results: Prosthodontists were accurate to a fraction of a degree in detecting non-parallel lines. Lines closer together
were evaluated more accurately than lines farther apart. Males were slightly better when the lines were closer
together. Age, experience, and post graduate degrees didn’t seem to play any role in the judgment of the
prosthodontist.
Conclusion: Prosthodontists were very accurate and reliable in judging parallel lines. Concerning the comparison of
parallel lines, earlobes were better landmarks for orienting the occlusal plane than the interpupillary line.
Key words: Prosthodontist, parallel, occlusal, earlobes, interpupillary. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):16-21).

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Article
The effectiveness of rotary and hand instrumentation on the removal of gutta-percha during endodontic re-treatment using two types of solvents (A comparative study)

Authors: Inas I. Al-Rawi --- Eman J. Ahmed
Pages: 22-27
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Endodontic treatments are not free of failures and re-treatment of failed cases is a common procedure
reflecting an increasing demand to save the teeth. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Hedstrom files, ProTaper
rotary files and ProTaper rotary re-treatment files for removal of gutta-percha and sealer from root canals with the aid of
xylol (dimethyl-benzene) and Carvene GP solvents (d-Limonene) and measuring the time of removal with quantifying the
amount of solvent consumed by each removal technique.
Materials and methods: Sixty extracted single rooted teeth instrumented with ProTaper rotary files and obturated with
lateral compaction of ProTaper gutta-percha points and TubliSeal sealer. After incubation period of one week, the
samples randomly divided into two main groups (30 specimens each) according to the solvent employed (group A with
xylol and group B with Carvene) then each group subdivided into three groups (10 samples each) according to the
removal technique: group A1: Hedstrom files and xylol, group A2: ProTaper rotary files and xylol, group A3: ProTaper rotary
re-treatment files and xylol, group B1: Hedstrom files and Carvene, group B2: ProTaper rotary files and Carvene, group B3:
ProTaper rotary re-treatment files and Carvene. Radiographs taken and the images digitized. The percentage of filling
material area removed was calculated by MATLAB software. The working time was measured with digital stop watch and
the amount of solvent was measured by insulin syringe. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Student t-test at
5% significant level.
Results: The results showed that gutta-percha removal with rotary files better than with hand files and the group that
showed better results is group B2. The time of removal with aid of Carvene solvent was significantly faster than with xylol
solvent in all the groups. The amount of Carvene solvent consumed during removal procedures was significantly less than
the amount of xylol solvent.
Conclusion: Carvene solvent could be considered as potential xylol substitute. ProTaper universal system for
instrumentation and re-treatment is effective and faster in removing gutta-percha.
Key wards: Gutta-percha removal, endodontic re-treatment, solvents. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):22-27).

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Article
The effect of certain disinfectant agents on alginate impression material

Authors: Ibrahim Kb. Ibrahim --- Hanan A Al-Harby
Pages: 28-31
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Dental impressions must be considered the potential to transmit the serious diseases to all dental
personal who routinely handle them; it is therefore recommended to disinfect dental impressions for all patients.
Materials and methods: Five alginate impressions were made of bronze model with a complex surface of small
pyramids and flat surface in the middle part using perforated acrylic resin trays. These impressions were treated
separately with selected disinfecting agent [Hexyl tiethyl ammonium chloride salt, Tetra butyl ammonium iodide salt,
Iodophor, Ethanol and 2-propanol]. Dimensional accuracy, surface detail reproduction, setting time was
investigated after disinfection of alginate. The data was analyzed by a computerized statistical program.
Results: The results showed that the dimensional change was statistically in significant for most of the dimensions at 5
percent level except some measurement show slight significant difference related to dimensional accuracy.
Regarding reproduction of surface details, the results showed insignificant difference of the mean scores of
experimental groups among the three evaluators. It was found that treating the alginate with the selected
disinfecting agents will accelerate the setting time of the material.
Conclusion: The testing disinfecting agents can be used safely regarding dimensional accuracy and surface detail
reproduction, although setting time will be influenced compared to control alginate.
Key wards: Alginate, disinfection, dimensional changes, surface detail. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(2):13-16).

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Article
The shear bond strength of artificial teeth with denture bases

Authors: Nabeel A.F. Hatoor --- Hussain. N.A. Ali
Pages: 32-37
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ABSTRACT
Background: Fracture and deboning of artificial teeth from denture bases are common clinical problems which are
facing both the patient and the dentist. The optimal combination of artificial teeth with visible light cured (VLC)
denture base resin and the effect of thermocycling should be evaluated. This study was conducted to evaluate and
compare the shear bond strength of artificial teeth (acrylic and porcelain) with denture bases cured by water bath
and visible light under the effect of different surface treatments and the effect of thermocycling with artificial saliva.
Material and methods. Heat polymerized (Densply) and visible light polymerized (Elite) acrylic resins were used. Two
types of artificial teeth (acrylic, Florident) and (porcelain, Ivoclar vivadent) were prepared. Five specimens of each
tooth type were processed to each of the denture base materials after the application of different surface
treatments according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Five specimens for each type of artificial teeth without
surface treatments were also fabricated. Specimens were thermocycled and tested for strength until fracture with an
Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and student T-test. A
photomicrographic microscope was used to identify adhesive and cohesive failures within debonded specimens.
Results. The mean force required to fracture the specimens were obviously larger for heat cured specimens
compared with the light cured specimens. The most common failure was cohesive within the tooth or the denture
base. With each base material, the artificial teeth which were treated with combined mechanical and chemical
surface treatment exhibited the highest shear bond strength. Thermocyclig had deleterious effect on the light cured
specimens. In general, heat polymerized groups failed cohesively within the artificial tooth. While the light cured
groups failed adhesively at the tooth denture base interface.
Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the type of denture base materials and surface treatments of the
denture tooth selected for use may influence the shear bond strength of the tooth to the base. Selection of more
compatible combinations of base and artificial teeth may reduce the number of prosthesis fractures and resultant
repairs.
Key words: acrylic teeth, porcelain teeth, visible light cured denture base, thermocycling, acetone, thinner,
hydrofluoric acid, shear bond strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):32-37).

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Article
Assessment of bond strength, X-ray diffraction and biocompatibility of manufactured dental base materials from enamel powder and synthetic Hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment

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ABSTRACT
Background: This study was done to assist bond strength, X-ray diffraction and biocompatibility of manufactured
dental base materials from enamel powder and synthetic hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment.
Materials and methods: The bond strength was detected by construction cylinders from the manufactured base
materials constructed on exposed dentine of human extracted premolar teeth and by Zwick’s universal testing
machine, the powder of the manufactured base materials were used to get X-ray diffraction pattern by X-ray
diffraction machine and for biocompatibility test. A polyethelen tubes containing the manufactured base materials
were implanted on the dorsal submucosal site of Rabbit’s tissues and histopathological slides were prepared for
histopathological study.
Results: The results showed that the manufactured base material that contains mixture of enamel powder or/and
hydroxyapatite with or without CO2 laser treatment has bond strength to dentine.
X-ray diffraction test showed that the zinc hydrogen phosphate(ZnH2PO7) was appeared in the final products of the
set new base materials without CO2 laser treatment and this product disappeared with CO2 laser treatment. The Xray
diffraction test showed that all elements of base materials react with each other. The histopathological test
showed mild irritation to rabbit’s tissue by the manufactured base material this irritation subsided with time. .
Conclusion: The manufactured base materials have bond strength to dentine and the base material that contains
synthetic hydroxyapatite has higher bond strength to dentine and the manufactured base materials were
biocompatible with Rabbit’s tissues.
Key words: Bond, X-ray diffraction, Biocompatibility. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):38-44).

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Article
The effects of Low-Level Laser therapy and microcurrent electrical neural stimulation in the management of Myofascial Pain dysfunction of Temporomandibular Joint (A clinical comparative study)

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ABSTRACT
Background: Pain relief and re-establishment of normal jaw function are the main goals of conservative
management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Microcurrent electrical neural stimulation (MENS) and Low
Level Laser therapy (LLLT) are types of those modalities. The aims of the study: To observe the effect of LLLT and MENS
therapy in the treatment of the myofacial pain dysfunction of TMJ and to compare between the effectiveness of
these two treatment modalities.
Materials and Methods: This research was carried out on a sample consisting of (34) dental students with myofacial
pain dysfunction of TMJ. They were divided into two groups; one group was treated by MENS and the other by LLLT,
all students in both groups were given ten therapeutic sessions over period of one month and each case was
followed up by the parameters of the study which include, the pain intensity measured by VAS as a subjective
parameter and the assessment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) functional status through measuring the
improvement of mouth opening (active and passive), lateral motion (right and left) along with the number of TMJ
tender points as an objective parameters.
Results: The subjective parameter (pain intensity) was reduced in both groups after therapy, but this reduction was
highly significant (p value < 0.01) in LLLT group while it was non significant in MENS group. all objective parameters
(active and passive mouth opening, lateral motion, and number of tender points) showed a highly significant
improvement with LLLT (p value < 0.01) but with MENS therapy, a highly significant improvement (p value < 0.01) was
obtained in lateral movement and number of tender points while non significant changes have been observed in
active and passive mouth openings (p value > 0.05).
Conclusions: Myofacial pain dysfunction of TMJ is a common TMJ problem in dental students, especially females.
LLLT and MENS therapy are effective therapeutic modalities in myofacial pain dysfunction of TMJ through analgesic
and functional improvement, but LLLT is superior to MENS as a therapeutic modality in cases of myofacial pain
dysfunction of TMJ from the qualitative and quantitative perspectives of therapeutic effectiveness.
Key words: LLLT, MENS, TMD, TMJ, Tender points, VAS. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):45-52).

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Article
The effect of pulsed magnetic field on bone healing and oseointegration of intraosseous implant

Authors: Raja Al- Jubouri --- Hassan A. Al- Barzenji
Pages: 53-59
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: In most types of dental implant at least three month it was advisable before loading for allowing time
for osseointegration to be formed. Many researches and clinical studies have clearly shown a positive effect of
pulsed electromagnetic field on the rate of osseous repair and acceleration of bone fracture healing. This in vivo
study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed magnetic field on bone healing and oseointegration around
dental implant.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four mini implant types (Senax MDI) were inserted in the tibia of 24 oryctologus
cuniculus male rabbits, they were divided into two groups each group consist of 12 animals. The 1st was control group
for titanium implant without magnetic field, 2nd experimental group with (50 Gauss) pulsed magnetic field. 3 animals
from each group were sacrificed at (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks) period for histomorphological examination, eye pieces
reticle and ruler were used for morphometrical studies, which were includes number of osteocytes, trabecullar and
periosteal thickness in the bone threads, statistical analysis by t-test and stander error were performed to compare
between the two groups.
Results: It was revealed that the pulsed magnetic field showed stimulatory effects on bone healing and reduced the
time of oseointegration, bone formation and bone maturation around titanium implant in the experimental animals
when compared with animals of the control group.
Conclusion: The use of pulsed magnetic field (50 Gauss) with titanium implant showed stimulating effect on bone
healing and oseointegration, leading to shorter healing period than non magnetic field titanium implant.
Keyword: Dental implant, pulsed magnetic field, osseointegration. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):53-59).

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Article
The effect of static magnetic field on some oral microorganisms (an in vitro study)

Authors: Raja Al- Jubouri --- Hassan A. Al- Barzenji
Pages: 60-63
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Several studies were done on magnetic attachment which used for retention of overdentures and
these magnetic attachments fixed above the oral mucosa on dental implant or on precious met al root cap by cast
bonding or cementing, these magnetic attachment may have effect on oral microorganism. This in vitro study
investigated the effect of different static magnetic field strength on some oral microorganism
Materials and Methods: Oral swabs were taken from the lateral border of the tongue and buccal mucosas of the
check from 10 students, growing culture were examined carefully and colony morphology was recorded. Gram stain
and Lactophenol stain were used when suspected Fungi, isolated colonies were sub-cultured and these colonies
identified by using different API systems, Streptococci mitis, Streptococci salivarius, Staph. aureus, Enterococci and
Candida albicans identified and cultured and Then the effect of (50, 150,500,20,000 Gauss) static magnetic field
strength were investigated on growth rate of these microorganism. The values obtained in this study were subjected
to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
Results: Indicated that static magnetic field had an inhibitory effect on the growth rate of Strep. mitis and Strep.
salivarius when the magnetic field strength used greater than (150 Gauss) at both South and North poles statistical
analysis shows significant differences with control group. While in Enterococci and Staph. aureus and Candida
albicans it showed an inhibitory effect on growth rate at North Pole with increasing in field strength above (150
Gauss) , while at South Pole it showed stimulatory effect on growth rate of these microorganisms with increasing field
strength, both Poles showed significant differences with controlled group. While at (50 Gauss) field strength the
results indicated no clear effect on culture growth rate for all microorganisms in the study.
Conclusions: This study indicated that field strength of static magnetic greater than (50 Gauss) shows affect on
growth rate of the oral microorganism which may affect the oral environment.
Keyword:Static magnetic field, oral microorganism, growth rate. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):60-63).

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Article
Clinical findings following periodontal therapy using Er: YAG laser and ultrasonic scalers

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ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical effects of Er: YAG-laser and
ultrasonic scalers in patients with chronic periodontitis.
Material and Methods: Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis were treated under local anesthesia and the mouth
was randomly allocated in a split-mouth design to either Er: YAG laser using an energy level of 150mj/pulse or deep
debridement (SRP) using ultrasonic scalers. Clinical assessment of plaque index (P1), gingival index (G1), Bleeding on
probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were made prior to and at 3 and 6 months
after therapy.
Results: The P1 remained almost unchanged beside a significant reduction of the G1 in both groups after 6 months.
The reduction in the mean value of BOP in laser group (L) was from 64% at base line to 15% after 6 months, and in the
SRP group 61% at baseline to 21% after 6 months, the mean value of the PD decreased in the laser group (L) 5.1±
0.7mm at baseline to 3.1± 0.7mm after 6 months, and in SRP group from 5.3 ± 0.6mm at baseline to 3.2 ± 0.6mm after
6 months. The reduction in the mean value of the CAL in the laser group (L) from 6.5± 0.9mm at baseline to 4.1±
1.0mm after 6 months and in the SRP group from 6.7± 0.9mm at baseline to 5.8 ± 0.9mm after 6 months.
Conclusions: The improvement was significantly higher in the laser group (L) than in the SRP group, and an Er. YAG
laser may represent a suitable alternative for non-surgical periodontal treatment.
Keywords: Periodontal therapy, laser, gingival index. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):64-69).

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Article
Maternal periodontal disease and its relationship to preterm birth and low birth weight

Authors: Khalid B. Mirza --- ZainabM. Salman
Pages: 70-74
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Periodontal disease in pregnancy could potentially influence pregnancy outcomes through indirect
mechanisms involving inflammatory cytokines or direct translocation of bacteria and its products to the
fetoplacental unit. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal periodontal disease (gingivitis
and periodontitis) both in terms of prevalence and severity on preterm birth(PTB) and low birth weight (LBW).
Materials and methods: Ninety pregnant women were included in the study, and they were divided into 3 groups:
Group 1: 30 pregnant women suffering from gingivitis. Group 2: 30 pregnant women suffering from periodontitis.
Group 3: 30 pregnant women control showing healthy periodontal condition matched with age.
Results: The results showed that plaque was present in all groups with varying degree and the highest in the second
visit than first for three groups. Gingivitis was more severe in the periodontitis and gingivitis groups and to a lesser
extent for control group. The highest percentage of probing pocket depth was mostly found during periodontitis
group and then in the gingivitis and high prevalent of no pocket in the control groups, Chi-square was used for the
comparison between three groups, which showed high significant difference in the first and second visits. For
bleeding on probing the highest percentage was found in the periodontitis group, followed by gingivitis and finally
control group, the comparison between three groups showed high significant difference. Gingival crevicular fluid
was increased in flow in periodontitis followed by gingivitis and least in the control group, high-significant difference
was detected when comparison between three groups.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that there was no relation between periodontal disease in pregnant women and
preterm birth and low birth weight.
Key words: Maternal Periodontal health; pregnancy outcome, preterm low birthweight. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(2):70-74).
الخلاصة
الخلفیة:التھاب الانسجة حول السنیة اثناء الحمل یمكن ان یوثر بصورة مباشرة او غیرمباشرة على صحة الجنین. الغایة من ھذه الدراسة ھي احتساب تأثیر التھاب الانسجة حول السنیة
عند الحوامل من جھة سعة انتشارھا وشدة الالتھاب وعلاقتھا بالولادة المبكرة والوزن الواطئ للمولود.
المواد والطرق: لقد تم فحصعینة من ( 90 ) أمرأة قسمت الى ثلاثة مجامیع كما یلي :
المجموعة الاولى : 30 امرأة حامل تعاني من التھاب اللثة.
المجموعة الثانیة : 30 امرأة حامل تعاني من التھاب ما حول السنیة.
المجموعة الثالثة : وھي المجموعة الضابطة وتتكون من 30 امرأة حامل ،اللثة والأنسجة الداعمة للأسنان صحیة ،المجموعة متجانسة من حیث العمر مع المجموعة الأولى والثانیة .
النتائج: اعطت النتائج وجود الصفیحة الجرثومیة في كل المجامیع بدرجات مختلفة وكان أعلاھا في الزیارة الثانیة، اما بالنسبة لالتھاب اللثة ،أعطت النتائج نسبة انتشار عالیة في
المجموعة الأولى والثانیة ونسبة انتشار قلیلة جدا في المجموعة الضابطة ،وكان أعلاھا في الزیارة الثانیة لكل المجامیع. بینما عمق الجیب حول السني أعطى انتشارا واسعا في
المجموعة الثانیة مع انتشار قلیل في المجموعة الأولى وغیابھ في المجموعة الضابطة. اما بالنسبة للنزف عند التسمیط اعلى نسبة لھ في المجموعة الثانیة یلیھ المجموعة الأولى وأخیرا
المجموعة الضابطة وعند المقارنة بین المجامیع كان ھناك فرق معنوي عالي ،اما بالنسبة لتدفق السائل اللثوي كانت النتیجة مماثلة حیث ان شدة تدفق السائل كانت عالیة في المجموعة
الثانیة تلیھا المجموعة الأولى وثم اقل في الضابطة مع شدة عالیة في الزیارة الثانیة.
الاستنتاج:اظھرت الدراسة انھ لا توجد علاقة بین التھاب الأنسجة حول السنیة عند الحوامل وعلاقتھا بالولادة المبكرة وأطفال ذو أوزان قلیلة.

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Article
Caries experience and salivary constituents among overweight children aged 6-11 years in Baghdad, Iraq

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The overweight and obesity have serious health consequences including the health of oral cavity;
therefore this study was conducted to assess the dental caries and some salivary constituents among the overweight
children and compare them with the normal weighted children of the same age and gender.
Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 478 children aged 6-11years, 239 normal weighted and 239
overweight children. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using Body Mass Index specific for age and
gender. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to Manji et al (1). Salivary sample were collected
under standardized condition and then analyzed for estimation essential elements (zinc, copper, and calcium) by using
flame atomic absorption spectrophotomerty (AAS) while the iron and total protein level by using spectrophotometric
analysis.
Results: The results showed that the caries experience for primary and permanent dentition among the overweight was
highly significant lower than that among the normal weighted children The data analysis of the present study found that
the level of salivary copper, zinc, calcium, and total protein were higher among the overweight children than the normal
weighted children while the salivary iron level was lower among the overweight than that among the normal weighted
children, however all the difference were not significant.
Conclusion: Many salivary elements that were found to be higher among overweight children could protect oral tissue
from diseased condition.
Key words: Overweight, nutritional status, dental caries, salivary elements. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):75-80).

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Article
The position of glenoid fossa in different skeletal patterns and its relation to the functional occlusal plane

Authors: Fakhri A. Ali --- Arkan M.A. Al-Azzawi
Pages: 81-86
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Glenoid fossa position plays an important role in the establishment of different craniofacial patterns. The
purposes of this study were to verify the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with different sagittal and vertical
skeletal patterns, to assess the correlation between the position of glenoid Fossa and skeletal patterns (sagittal and
vertical), and to assess the correlation between the position of the glenoid fossa and the functional occlusal plane.
Materials and method: A lateral cephalometric study was carried out on 124 subjects aged 18-30 years who were
classified according to skeletal sagittal relationships using ANB angle into three groups (Cl. І =48, Cl. ІІ =41, Cl. ІІІ =35
subjects), and according to skeletal vertical relationships using MP-SN angle into three groups (normal angle=67, high
angle=23, low angle=34 subjects). Cephalometric analysis comprised both sagittal and vertical measurements for the
assessment of the position of the glenoid fossa in relation to surrounding skeletal structures. The assessment was
achieved by measuring three angular and seven linear variables using the AutoCAD computer program 2008.
Results: The results revealed that in sagittal skeletal relation, the glenoid fossa position was more posterior in skeletal
Class II when compared with skeletal Class III, while in the vertical plane; the position of the glenoid fossa relative to
Basicranial structures was more caudal in low angle subjects when compared with subjects with normal or high angle
vertical relationships. On the other hand, there was no correlation between the position of the glenoid fossa and the
functional occlusal plane.
Conclusions: Class II skeletal relation is associated with a more posterior position of the glenoid fossa when compared
to Class III skeletal relation regarding the Anteroposterior plane. Subjects presenting with high angle vertical
relationships show a more cranial position of the glenoid fossa in relation to the cranial base when compared to
subjects with either normal or low angle vertical relationships regarding the vertical plane. This study did not reveal a
strong relationship between the glenoid fossa position and the functional occlusal plane in anteroposterior and
vertical relationships.
Key words: Glenoid fossa, functional occlusal plane, skeletal relation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):81-86).

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Article
Skeletodental measurements in Iraqi patients sample with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and different vertical discrepancies (A comparative cephalometric study)

Authors: Fakhri A. Ali --- Hiba M. H. Al-Chalabi
Pages: 87-92
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The vertical development in class II malocclusion has an important impact on orthodontic decisions
including diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan, this study is an attempt to explore effective characteristics of
Class II Division 1 malocclusion with increased and decreased vertical measurements by comparing them with Class
II Division 1 malocclusion associated with normal vertical height in Adult Iraqi patients.
Materials and method: Lateral cephalometric study was conducted on 75 Class II division 1 patients (diagnosed
clinically and radiographically) aged 18-30 years, classified according to skeletal vertical relationship using SN-MP
angle into three groups: High angle group (SN-MP>36.5)ْ, low angle group (SN-MP<28)ْ and control group (36.5ْ
28ْ ). Cephalometric analysis of vertical problem was achieved by 13 angular and 9 linear variables using
AutoCAD program 2008.
Results: The results revealed that angles: ANB, SNA, SNB, SN-MP, Basal plane, upper and lower occlusal plane and
gonial angles and linear measurements: lower anterior, anterior, posterior facial height and the overbite, are all show
a significant differences among the three groups, while Saddle angle, upper incisor –palatal plane, lower incisormandibular
plane and inter incisal angle as well as the upper anterior, upper posterior facial height, overjet, maxillary
and mandibular base length show a non significant differences among the three groups.
Conclusions: In Class II division 1 malocclusion, maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth are proclined regardless
vertical discrepancy and normal overbite is independent of this problem which is mainly arise in the jaws area and
the orthodontic treatment may effectively improve this deformity, also in high angle malocclusion, maxillary growth
in downward direction is expected to exceed forward one, which rotate the mandible downward backward,
aggravating horizontal and vertical discrepancy of jaws, while In low angle malocclusion, skeletal horizontal
discrepancy is less than that of the high angle, possibly due to forward upward rotation of the mandible.
Key words: Class II, long face, short face. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):87-92).

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Article
The effect of intelligence quotient and nutritional status on oral health condition among 6 years old school children in Baghdad/Iraq

Authors: Ban S. Diab --- Jenan O. Almaas
Pages: 93-98
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The intelligence and nutritional status have an effect on the health of oral cavity. The aim of this study
was to investigate the oral cleanliness and gingival health condition (in primary teeth) among 6 years old children of
the three intelligence scales in relation to gender and the influence of nutritional status on these variables.
Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 660 children aged 6 years old, 220 children in each
intelligence scale. The measurement of intelligence was done using Raven's test for non-verbal intelligence. The
assessment of nutritional status was performed using Body Mass Index specific for age and gender. Plaque index of
Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was used for gingival
health condition.
Results: The results of this study showed that the plaque and gingival indices among children with high intelligence
scale was reported to be highly significant lower than those with moderate and low intelligence scales, as well as
among well nourished children than that among malnourished children but the highly significant was found only in
gingival index.
Conclusion: The intelligence status and nutritional status affect oral health condition as gingival index were found to
be lower among the children with high intelligence scale, this may explained the role of intelligence levels and
nutritional status in protection of oral tissue from dental and periodontal disease.
Key words: Intelligence, gingival heallth condition, nutritional status. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):93-98).

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Article
Backache as one of occupational hazards and diseases among 900 dentists in Baghdad city

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Background: The present survey was conducted among 900 dentists (462 males and 439 females) with different age groups range from (23-68 years old), working in the city of Baghdad, in order to study different potential hazards and the existence of various diseases related to their occupation. The prevalence of back pain was studied in relation to age, sex and number of working hours. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out by mean of a questionnaire composed of 29 items about the personal information, general health status, ergonomical factors and usage of different preventive measures. Results and conclusion: The results showed that the musculo skeletal pain was the most frequent complaint of dentists (87%), back pain was the most prevalent of the musculo skeletal disorders among dentist (67.67%) and more frequently in the cervical area (Neck and shoulders) (47%). Upper limb pain significantly increased with age (P<0.01) while no significant association was found between musculo skeletal pain in general with age. Back pain tended to increase with age in lumber area (P<0.001). Dentists who performed exercises had less musculo skeletal pain and complaints than those who did not. This points to the beneficical effect of physical exercises

Keywords

Backpain --- dentistry


Article
Mandibular dental arch dimensions in a sample of iraqi children at the mixed dentition stage

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ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the mandibular arch dimensions in a selected sample of Iraqi
children from Baghdad city at the mixed dentition stage, aged 8 – 9 years.
Materials and methods: Measurements were picked out from 50 study models for the whole selected sample using
Auto sketch computerizing program, then the data collected were subjected to a statistical analysis.
Results: The results show that the mean values of both arch lengths and widths for the children of the present study
are of a lesser values than that estimated from previous Iraqi studies done on older age groups,
Conclusion: The findings of this study can be used as a basis for future Iraqi studies in other geographic areas in Iraq
rather than the capital for the same age group.
Key words: Mandibular dimensions, mixed dentition, study models. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):104-107).

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Article
Salivary and serum immune system in relation to caries-experience among type 1 insulin-dependent diabetic children

Authors: Sulafa El-Samarrai --- Nadia Al-Rawi
Pages: 108-112
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology, effects of the disease include long-term
damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs in addition to oral complications.
Aims of this study: These were to investigate the severity of dental caries in relation to salivary and serum immune
system (IgA, IgG, IgM), tumor necrosis factor–a (TNF-a) and interlukin–6 (IL-6) in addition to salivary peroxidase
enzyme among type 1 insulin dependent diabetic children.
Patients and methods: The study group included 60 children, with an age range of 11-13 years of both sexes. They
were with confirmed diagnosis of type 1 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Children were divided into two groups
according to the duration of the disease. The control group included 30 children matching with an age and gender
with the two study groups. Assessment and recording of caries – experience were through the application of
decayed, missing and filled surface index (DMFS&dmfs). The collection of stimulated salivary samples was performed
under standardized condition. Salivary and serum samples were chemically analyzed for detection of immune
system.
Results: A high severity of dental caries was seen among diabetic group compared to the control, differences were
statistically highly significant in permanent dentition. High mean values were recorded concerning salivary IgA, IL-6
and TNF-a among the long duration diabetic group with statistically highly significant difference between groups in
IgA & IL-6, while IgM showed the highest mean value in saliva of the control group, differences were highly significant
between the examined groups. A highest mean value in salivary peroxidase was recorded among the newly
diagnosed diabetic. Statistically significant differences were seen in serum IgA & IgM between different groups.
Conclusions: Increase values of salivary and serum immune factors recorded among diabetic children compared to
healthy.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, immune system, cytokines, dental caries. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):108-112).

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Article
Salivary physicochemical properties in relation to caries-experience among type 1 insulin-dependent diabetic children

Authors: Sulafa El-Samarrai --- Nadia Al-Rawi
Pages: 113-117
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Changes in the salivary physiochemical proprieties has been reported among diabetic patients and it is
considered as a risk factor affecting the severity and occurrence of dental caries. The aims of this sudy was to
investigate the severity of dental caries in relation to organic and inorganic factors (glucose, total protein, calcium
and phosphorous ion) in addition to insulin hormone in stimulated saliva among type 1 insulin dependent diabetic
children in comparison to non diabetic group matching with age and to investigate changes of the salivary
variables (pH, flow rate and buffer capacity).
Patients and methods: The study group included 60 children, with an age range of 11-13 years of both sexes. They
were with confirmed diagnosis of type 1 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Children were divided into two groups
according to the duration of the disease. The control group included 30 children matching with age and gender
with the two study groups. Assessment and recording of caries – experience were through the application of
decayed, missing and filled surface index (DMFS&dmfs). The collection of stimulated salivary samples was performed
under standardized condition. Salivary samples were chemically analyzed for detection of selected organic and
inorganic constituents.
Results: A high severity of dental caries was seen among diabetic group compared to the control, differences were
statistically highly significant in permanent dentition. Highest values of buffer capacity, pH and salivary flow rate were
seen in the control group compared to diabetics, with statistically significant difference. In all three groups a
negative correlation coefficient was seen between caries-experience and salivary flow rate. Inverse correlations
were observed between dental caries and nearly all salivary constituents.
Conclusions: A changes in the physiochemical properties of saliva was recorded among diabetic children, affecting
the severity of caries – experience.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, saliva, dental caries. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):113-117).

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Article
Severity of dental caries in relation to salivary parameters and inorganic compositions among a group of 22-23 years old adults in Baghdad city

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi --- Wejdan M. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 118-122
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ABSTRACT
Background: Dental caries is a wide spread chronic multifactorial disease. The secretion rate and quality of saliva are
important factors not only in caries development but also for remineralization. The aim of this study was to measure
the severity of dental caries among a group of 22-23 years old adults in relation to salivary flow rate, calcium and
phosphate ions in unstimulated and stimulated saliva.
Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva was collected from one hundred healthy adults (males and females) first
then the stimulated saliva with one hour interval. The sample was divided into three groups (mild, moderate and
severe) according to (DMFS). Salivary flow rates were estimated as ml/min. Calcium ions were assessed using Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer, while inorganic phosphate ions concentration were determined by Molybdenum-
Vanadate method using Ulteaviolet visible spectrophotometer.
Results: Highly significant difference of unstimulated salivary flow rate means was found among DMFS caries severity
groups, recording highest mean in mild group with non significant correlations with DMFS. In relation to stimulated
flow rate, significant difference was seen among DMFS severity groups, recording the highest mean within mild group
and highly significant negative correlations with DMFS. Unstimulated salivary calcium showed highly significant
differences among DMFS severity groups, where the highest means were in the severe group and recorded highly
significant correlations with DMFS, while phosphate recording non significant differences among DMFS severity
groups and non significant negative correlation with DMFS. In stimulated saliva, calcium showed highest mean values
with highly significant differences in severe DMFS caries severity groups with highly significant correlation with DMFS,
while phosphorus had significant highest mean within severe DMFS group and recorded non significant correlation
with DMFS.
Conclusions: The study showed the importance of stimulated salivary flow rate in reducing dental caries severity.
Keywords: Dental caries, salivary flow rate, salivary calcium, salivary phosphate. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):118-
122).

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Article
Evaluation of the shear bond strength of metal bracket bonded to porcelain restorations (In vitro study)

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib --- Yusir A. J. Al-Shammaá
Pages: 123-128
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to porcelain is a great challenge. The purpose of this in
vitro study to evaluate the effect of different methods of porcelain surface treatments on the bond strength of metal
bracket bonded directly using ONE-STEP orthodontic adhesive and study the mode of bond failure.
Materials and methods: Sixty maxillary right central incisor porcelain denture teeth were randomly divided into six
groups(Gp),ten specimens for each; Gp.I(P): phosphoric acid 37% (control), Gp.II(PS): phosphoric acid 37% & silane
coupling agent, Gp.III(HS): hydrofluoric acid 9% & silane coupling agent, Gp.IV(SP): sandblasting with 50 μm Al2O3
particles & phosphoric acid 37%, Gp.V(SPS): sandblasting with 50 μm Al2O3 particles, phosphoric acid 37% & silane
coupling agent, Gp.VI(SHS): sandblasting with 50 μm Al2O3 particles, hydrofluoric acid 9% & silane coupling agent.
Metal brackets were bonded to treated porcelain surfaces (Pc.) using One -Step alpha-dent® orthodontic adhesive.
After thermocycling the shear bond strength (SBS) & mode of bond failure were determined.
Results: One Way ANOVA-test showed a statistically highly significant difference (p = 0.000) in SBS of the nonsandblasting
groups and also showed a statistically highly significant difference (p = 0.000) of the sandblasting
groups. SHS Gp. had the highest values in mean shear bond strength (6.459 ± 13 Mpa) of all groups followed by HS
Gp.( 3.961 ± 0.9 Mpa) then SPS Gp.(2.096 ± 0.5 Mpa) then SP Gp.(1.16 ± 0.8 Mpa).On the other hand both P & PS
groups had zero Mpa values of SBS.
Conclusions: The most reliable procedure for bonding orthodontic brackets to porcelain surfaces is through the
surface treatment combinations of three methods: sandblasting, 9% hydrofluoric acid treatment and silane coupling
agent application. On the other hand all other methods produced insufficient SBS for orthodontic treatment.
Adhesive-porcelain interface failure was the predominant mode of bond failure in all groups except the last group,
cohesive failure was the predominant & none of the samples displayed fractures within the porcelain itself during
debonding.
Key words: Orthodontic bonding to porcelain; Shear bond strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):123-128).

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Article
Severity and prevalence of caries experience in Najaf City

Authors: Muhsin H. Khamis --- Raed Al-Huwaizi
Pages: 129-132
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease among children and young adults and is the most
common single chronic childhood disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the severity and prevalence of
caries experience in Najaf city.
Materials and Methods: Data was collected from children in the third grade at the age of (13-16 years) in several
secondary schools which were selected randomly from different areas of the city (three schools for boys and three
for girls), and from college students at the age of (20-23 years) in several colleges from the university of Kufa in the
Najaf city. Diagnosis of a carious lesion is principally based on clinical inspection and probing, Recording of dental
caries was by the application of the decayed, Missing and filled Index (DMFT and DMFs) for the permanent teeth.
Results: The mean of total sample of age 15 years of the DMFT was 3.798 (3.43 for the males and 4.166 for the
females). For the DMFS 4.662 for the males and 5.781 for the females For the sample of age of 21 years the DMFT was
7.447 for the males and 7.418 for the females. The DMFs showed a mean of 10.593 for the males and 10.766 for the
females.
Conclusion: There is an increase in caries prevalence and severity with time as compared to previous Iraqi studies.
Key words: Severity, prevalence of caries experience. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):129-132).

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Article
Low Level Laser (LLL) treating Simple Herpes (SH)

Authors: Aida Zeki
Pages: 133-134
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The Low Level Laser (LLL) is used in the therapy of aphthae viral infections all painful conditions in the
oral cavity, because of its effects on pain, better epithelization and shorter duration of the disease. The aim of this
study is to determine the effects of the (LLL) on Simple Herpes Labialis (SH).
Materials and methods: Twenty patients with (SH) were treated at the department of oral and periodontal diseases
of the collage of dentistry/Baghdad University. The patients were treated by GaAlP soft laser at five séances, with
duration of laser radiation of fifteen minutes for one treatment. All the patients were first treated on second day after
the herpes appearance.
Results: The intensity of pain was reduced even after the first treatment and the crusts were formed after the second
treatment. Finally, almost all the symptoms and signs of the disease disappeared after the tenth treatment.
Conclusion: Laser can be recommended in (SH) therapy for its evident analgesic effects, as well as for shorter
disease duration.
Key words: Low Level Laser in dentistry. Simple Herpes (SH). (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):133-134).

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