Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2010 volume:22 issue:3

Article
Evaluation of thermal conductivity of alumina reinforced heat cure acrylic resin and some other properties

Authors: Mohammed Ali M. --- Abdulhamed A. N
Pages: 1-7
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The polymethylmethacrylate is the most reliable material for the construction of complete and partial
dentures, but it has been shown to be lacking an important property which is it's thermal conductivity, where thermal
conductivity play an important role in patient satisfaction with complete and partial dentures.
This study was designed to improve the thermal conductivity of acrylic resin by adding alumina powder and
investigate the effect of this additive filler (Al2O3 powder) on some properties of heat cure PMMA denture base
material.
Materials and methods: Alumina powder was added to PMMA powder by weight in three different percentages 5% ,
7.5% and 10% ,240 specimens were constructed and divided into 6 groups according to the test and each group
was subdivided into 4 sub groups according to the percentage of added alumina. The test conducted were thermal
conductivity by the use of Lee's disc, water sorption and solubility , surface roughness , surface hardness ( Shore D ) ,
impact strength ( un notched ) and tensile strength . Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance test
(ANOVA) and least significant differences (LSD).
Results: A highly significant increase in thermal conductivity occurred with the addition of Al2O3 powder while a
significant reduction occurred in both impact and tensile strength specimens' tests .Highly significant increase in
surface hardness was observed. Also water sorption and solubility decreased significantly.
Surface roughness was not affected except a significant increase was observed in surface roughness by the addition
of 10% Al2O3 to PMMA.
Conclusion: The addition of Al2O3 powder to acrylic resin improves the thermal conductivity of acrylic resin, at the
same time this addition decreases both impact and tensile strength values. On the other hand there was an increase
in surface hardness, water sorption and solubility were decreased while surface roughness not affected with small
percentages of alumina.
Key words: Thermal conductivity, Impact strength, Acrylic resin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):1-7).

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Article
Effect of three types of mouth rinses and human saliva on color stability of packable and nanocomposite resins (In vitro study)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this an in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the influence of three types of
mouth rinses (alcohol- containing, alcohol-free and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinses) and human saliva on
color stability of two types of composite resins (packable and nanofilled composite).
Materials and Methods: Total number of 64 specimens were prepared and divided according to type of composite
resins used, into two groups: 32 specimens made from packable P60 and 32 specimens made from Filtek Supreme XT
nanocomposite. Then each 32 specimens subdivided into 4 subgroups according to treatment solutions used. Each
subgroup of specimens was immersed, after curing, in distilled water for 24hr at 37°C then subjected to color
measurement for baseline readings determination. Then each subgroup was immersed in 20 ml of treatment
solutions and incubated at 37°C for 24 hr and re-subjected to color measurement. The change in color difference
was calculated for each specimen. The resulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and t- test at 0.05
significance level.
Results: The results revealed that all tested solutions produced color change in both tested resin composite.
However, the greatest perceptible color change was observed on using mouth rinses with low PH.
Conclusion: Both alcohol-containing & alcohol-free mouth rinses causes perceptible color change of composite
resins, while saliva causes non perceptible color change of both composite resins. The color change was perceptible
in nanocomposite and non perceptible in packable composite with Chlorhexidine-containing mouths rinses.
Keywords: Mouth rinses, saliva, composite resins & spectrophotometer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3): 8-12)
الخلاصة
اجریت ھذه الدراسةِ المختبریة لْتَقییم ومُقَارَنَة تأثیرِ ثلاثة أنواع من غسول الفم (یحتوي على الكحول، خالي من الكح ول، وغ سول ف م یحت وي عل ى الكلورھك سدین) ولع اب الإن سان عل ى
.( Filtek P وراتنج مركّب قابل للتراص 60 Filtek Supreme XT إستقرار اللونِ لنوعین مِنْ أنواعِ الراتنج المركب (مركب نانو
الأعداد الكلیّة مِنْ ٦٤ نموذجِ ھُیّأتْ، بأستخدام قالب صنع خصیصا لھذه الدراسة، وقُسّمتْ الى مجموعتین حسب نوع الراتنج المركب المستخدم
ثمّ كُلّ مجموعة قسّمتْ إلى ٤ مجامیع فرعیةِ طبقاً لمحالیل المعالجةِ المستعملة : -
.(Listerine) مجموعة فرعیة ٨ :١ نماذج غَطستْ في ٢٠ ملیلترِ مِنْ
.(Oral-B) مجموعة فرعیة ٨ :٢ نماذج غَطستْ في ٢٠ ملیلترِ مِنْ
( Corsodyl mint) مجموعة فرعیة ٨ :٣ نماذج غَطستْ في ٢٠ ملیلترِ من
مجموعة فرعیة ٨ :٤ نماذج غَطستْ في ٢٠ ملیلترِ لعابِ غیرِ مُحَفَّزِ إنسانيِ.
كل مجموعة فرعیة من النماذجِ غُمِرتْ بعد التصلب في الماءِ المُقَطَّرِ ل ٢٤ ساعة عند ٣٧ درجة سلیلیزیة ثمّ تخ ضع لقی اسِ الل ون لت صمیمِ الق راءاتِ الاولی ة. بع د ذل ك، تغم ر كُ لّ مجموع ة
فرعیة في ٢٠ ملیلترِ مِنْ محلول المعالجةِ المُخَصَّصِوتحفظ في ٣٧ درجة سلیلیزیة ل ٢٤ ساعة وتخضع ثانیة لقیاس اللون.
.tَ و اختبار (LSD) اختبار الفرق المعنوي ، (ANOVA) حللت البیانات الناتجة احصائیا باستخدام اختبار تحلیل التباین
اظھ ر تغیرل ونُ مح سوس ف ي غ سول Filtek P بعد الغمرِ في كُلّ المحالیلِ المُجرّبةِ ماع دا اللع ابِ. لك ن 60 Filtek Supreme XTِ كَشفتْ النَتائِج تغیر لونِ محسوسِ بصریا" في مادّة
وتغییر لونِ غیرِ محسوسِ عندما یغَطسَ في غسول فم تحتوي على الكلورھكسدین او اللعاب. Oral-B و Listerine الفم
ك شفت النت ائج اخ تلاف اح صائي ھ ام ج دا ب ین مج امیعھم الفردی ة ف ي تغی ر الل ون ، والتغی رات الاكب ر ، tَ بواس طة اختب ار Filtek Supreme XT و Filtek P عن دما قارن ا ب ین 60
.Filtek Supreme XT وجدت

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Article
Computerized measurement of bite forces for edentulous subjects with denture bases of different impression techniques

Authors: Mohammed K. Al-Bazirgan --- Bayan S. Khalaf
Pages: 13-17
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Complete denture wearers show lower levels of bite force than dentate subjects. This has a significant
influence on their chewing efficiency. In this study an attempt was made to investigate the effect of the impression
technique on the maximum bite force in complete denture wearers.
Materials and methods: The patients selected for this research were 12 edentulous patients. Three different
techniques for registering the final impression were made; the mucostatic, mucofunctional, and the selective
pressure impression technique. Two sets of upper and lower denture bases and one set of upper and lower dentures
were constructed for each subject. Intraoral and extraoral instruments and devices, as well as a computer program
were used for measuring the maximum bite force.
Results: The subjects without past experience with complete dentures were able to give higher levels of bite force
with dentures or denture bases constructed from the mucofunctional impression technique, while those with previous
dentures gave higher levels of bite force with the dentures or denture bases constructed from the selective pressure
impression technique.
Conclusions: It is recommended that dentures constructed from the mucofunctional impression technique be used
for those subjects without previous experience with complete dentures, while for those with previous complete
dentures the selective pressure impression technique should be used.
Key words: Maximum bite force, Impression technique, gnathodynamometer (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):13-17).

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Article
Evaluation the effect of three endodontic sealers on the retention of cast posts cemented with resin cement in vitro study

Authors: Abdul Karim Al-Azzawi --- Etab N. Hussein
Pages: 18-23
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Retention of the post is very important for successful restoration of endodontically treated teeth.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three endodontic sealers on the retention of intraradicular
posts cemented with resin cement.
Materials and Mathods: Forty human maxillary canines were selected for this study. The crowns of the teeth
were removed at the CEJ. The roots were embedded in acrylic bl oCk. After instrumentation, the roots were
randomly divided into four groups (n=10) according to the tested sealer: G I: with no obturation (control), GII:
gutta percha with ZOE sealer, GIII: gutta percha with Ca(OH)2 sealer, GIV: gutta percha with resin sealer
(AH26 ). The roots were stored for 72h in distilled water at 37 oC and then prepared for 8mm depth and 1.8mm
diameter with pesso reamer to receive cast posts. After there fabrication, the posts was luted with a resin
cement following the manufacturers instructions. The samples were stored for 72h at 37 oC then the posts were
removed from the roots using an Instron machine and tensile force was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5
mm/min and load cell of 50Kg. The maximum force required for posts removal was recorded (N) the data
submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA, student t-test and LSD test.
Results: The results showed that the means of the groups respectively was: 209.3, 164.6, 197.4, 270. ANOVA test
showed high significant difference between groups. The t-test indicated high significant difference between
the control and other groups at the same time, the LSD test showed significant difference between GII and, G
III, while the difference between GII and GIV, GIII and GIV was high significant.
Conclusion: This study showed that the endodontic sealer has an influence on the adhesion of intraradicular
posts with greatest negative effect for the eugenol based sealer.
Key words: Endodontic sealer, retetion, cast post, resin cement. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):18-23).
الخلاصة
أجری ت ھ ذه الدراس ة المختبری ة لتقی یم ت أثیر ث لاث ان واع م ن ح شوات الج ذور الطلائی ة عل ى ثب ات الاوت اد الم صبوبة و المثبت ة داخ ل قن وات الج ذور بم ادة ال سمنت الراتنج ي
50K file اربعون ناب بشري من الفك العلوي قد اختی رت لھ ذه الدراس ة ،تم ت ازال ة الت اج و غمرالج ذور ف ي كتل ة م ن الاكریل ك ,بع دھا ت م تح ضیر قن وات الج ذور ال ى حج م
بتقنیة خطوة الى الاسفل , بعدھا قسمت العینات بشكل عشوائي الى اربع مجامیع 10 ) سن لكل مجموعة ) و بالشكل التالي:
المجموعة الاولى : بدون حشوة جذر , اعتمدت كمجموعة سیطرة.
المجموعة الثانیة : تم حشو الجذور بمادة الكتابیركا مع حشوة اوكسید الخارصین الطلائیة.
المجموعة الثالثة: تم حشو الجذور بمادة الكتابیركا مع حشوة ھایدروكساید الكالسیوم الطلائیة.
المجموعة الرابعة : تم حشو الجذور بمادة الكتابیركا مع حشوة جذر طلائیة راتنجیة.
بعد فترة خزن لمدة 72 ساعة في درجة 37 درجة مئویة تم تحضیر فراغ الوتد بعمق 8 ملم و قطر 1.8 ملم بأستخدام موسع الثق وب بی سو رق م ٦ لأس تقبال الوت د الم صبوب، بع د
صنع الاوتاد ثبتت داخ ل قن وات الج ذور بواس طة ال سمنت الراتنج ي , بع د التثبی ت خزن ت النم اذج ف ي م اء مقط ر لم دة 72 س اعة ف ي درج ة ح رارة 37 مئوی ة بع دھا خ ضعت
وقد وضعت قوة الشد بسرعة 0.5 ملم/بالدقیقة وحمل 50 كیلوغرام حتى یتم فصل الوتد. ( (Instron النماذج الى اختبار قوة الارتباط بالشد بواسطة ماكینة ال
القوة القصوى التي تطلبت لفصل الاوتاد ق د س جلت ب النیوتن و البیان ات الت ي استح صلت ق د خ ضعت للتحلی ل الأح صائي بواس طة تحلی ل التب این ،أختبارس تیودنت -ت ي وأختب ار
الفرق المعنوي الأصغر .
اظھ رت النت ائج اعل ى قیم ة مع دل ك ان للمجموع ة الرابع ة ( 270 ن ) واق ل قیم ة مع دل للمجموع ة الثانی ة ( ١٦٤٫٦ ن) ، تحلی ل التب این اوض ح ف رق معن وي ع الي ب ین
اختب ار س تیودنت- ت ي اوض ح ف رق معن وي ع الي ب ین مجموع ة ال سیطرة و بقی ة المج امیع ،اختب ار الف رق المعن وي الاص غر اوض ح ف رق معن وي ب ین ، (p< المج امیع( 0.01
المجموعة الثانیة و الثالثة و فرق معنوي عالي بین المجموعة الثانیة و الرابعة، الثالثة و الرابعة .
من خلال نتائج ھذه الدراسة , اتضح ان التركیب الكیمیائي لحشوات الجذور الطلائیة لھا تأثیر عل ى الت صاق الاوت اد المثبت ة داخ ل قن وات الج ذور م ع اعل ى ت أثیر س لبي لح شوة
الجذر الطلائیة المكونة من مادة الایجینول واوكسید الخارصین بعدھا حشوة ھایدروكسید الكالسیوم الطلائیة بینما حشوة الجذرالطلائیة الراتنجیة زادت من ثباتیة الاوتاد

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Article
The influence of tooth surface roughness on retention of complete cast crowns using glass ionomer cement

Authors: Farid G. Numan
Pages: 24-26
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface roughness on retention of
complete cast crowns cemented with glass ionomer cement.
Materials and Methods: Forty sound human maxillary first premolars were used in this study. Each tooth was embedded
in individual acrylic block. Then the teeth received complete cast crown preparation with diamond burs (group I),
diamond burs and treated with air flow (group II), tungsten carbide burs (group III), and tungsten carbide burs with air
flow treatment (group IV). Complete cast crowns were fabricated for all teeth and cemented with glass ionomer
cement. The cemented crowns were stored in normal saline solution for 24 hours, and then separated in tension by the
use of an Instron testing machine.
Results: The results showed that crowns cemented on teeth prepared with carbide burs and air-flow treatment
exhibited the highest mean tensile stresses followed by crowns cemented on teeth prepared with carbide burs only,
then crowns cemented on teeth prepared by diamond burs and air-flow treatment, while crowns cemented on teeth
prepared with diamonds bur only exhibited the lowest mean tensile stresses.
Conclusions: Glass ionomer cement provided greater retention for cast crowns on smooth than on rough surfaces.
Key words: Surface roughness, Cast crown, Glass ionomer cement. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):24-26).

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Article
Compressive strength and surface roughness of die stone cast after repeated disinfection with sodium hypochlorite solution

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Background: The transmission of oral pathogen to impression and subsequently on to gypsum cast has been demonstrated, and dental stone cast have to be disinfected to prevent the transmission of infectous disease, this infection process may affect some physical or mechanical properties of the cast. The aim of the study was to evaluate the compressive strength and surface roughness of type IV dental stone cast after repeated immertion in and sprying using (0.5%) sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution. Materials and methods: A total of (42test blocks) were prepared and divided to (3) three groups (14each) (control spray and immersion) for the surface roughness test. These were subdivided into (2) groups (7) each to be tested after (24 and 48 hours) the same distribution of the test block were followed for the compressive strength test. For each test 1/3 of the test black immersed in the disinfectant solution for 30 minutes then allowed 24 hours for be each drying this was repeated 5times before being tested, 1/3 of the specimens were sprayed with the disinfectant 5 times in an interval of 24 hours for bench drying the last 1/3 blokes were the control. Results: Immersing or spraying with hypochlorite solution significantly decreased the compressive strength after 24 hours and increased after 48 hours. As for the surface roughness the results showed that both spraying and immersion significantly increased the value of the roughness, with immersion as a higher value. Spraying with (0.5%) sodium hypochlorite solution provide smoother dental stone casts surfaces and adequate compressive strength when allowed for (48hours) compared to immersion group bench drying. Conclusion: Dental stone casts disinfected by immersion method showed a higher surface roughness than those disinfected by spraying.


Article
Comparison of microleakage in three different retrograde cavity preparations with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as filling material

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The apical seal is the single most important factor in determining the success of surgical endodontics,
the aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in three different cavity
designs.
Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into three groups of ten teeth per
group, a retrograde cavity preparation was carried out using a low speed handpiece and round bur with parallel
walls in the first group, ultrasonic retrotip and unit in the second group and a low speed handpiece with a carbide
inverted cone bur with undercuts in the third group, all the cavities were filled with MTA. microleakage was measured
by dye penetration technique using methylene blue.
Results: the third group showed the best sealing ability, followed by the first group while the second group showed
the least sealing ability, the differences were statistically significant (pConclusion: retrograde cavities prepared with inverted cone bur and low speed handpiece showed the best sealing
ability probably due to the increased surface area between the walls of the cavity and the filling material.
Keywords: Microleakage, retrograde cavity preparation, MTA. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):34-38).

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Article
The adaptability of three different gutta percha obturation techniques: Thermafil, System-B/Obtura, lateral ondensation

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ABSTRACT
Background: Complete obturation of the root canal with an inert filling material and creation of a hermetic apical
and coronal seal are the goals of successful endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate and
compare the adaptability of gutta percha root canal fillings achieved with Thermafil, system B/Obtura, and lateral
condensation techniques.
Materials and methods: Forty five freshly extracted maxillary first molar teeth were selected for this study. The canals
were prepared with crown-down technique using GT rotary files; the coronal half of the roots were instrumented
using ISO 12/35 GT rotary file at 300-350 r.p.m. The apical half was instrumented with ISO. 04/30 GT rotary file, and for
shaping the most apical third of the canal they were prepared with No. 35 reamer by reaming action only. The
prepared roots were obturated using either Thermafil system (G1): using System B/ Obtura technique (G2) or Lateral
condensation technique. The teeth were sectioned horizontally 1.5 mm occlusal to the true anatomical apex. The
next four sections were made so the occlusal surface was 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10 mm occlusal to the anatomical apex.
The samples were examined under a light optical microscope to trace the periphery of each area in the image to
calculate: Sealer/Gutta percha ratio, Sealer film average thickness and the percentage of increase above sealer
average film thickness.
Results and conclusion: At the apical two levels Lateral Condensation obturation technique had the best
adaptability to canal walls followed by Thermafil and finally by Obtura/System-B technique, while at the coronal
three levels Obtura/System-B obturation technique had the best adaptability to canal walls followed by Thermafil
and finally by Lateral Condensation.
Keywords: Thermafil, Obtura/System-B, Lateral condensation, adaptation. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):39-45).

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Article
Effect of immersion in sodium chloride solution during microwave disinfection on dimensional stability, water sorption, and water solubility of denture base acrylic resin

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Microwave energy has been used as an alternative method for disinfection and sterilization of dental
prosthesis. This study evaluated the influence of immersion in NaCl solution, immersion in water, and in dry air during
microwave disinfection on dimensional stability, water sorption, and water solubility of hot cure, cold cure, and soft
acrylic resin.
Materials and methods: Three types of acrylic resin denture base materials were used in this study: hot cure, cold
cure, and soft acrylic resin material. This study was conducted to evaluate the affect of immersion in NaCl solution,
immersion in water, and in dry air during microwave disinfection on dimensional stability, water sorption, &water
solubility of acrylic resin denture base. Forty-five rectangular specimens were used for testing dimensional stability,
and twenty disks specimens for each type of material were made to test water sorption and water solubility.
Results: results for dimensional stability revealed that all test groups was insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by different
methods of microwave disinfection except HN and SW test groups which were significantly affect (p<0.05). For water
sorption test, the results revealed that only cold cure acrylic resin showed a highly significant difference (p<0.01) for
CW, and CD test group. And finally, for water solubility test show there was no significant difference (p>0.05) for all
test groups.
Conclusion: Dimensional stability could be affected by immersion in NaCl solution when used for hot cure acrylic
resin, while for soft acrylic resin it could be affected when immersed in water during microwave disinfection. Water
sorption for cold cure acrylic resin significantly changed when immersed in water and when placed in dry air during
microwave disinfection.
Keywords: acrylic resin, dimensional stability, water sorption, water solubility, microwave. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(3):46-51).

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Article
Ultrasonographic measurements of parotid gland among poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus Iraqi females sample

Authors: Zainab H. Al-Ghurabi --- AhlamA. Fattah
Pages: 52-56
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Unusual non inflammatory, non neoplastic enlargement of salivary gland and particularly parotid
gland, frequently occur with underlying diseases which may be endocrine diseases. The best known of these
diseases include diabetes mellitus. The B-scan ultrasonography is a generally accepted tool for determining parotid
gland enlargement. This study was established to determine the ultrasonographic measurements of parotid gland in
poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus female patients.
Subjects, Materials, and Method: This study was conducted on 140 parotid glands of 70 females participant , at age
range ( 40-60) years, all of them were selected from subjects attending (Endocrine clinic for diabetic patients)
Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The body weight for both groups, must not exceeded 20% from the Ideal Body Weight
(IBW), according Broca's formula (IBW=height-100).
Results: The statestical analysis showed that: The right-left mean difference in length, transverse, depth lateral to
mandible , and depth dorsal to mandible US measurements of parotid gland among diabetic study group, revealed
non statistically significant difference ,similar result was obtained among control group, with only exception for the
right-left mean difference in length, although this difference was state significant, but it was very small in a
magnitude (-0.5mm) with coefficient of variation (3.3%) only. There was a statistically non significant weak linear
correlation for US measurements of 4 parotid gland dimensions with aging for control group, while there was a
statistically significant moderately strong positive linear correlation for US measurements with aging among diabetic
patients. Regarding to the age groups: (40-49) and (50-59) the mean US measurements among diabetic study group
was always higher than controls at both age groups, and for study group such measurements were more porn to be
statistically highly significant particularly in the older age group(50-59) p<0.001.
Conclusion: These results provide new quantitative data demonstrating increase parotid gland dimensions as
determined by ultrasonographic measurements in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients which is effectively
reveals the parotid gland enlargement.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, parotid gland, Ultrasonography. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):52-56).

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Article
Evaluation of the effect of synthetic biomaterial (Calcium Phosphate Ceramic) on healing of extracted tooth socket

Authors: Abdl Satar Salim --- Athraa Al Hijazi
Pages: 57-61
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Back ground: There are very few data about the effect of calcium phosphate ceramic on the healing of tooth
extracted sockets after tooth extraction and it still controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical
applicability and histological behavior of newly developed phosphate ceramic as a bone filler for dental socket
after tooth extraction.
Materials and methods: Twenty four rabbits were used for extraction of upper central incisor under general
anesthesia. The left side filled with phosphate ceramic material, and the right side lifted for normal healing as a
control group. The two sockets were sutured. The results were studied radiographically and histologically after 1,2,4,6
weeks postoperatively. The radiographic examination was performed also immediately after operation by using
parallel technique in a digital radiographic examination and histological examination was performed under light
microscope for the section stained with heamatoxiline and eosin to assist histometric analysis including counting of
bone cells and trabecule thickness, at the end of each four periods interval post operatively.
Results: Radiographical examination showed that phosphate ceramic materials reduced vertical resorption of
alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. Histological examination showed the acceleration of bone formation in the
socket more than bone destruction within first few weeks after tooth extraction that prevent alveolar ridge
resorption.
Conclusion: This study was illustrated that phosphate ceramic material was osteinductive material that enhances
the osteogenisis process in the extracted tooth socket more than normal physiological healing process.
Key words: calcium phosphate ceramic, healing, tooth socket. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):57-61).

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Article
Effect of casein phosphopeptides stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate on hardness of enamel

Authors: Inas Fadhil
Pages: 62-64
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Casein phosphopeptides(Cpp) stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (Acp) localized in dental
plaque and are anticarcinogenic in animals and insitu human caries model, CPP have ability to stabilize calcium
phosphate in dental plaque.
Materials and methods: Ten extracted human teeth were buccolingually cut into two halves and embedded in resin
providing 20 specimens with buccal and lingual experimental sites (treated with lemon juice for demineralization). All
specimens were rinsed with deionized water and the hardness measurements were reported Tthe demineralized
specimens were randomly divided in 4 groups with 4 regimes use Cpp-Acp ( group 1) artificial saliva (group 2), Cpp-
Acp and artificial saliva ( group 3) and deionized water as control.
Results: Higher hardness value for group I in comparism to all study groups. ( P≤0.05).
Conclusion: Cpp-Acp can increase the hardness of enamel eroded by lemon juice. The remineralization effect of
Cpp-Acp is significantly higher than that of artificial saliva in vitro.
Key words: Tooth erosion, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, hardness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(3):62-64).

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Article
Estimation of the position of mental foramen and its relation to lower premolars and base border of the mandible during aging

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The mental foramen is located in the apical region of the mandibular premolars but it have some
variations regarding its distance to both lower premolars and the base border of the mandible that may make a
problem especially for the oral surgeon in his work during operations like implantation, so, our study was done to
estimate the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the lower premolars and the base border of the
mandible by the aid of digital panoramic radiographs.
Material and method: The sample of this study was collected from patients who attended AL-Karama specialized
center for dentistry. Forty five patients were selected in this study with the age range between 21-50 years that
divided into three groups according to special criteria. Forty five digital views (OPG) were taken for Iraqi patients,
using computerized digital panoramic x-ray machine. All radiographs were examined and then the position of the
mental foramen for each patient was estimated.
Results & conclusion: The results revealed that the mental foramen is most commonly located below the apex of the
2nd premolar in all age groups used in this study, and the distance between the mental foramen and the base border
of the mandible is indirectly proportional with age.
Key words: Mental foramen, base border of mandible, digital radiograph, OPG. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):65-
68).

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Article
Radiographic assessment of the level of the floor of maxillary sinus

Authors: SaadW. Al Bayatti --- Fatima Saed
Pages: 69-73
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The depth of the floor of the maxillary sinus is very important to be assessed radiographically prior to
commencing any dental procedure that may involve or be in a close proximity to the sinus to avoid unwanted postoperative
complications. The aim of the present research was study the following: 1- Individual variation in the level
of the floor of the maxillary sinus in both dentate and edentulous alveolar ridges. 2- The relation between the level of
the floor of the maxillary sinus and the age, sex
Materials and methods: Two hundred alveolar ridges (154 dentate and 46 edentulous) were studied by viewing 100
panoramic radiographs.
Results: They were as follows:
a-In dentate ridges, the average level of the floor of the maxillary sinus was 10.36 mm (S.D. 3.51), results fell in the
following categories: 30 % of the measurements were between 2-8mm. 58.44 % between 8.5-14.5mm. 11.04 %
between 15-21 mm.
b- In edentulous ridges, the average level of the floor of the maxillary sinus was 6.99 mm (S.D. 3.49), results fell in the
following categories: 67.39% of the measurements were between 2-8mm. 30.43 % between 8.5-14.5mm. 2.17 %
between 15-21mm.
Conclusion: This study found that there is relation between the depth of the maxillary sinus floor and the age of the
patients in dentate alveolar ridges while there is no relation in edentulous ridges, while There is no relation between
the depth of the maxillary sinus floor and the sex in dentate alveolar ridges while there is relation in edentulous ridges.
There is difference between the sexes in alveolar ridge resorption after tooth loss.
Key words: Floor of maxillary sinus. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):69-73)

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Article
Salivary gland tumors in Iraqi children and adolescents

Authors: Suad A.K. Ani --- Wasan H.Younis --- Seta A. Sarkis
Pages: 74-76
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Tumors of the salivary glands constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions of great morphologic
variation (1). Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon if compared with all other oral tumors.
Materials and methods: This study aimed to present the prevalence of salivary gland tumors in Iraqi children and
adolescents. Data were obtained from the files of Iraqi cancer registry. Results showed 62 cases that diagnosed
histopathologically as benign and malignant salivary gland tumors during 24 years period (1976 – 1999).
Results: Out of 62 cases (22) were males, (40) females, (19) were children, (43) adolescents, (37) were malignant
salivary gland tumor and (24) were benign tumors. The most frequent benign salivary gland tumor was pleomorphic
adenoma (37.1%). Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most commonly encountered malignant lesion (27.4%).
Major salivary gland tumors were more than those seen in minor glands they represented (70.9%) and (8.06%)
respectively. The parotid gland was the most common site (69.3%). Children were presented by malignant lesions
more than benign, whereas almost an equal occurrence of both types of neoplasms found in adolescents. Most of
the cases were from the median governorates of Iraq. Tumors were mainly related to late eighties till late nineties.
Conclusion: Salivary gland tumors are uncommon lesions in Iraqi children and adolescents.
Key words: Salivary gland tumors, children, adolescents. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):74-76)

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Article
Errors on panoramic radiographical images

Authors: Yagthan M.Haider
Pages: 77-79
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of common errors seen on panoramic radio graphical
images taken in the department of oral diagnosis at the college of dentistry in Baghdad University.
Materials and methods: One thousand of images were evaluated for 12 categories of common errors.
Results: Out of the evaluated radiographic images, 10% were found to be error-free. The most common errors were
found to be the superimposition of hyoid bone with the body of mandible (38.6%). The least common error was found
to be the Marks on image (because the patient is wearing metal things like earrings and glasses (1.4%).
Conclusion: Out of the study on 1000 images it is concluded that 10% of images don’t have errors on them and 90%
of images have errors which were between technical and patients’ mistakes errors.
Keywords: Panoramic radiography, errors, hyoid bone. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):77-79)

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Article
The effect of acrylic removable partial dentures on periodontal health of abutment and non-abutment teeth

Authors: Abeer S. Al Rawi
Pages: 80-82
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Acrylic removable partial denture (ARPD) is a common treatment av a i lable for restoration of
partially edentulous ridges. Longitudinal studies ind icate that ARPDs have been associated with increased
gingivi t is , periodontitis and abutment mobility. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of ARPDs on
periodontal heal th of abutment and non-abutment teeth.
Mater ial and method: A total of 30 patients prepared to wear ARPDs participated in thi s s tudy they were 14
males and 16 females aged 35 to 50 years. Plaque and gingival indices as wel l as bleeding on probing and
probing pocket depth were measured, both on abutment and non-abutment teeth immediately before placement
of the par ti a l dentures then 6 & 12 months after placement of the par t ial dentures.
Results: Significant differences were noticed on plaque and gingi val ind ices plaque index was 1.8 and 0.9 for
abutment and non -abutment respectively whi le gingival index was 1.8 and 0.8 at the end o! the study The
percentage of the surfaces of abutment teeth wi th bleed ing on probing was 32% and only 12% for nonabutment
teeth at the end of the stud) .Only 3% of the surfaces of non-abutment teeth denotes a pocket depth of
> 4mm and 14% for abutments at the end of the study . Non significant differences were found on bleeding on
probing and probing pocket depth between abutment and non-abutment teeth.
Conclusion: ARPDs can produce a lot of adverse effect on periodontal tissues due to the presence of foreign body
in the mouth and it's suppression to the natural cleansing mechanism. The patients most be instructed in appropriate
techniques of oral hygiene. ARPDs may be ind icated as in term or transitional prosthesis for a period not exceed 6
months.
Key words: Acrylic removable partial dentures, adverse effect, oral hygiene, and periodontal diseases. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2010;22(3):80-82)

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Article
Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a benign, idiopathic condition affecting both arches. Is characterized
by a slowly progressive, benign enlargement of the keratinized oral gingival tissues results from an increase in the
connective tissue elements of the submucosa and can vary in severity, Gingival enlargements may be either
inflammatory, non inflammatory or a combination of both. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), is usually
transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait
Material and Methods: Four patients (3males and 1 female), with age range between 20-45years old and with no
history of systemic disease(s) or medications intake were referred to the Department of Periodontics College of
Dentistry at the University of Baghdad.
Results: After 6 months, three of the patients showed signs of improvements, while the forth male patient return with
failure of treatment and the condition is even worse.
Histological findings showed few fibroblasts with stellate shape and the epithelial rete ridges were bayonet-shaped,
overlying dense fibrous connective tissue.
Conclusion: The only treatment of choice in this our condition was gingivectomy to satisfy the patients’ esthetics.
Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis may be congenital or hereditary. Though the genetic mechanism is not well
understood, the success of treatment was relative since another gingivectomy procedures needed for reshaping the
gingival and no explanation could be found for the failure for the forth case. Histological findings are similar to that
seen with phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement
Key words: hereditary gingival fibromatosis, gingivectomy, gingival hyperplasia, hereditary gingival hyperplasia.
(J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):83-86)

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Article
The effect of nutritional status on gingival health condition in relation to salivary zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium among five years old kindergarten children

Authors: Ban S. Diab --- Zaid S. Hasan
Pages: 87-90
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Malnutrition may increase the severity of oral health problems. This study was conducted among
malnourished kindergarten children aged 5 years in comparison to well-nourished group to determine gingival
condition in relation to salivary zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium.
Material and methods: The sample of present study involved of 84 malnourished and 89 well-nourished children aged
5 years. The assessment of nutritional status was done by using three nutritional indicators, namely Height-for-age,
Weight-for-age and Weight-for-height among 5 years old. Diagnosis of dental plaque and gingival health condition
were recorded through the application of plaque index and gingival index. The stimulated saliva was collected to
determine salivary zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium.
Results: The mean plaque and gingival index values for children aged 5 years were significantly higher among
malnourished as compared to well-nourished groups (P<0.01). The mean values of magnesium, zinc and potassium
were lower among malnourished than well-nourished group. There was no significant difference concerning sodium
(P> 0.05). As for those aged 5 years, a negative significant correlation was recorded between gingival index and
salivary zinc in malnourished group
Conclusion: Malnutrition affect on increase gingivitis and reducing salivary zinc, magnesium, sodiumand potassium.
Keywords: Malnutrition, dental plaque, gingival health, stimulated salivary element. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(3):87-90).

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Article
Traumatic injuries to the incisors among patients attending pedodontic clinic of Baghdad dental teaching hospital

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Oral injuries are the fourth most common area of the body injuries among 7-30 years. The aim of this
study was to investigate the percentage, etiologic factors, results of dental trauma and the effect of age and
gender on the trauma in anterior teeth (primary and permanent).
Materials and methods: The sample of the present study include 62 patients (3-14 years old) who came to the
Pedodontic clinic in the Pedodontic and Preventive department at the college of Dentistry/Baghdad University
seeking treatment of traumatized anterior teeth for esthetic or symptomatic reasons. The traumatized teeth were
examined clinically according to Garcia-Gody classification. Time elapse before seeking treatment was recorded
according to the criteria used by Al-Kassab study, while the over jet was recorded according to the coding criteria
described by Kinnas study.
Result: In all age groups, the most frequent cause of trauma was found to be falls (61.3%) and the percent of the
patients who attended to the dental clinic in the first 2 days after trauma occurred (4.8%) was less than the percent
of the patients who attended after one month (53.2%).
Enamel and dentin fracture was the most frequently seen type of injury(35.1%) in which maxillary teeth represent
(91.7%) ,while upper central incisors were the most affected teeth from dental trauma(46.4%).
Conclusion: Most of the patients attending the dental clinic after one month which reveals that it is important to
inform the public about dental trauma and the importance of time in these cases.
Keywords: Dental, trauma, injuries, incisors. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):91-95).

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Article
A correlation between a new angle (S-Gn-Go angle) with the facial height

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ABSTRACT
Background: Y-axis has been used by many authors as a growth parameter while horizontal growth of mandible is
outlined by moving forward along the Go-Gn line. The purposes of this study were to introduce a new angle that
determine the vertical growth direction and establish its relation with the facial heights in different skeletal classes.
Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 146 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs collected from
the files of the patients attending the Orthodontic clinic in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. According
to the ANB angle, the sample was classified into: CL I (17 males and 21 females), CL II (30 males and 40 females) and
CL III (20 males and 18 females). 2 linear and 3 angular skeletal variables were measured using AutoCAD computer
program 2007. Descriptive statistics applied for all the measurements for both genders and total sample in each
class. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the measurements between both genders, while ANOVA
test was used to compare the measurements among the skeletal classes, and Pearson correlation coefficient was
applied to find the relation between the new angle and other variables.
Results: The mean values of S-Gn-Go angle were established and found to be higher in Class I then Class II and III;
also they were higher in males than females. This angle showed direct significant correlation with posterior facial
height in all of the skeletal classes.
Conclusions: Y-axis and S-Gn-Go angle is very important angles in determination the direction of mandibular growth.
Key words: Y-axis, S-Gn-Go angle, vertical growth. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):96-100).

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Article
Dissolution of calcium ion from teeth treated with different concentrations of Cinnamon water extract in comparison with sodium fluoride

Authors: Nibal M. Hoobi
Pages: 101-104
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Cinnamon is a common food spice containing many minerals. It is available in either stick
or powder form. The aim of this study was to test the ability of different concentrations of cinnamon
water extract to increase the resistance of enamel surface against acid dissolution compared to
sodium fluoride.
Materials and methods: 20 maxillary first premolars were treated with the selected solutions which
included cinnamon water extract (1%, 5%) and sodium fluoride 0.05% for two minutes once daily for 20
days interval, deionized water was used as control negative. Then the concentration of the dissolved
calcium ion in the etching solution of 2N HCl was measured.
Results: the least concentration of the released calcium ion was recorded for cinnamon water extract
1%, then sodium fluoride 0.05% and then cinnamon water extract 5%. However the difference was
statistically not significant between these agents. Highly significant difference was recorded between
water control group and the mentioned agents.
Conclusion: cinnamon is effective in mineralization and hardening of outer enamel surface, therefore it
is useful in increasing the tooth resistance against caries attack.
Keywords: Cinnamon water extract, Calcium dissolution, acid etching. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(3):101-104).

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Article
The relationship between cranial base angle and malocclusion among Kurdish adults in Sulaimani city: A lateral cephalometric study

Authors: Jamil A. Khshan --- Khoshy S. Fatehulla
Pages: 105-110
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ABSTRACT
Background: The skeleto-dental components of Kurdish adults with class II/1, class II/2 and class III malocclusion were
investigated and compared to those of Kurdish adults with normal class I occlusion using lateral cephalometric
radiographs.
Materials and methods: The sample included 160 patients from Sulaimani city, 80 females and 80 males, divided into
class I, classII/1, class II/2 and class III groups according to specific criteria.
Results: There were no significant genders differences for skeleto-dental angular measurements in normal class I and
each of class II/1, class II/2 and class III malocclusion groups, but Kurdish males possessed significantly greater skeletal
linear dimensions compared to Kurdish females. The cranial base angles, N-S-Ar and N-S-Ba, were significantly
increased in class II/1 and class II /2 patients and were decreased in class III patients. The anterior cranial base length
decreased only in class III malocclusion but the posterior cranial base lengths,S-Ar and S-Ba,were significantly
increased in class II/1 and class II/2 and decreased in class III patients.
Conclusion: A relationship existed between cranial base angle, malocclusion type and facial features.
Key words: Cranial base angle, lateral cephalometric, malocclusion. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):105-110).

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Article
Pulpotomy therapy and contamination of handpieces among children attending the dental hospital

Authors: Maha M. Misbah
Pages: 111-114
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ABSTRACT
Background: The purpose of this study to determine the contamination with oral flora when used low speed
handpieces for pulpotomy therapy on primary teeth.
Material and methods: Children aged 7 – 9 years attending the dental clinic were examined for 24 pulpotomies on
primary teeth from 24 subjects then analyzed microbiologically to detect the extent of bacterial contamination from
patients saliva by using brain – heart infusion broth, and blood agar.
Results: Microbial analysis indicated aerobic and anaerobic bacterial contamination at all 3 – sites from all 24
handpieces 100%bactrerial and blood contamination .The 3 – sites didn’t have significantly different levels (cfu/ml)at
P < 0.001.
Conclusion: These data suggest that the inertial surface of low speed handpieces can become microbially
contaminated during use with pulpotomies teeth unless properly sterilized between patients
Keywords: Handpiece, Pulpotomy, Sterilization. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):111-114).

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Article
Oral health status among children with impaired hearing in Sumawa city, Iraq

Authors: Raya R. Al-Dafaai
Pages: 115-118
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Deafness or hearing impairment is the loss of auditory function that will lead to social and psychological
disturbances. This study was conducted to determine the oral health status of children with impaired hearing
attending special institute for deaf and mute in Sumawa city at south region of Iraq.
Materials and methods: In the present study (42) children with impaired hearing (26 boys, 16 girls) were examined in
Al-Amal institute of Sumawa city in the south region of Iraq for deaf and mute children. The same number of children,
matching the age and the gender of deaf children, were chosen from school students in the same geographical
area. Caries severity, plaque, gingival and calculus indices were used for recording oral health status.
Results: This study revealed statistically no significant differences between children with impaired and normal hearing
in mean values of all variables.
Conclusion: Caries severity and oral cleanliness may not be greatly affected with hearing disability.
Key words: deafness, impaired hearing, oral health. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):115-118).

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Article
The effect of nutritional status on dental caries in relation to salivary flow rate, pH, inorganic phosphorus, calcium, copper and lead among five years old kindergarten children

Authors: Ban S. Diab --- Zaid S. Hasan
Pages: 119-122
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Malnutrition in human life may adversely affect various aspects of growth and increase the severity of
oral problems at different stages of life. Teeth and salivary glands are particularly sensitive to malnutrition. That may
reduce salivary protective components that may increase caries incidence. This study was conducted among
malnourished kindergarten children aged 5 years in comparison to well-nourished group to determine the
occurance and severity of dental caries in relation to salivary flow rate, pH, inorganic phosphorus, calcium, copper
and lead.
Material and methods: This study was conducted among 84 malnourished and 89 well-nourished children aged 5
years. The assessment of nutritional status was done by using three nutritional indicators, namely Height-for-age,
Weight-for-age and Weight-for-height. Diagnosis of severity of dental caries was recorded through the application of
dmfs index. The stimulated saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, inorganic phosphorus, calcium,
copper and lead.
Results: The results reveled that the mean values of dmfs were found to be higher among malnourished respectively
than well-nourished groups respectively, but with no significant difference (P> 0.05). A positive statistically significant
correlation was observed between dmfs and ds and salivary lead for well-nourished group. No significant correlation
was recorded between the salivary flow rate and the salivary pH and all the salivary elements in malnourished group.
Nevertheless, a positive significant correlation was detected for the salivary flow rate and salivary pH and salivary
inorganic phosphorus in well-nourished group.
Conclusion: Malnutrition affect on increase dental caries experience and reducing salivary flow rate, pH, inorganic
phosphorus, calcium, copper and lead.
Keywords:Malnutrition, dental caries, stimulated salivary element. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):119-122).

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Article
Iraqi cephalometric norms using McNamara’s analysis

Authors: Mohammed Nahidh
Pages: 123-127
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed to establish the cephalometric norms for Iraqis using McNamara's analysis and to verify
the existence of sexual dimorphism.
Materials and Methods: 75 dental students, (33 males and 42 females) having normal occlusion, were chosen for this
study. Each student was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric X-ray. The
radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD program 2006 to measure the distances and angles. Descriptive statistics
was obtained for the measured variables for both genders and independent- samples t-test was performed to
evaluate the genders difference.
Results and Conclusions: The maxilla is protrusive in males in comparison with females, the effective midface and
mandibular lengths, lower facial height are significantly higher in males, and the Frankfort mandibular plane angle is
significantly higher in females. The females show retrusive mandibles with slight retrusive upper incisors in comparison
with males, while both genders show the same lower incisor position.
Key words: McNamara's analysis, cephalometric norms. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(3):123-127).

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