Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2010 volume:22 issue:4

Article
Shaping ability of three rotary NiTi systems: Mtwo, K3, ProTaper, in simulated curved canals. (Part I)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Part I of this study was conducted to compare the shaping ability of three rotary endodontic nickeltitanium
systems (Mtwo, K3 and ProTaper), in simulated curved canals.
Materials and methods: Seventy five simulated curved canals of 40° curvature were divided into three groups and
prepared to an apical size 30 using a crown-down technique for K3 and ProTaper instruments and single length
technique for Mtwo. The following parameters were evaluated: total canal diameter, outer and inner canal
transportation and the centering ability. The measurements were carried out at five different levels. Pre-and
postoperative images of the canals were taken at 40X magnification. An assessment of the canals shape was
determined using Photoshop CS2 soft ware. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Student's t-test at
5% significant level.
Results: Considering canal diameter, ProTaper widened the canals more effectively at all levels except at the apical
level which was less than K3. The direction of transportation was usually toward the inner aspect at the middle part of
the canal and toward the outer aspect at the coronal and apical parts. Mtwo achieved better centering ability at
all levels than ProTaper and K3. K3 showed better centering ability than ProTaper at all levels except at the end point
of preparation.
Conclusions: Mtwo rotary instruments maintained the original curvature significantly better than K3 and ProTaper.
Key words: Mtwo, K3, ProTaper, single length technique. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):1-5).
الخلاصة
تكون ت عین ة الدراس ة م ن .( Mtwo, K3, ProTaper) أُجْرِیَتْ ھذه الدراسة لمقارنة قدرة تحضیر ثلاث أنظمة معالجة جذری ة دوّارة مص نعة م ن النیك ل- تیت انیوم
و تقنی ة Mtwo ٧٥ قناة صناعیة مع زاویة انحناء ٤٠ درجة. تم تقسیم العینة ألى ثلاث مجموعات متساویة، حُضِّرَت قمم القن وات ال ى حج م ٣٠ بأس تخدام تقنی ة الط ول الواح د لنظ ام
تم تقییم المعاییر التالیة: قطر القناة الكلي، الأنتقال الخارجي و الداخلي لجدران القناة، القدرة على البقاء في مركز القناة. ،ProTaper و K التاج السفلي لأنظمة 3
أُجْرِیَتْ القیاسات على خمسة مستویات وأُخِذَتْ صور الحاسوب الرقمیة قبل وبعد التحضیر بق وة تكبی ر ٤٠ م رة. ث م قُیمِّ تْ أش كال القن وات بأس تخدام برن امج الفوتوش وب. ت م
یوس ع القن اة اكث ر م ن ب اقي الانظم ة ProTaper بمس توى معنوی ة ٥%. تب یَّن م ن النت ائج الاحص ائیة ان نظ ام Student's t-test و ANOVA تحلی ل البیان ات احص ائیا باس تعمال
ك ان انتق ال ج دران القن وات ع ادة بالاتج اه ال داخلي ف ي الثل ث الوس طي وبالاتج اه الخ ارجي ف ي الثل ث الت اجي و .K على كل مس تویات القی اس باس تثناء المس توى ال ذروى فیك ون اق ل م ن 3
ق درة عل ى التمرك ز ف ي القن اة افض ل م ن K بینم ا اظھ ر نظ ام 3 ،ProTaper و K افض ل ق درة عل ى التمرك ز ف ي القن اة ف ي ك ل المس تویات م ن 3 Mtwo ال ذروي. حق ق نظ ام
ف ي تحض یر القن وات الجذری ة ProTaper و K افض ل م ن ادوات 3 Mtwo ف ي ك ل المس تویات ماع دا المس توى ال ذروي. ف ي ظ ل ظ روف ھ ذه الدراس ة كان ت ادوات ProTaper
المقلدة.

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Article
Shaping ability of three rotary NiTi systems: Mtwo, K3, ProTaper, in simulated curved canals. (Part II)

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Part II of this study was performed to document the incidence of canal aberrations (apical zipping
associated with elbow, ledge and perforation), Changes of working length, preparation time for each system and
the instruments fracture, in simulated curved canals.
Materials and methods: Seventy five simulated curved canals of 40° curvature were divided into three groups and
prepared to an apical size 30 using a single length technique for Mtwo and a crown-down technique for K3 and
ProTaper instruments. Canal aberrations, changes of working length, time of preparation and instruments fracture
were evaluated. The measurements were carried out at five different levels. Pre-and postoperative images of the
canals were taken at 40X magnification. The canal shape was assessed using Photoshop CS2 soft ware. Statistical
analysis of the results was done using ANOVA and Student's t-test at 5% significant level.
Results: More zips associated with elbow were created with ProTaper followed by K3; using Mtwo no aberration were
resulted. In term of working length changes, no significant differerences were detected between the three rotary
systems. The shortest time for instrumentation was achieved with Mtwo system and the longest time for ProTaper
system. Four ProTapers instruments (9.52%) were separated, while neither Mtwo nor K3 were fructured.
Conclusions: Canals prepared with PT showed more incidences of canal aberrations than K3, while Mtwo instruments
scored no aberrations. All tested systems prepared the canals without substantial changes in working length. Mtwo
prepared the canals faster than the other tested instruments.
Key words: Mtwo, K3, ProTaper, canal aberrations. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):6-9).
الخلاصة
Mtwo, K3, ProTaper) أُجْرِیَتْ ھذه الدراسة لمقارنة الاختلاطات القنویة التي تكونت باستعمال ثلاث أنظم ة معالج ة جذری ة دوّارة مص نعة م ن النیك ل- تیت انیوم
). كانت عینة الدراسة مكونة من ٧٥ قناة مع زاویة انحناء ٤٠ درجة. تم تقسیم العینة ألى ثلاث مجموعات متساویة، حُضِّ رَت قم م القن وات ال ى حج م ٣٠ بأس تخدام تقنی ة الط ول الواح د
تم تقییم المعاییر التالیة: حدوث الأختلاطات، التغییر في الطول العامل، زمن التحضیر و تكسر الأدوات. .ProTaper و K و تقنیة التاج السفلي لأنظمة 3 Mtwo لنظام
اخدت القیاسات على خمسة مستویات و ص ورت بص ور الحاس وب الرقمی ة قب ل وبع د التحض یر بق وة تكبی ر ٤٠ م رة. بأس تخدام برن امج الفوتوش وب وت م تقی یم أش كال القن وات .
س جل اعل ى نس بة م ن ح دوث ProTaper بمس توى معنوی ة ٥%. بیَّن ت النت ائج الاحص ائیة ان نظ ام Student's t-test و ANOVA والبیان ات الاحص ائیة ت م تحلیلھ ا باس تعمال
اي اختلاطات قنویة. اما بالنسبة للتغیر في الطول العمل ي ل م تظھ ر اي اھمی ة احص ائیة ب ین الانظم ة الثلاث ة. حقق ت ادوات Mtwo بینما لم یحدث نظام ،K المرفق الذروي یتبعھ نظام 3
ف ي .Mtwo و K ٩.٥٢ %) بینم ا ل م تنكس ر اي اداة م ن 3 ) ProTaper ك ان الابط أ. اثن اء الدراس ة انكس رت اربع ة ادوات م ن ProTaper اسرع زمن للتحضیر بینما نظام Mtwo
. ProTaper و K اقل من ادوات 3 Mtwo ظل ظروف ھذه الدراسة كانت الاختلاطات القنویة التي تكونت اثناء تحضیر القنوات الجذریة المقلدة عند استعمال ادوات

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Article
Effect of EDTA on apical leakage of resin based root canal sealer

Authors: Ammar Aziz --- Anas F. M. Al-Aubaydi
Pages: 10-13
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Cleaning root canal is not possible without using proper irrigation. The aim of this, in vitro, study was to
investigate the application time of EDTA when it is used in combination with NaOCl as final irrigant on the apical
leakage when AH26 root canal sealer.
Material and methods: Thirty two extracted human single-rooted premolar teeth were used. After instrumentation the
teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) according to final irrigation. In group I, irrigation was 5.25% NaOCl
for 5 min, group II, irrigation was 5.25% NaOCl for 30 sec+ 17% EDTA for 30 sec+ 5.25% NaOCl for 30 sec, and same
irrigation procedure of group II were performed for both groups III and IV except increasing the time of irrigation of
17% EDTA (1 min and 5 min respectively). The teeth in each group were obturated by lateral condensation with gutta
percha and AH26 sealer. The crown cavities of all teeth were sealed with temporary filling. The teeth were stored in
the incubator100% humidity and 37º C for 48 hours. The teeth roots were covered with nail polish except 2-3
millimeters from the roots apices then were placed in 2% methylene blue dye and kept in incubator for 48 hours.
After that the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the dye penetration was measured.
Results: statistical significant difference was found between groups (p<0.001). Group I scored the highest
microleakage followed by group II and III and group IV had lest microleakage.
Conclusion: when AH26 epoxy resin based sealer is used in obturation of root canal system, it is better to use
combination of NaOCl and EDTA as final irrigation, and the irrigation time for EDTA preferred to be not less than 5 min
to improve the apical seal.
Keywords: EDTA, apical leakage, root canal sealer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):10-13).

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Article
The influence of adhesive systems on bond strength between FRP post and packable composite resin (A comparative study)

Authors: Adel F. Ibraheem --- Hiba A. Salman
Pages: 14-21
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the bond strength between the
packable composite core (Filtek P60) and the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) posts (Postec Plus, Ivoclar) which were
treated with different adhesive system by using pull out test.
Materials and methods: Sixty FRP posts were seated on the custom made aluminum mold leaving 3mm of post
exposed, the post specimens were then randomly divided into six groups (n=10), according to materials used as post
surface treatments:G: (A) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel only; G: (B) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel +
Silane coupling agents (Monobond- S); G: (C) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Silane coupling agents
(Monobond- S) + Total etch adhesives bonding agent (ExciTE); G: (D) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Total etch
adhesives bonding agent (ExciTE); G: (E) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Silane coupling agents (Monobond- S)
+ Self-etching adhesives bonding agent (AdheSE); G: (F) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Self-etching
adhesives bonding agent (AdheSE). After that a cylindrical shaped transparent plastic matrix was then used as a
mold for Core build ups that was fitted on the elevation of aluminum mold, so that the composite, Filtek P60, can be
packed into the matrix in one increment (bulk technique). After curing and removing the cylinder plastic matrix from
the mold, a further irradiation of 60 seconds of composite was carried out from all sides. The specimen was stored in
an incubator at 37C° for one week, at 100% relative humidity. Testing was done by the Universal testing machine (WP
300) applying pulling out force until the core was separated from the post.
Results: The data were statistically analyzed using Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and student-t test revealed that
treating the post surfaces with Self-etching adhesive system only, produce the highest bond strength values between
the packable composite core material and the FRP posts with high significant difference While, the post surfaces
which were treated with phosphoric acid only produce the lowest bond strength values with high significant
difference. Also the examination of the bond surfaces by lens with 20X magnification power showed that only
adhesive bond failures occurred between FRP post and packable composite core.
Conclusions: There is no chemical bond between the packable composite core and the FRP posts. Treating the post
surfaces with Self-etching adhesive system only, produce the highest bond strength values between the packable
composite core material and the FRP posts followed by combination of silane solution and self-etching adhesive
system, combination of silane solution and total etch adhesives bonding agent, total etch adhesives bonding agent
only, Silane coupling agents in a decreasing manner.
Keywords: Fiber post, surface treatments, Adhesive systems. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):14-21).
الخلاصھ
ومادة الوتد ذوالنوع البلاستیك المعزز بالألیاف الزجاجیة (Filtek P ھذه الدراسھ المختبریھ أجریت لتقییم ومقارنة مدى قوة الارتباط بین مادة راتنج الكومبوزیت القابل للتراص( ٦٠
على القالب المصمم من ,( (Postec plus) بعد معاملتھ بانظمھ لاصقة رابطھ مختلفھ باستخدام طریقھ السحب .تم وضع ستین وتد ذو النوع البلاستیك المعزز بالالیاف الزجاجیھ
الالومنیوم تاركا ٣مم من سطحھ مكشوفا ، ثم تم تقسیم العینات عشوائیا إلى ست مجامیع (عشر عینات لكل مجموعة)، وفقا للمواد الاصقھ الرابطھ المستخدمھ في معالجھ سطح الوتد :
المجموعة (ج) حامضالفوسفوریك ؛ (Monobond-s) silane المجموعة (أ): حامضالفوسفوریك الھلامي ؛ المجموعة (ب): حامضالفوسفوریك الھلامي +الرابط المزدوج
؛( Exite) المجموعة (د): حامضالفوسفوریك الھلامي +نظام التخریش الكلي ؛ ( Exite) نظام التخریش الكلي + (Monobond-s) silane الھلامي + الرابط المزدوج
المجموعة(و): حامضالفوسفوریك الھلامي+ ؛(AdheSE) نظام التخریش الذاتي +(Monobond-s) silane المجموعة (ه): حامضالفوسفوریك الھلامي + الرابط المزدوج
.(AdheSE) نظام التخریش الذاتي
بعد معالجھ سطح الوتد المكشوف بالمواد المصنفھ حسب المجامیع ، وبعد وضع قالب اسطواني مصنوع من البلاستك فوق قالب الالومنیم والذي یعمل كقالب لبناء اللب
ویعالج ضوئیا لمده ٤٠ ثانیھ ثم یزال حتى یتسنى للكومبوزیت التعرض لمزید من الإشعاع لمده ٦٠ ، ( Filtek P ،یملئ القالب الاسطواني بمادة الراتنج الكومبوزیت القابل للتراص( ٦٠
ثانیة ومن جمیع الجھات . بعد اكمال عمل كافة العینات تمت عملیة الخزن في حاضنة بدرجة حرارة ٣٧ درجھ سیلیزیھ ولمدة أسبوع و ١٠٠ ٪ رطوبة نسبیة ومن ثم تمت عملیة اختبار
بطریقة السحب حتى یتم فصل اللب عن الوتد .وفحصنمط الانفصال بین الاسطح المنفصلھ بعنایة باستخدام قوة (wp قوة الربط لكل العینات بواسطة جھاز الاختبار العالمي ( ٣٠٠
.(Student t-test) واختبار (ANOVA) البیانات قد تم تحلیلھا إحصائیا باستخدام اختبار تحلیل التباین .X التكبیر ٢٠
كشفت النتائج أنھ لایوجد ربط كیمیائي بین اللب المكون من الراتنج الكومبوزیت القابل للتراصو الوتد المعزز بالالیاف وانما یعتمد فقط على التشابك المایكرومیكانیكي و الاحتكاك
و نظام silane الانزلاقي . ھذه الدراسھ كشفت ا یضا بان نظام التخریش الذاتي اللاصق الرابط انتج أعلى زیاده معنویھ في قوة الربط بین اللب والوتد یلیھا مزیج بین الرابط المزدوج
تباعا من silane و نظام التخریش الكلي الاصق الرابط ، نظام التخریش الكلي الاصق الرابط ، الرابط المزدوج silane التخریش الذاتي اللاصق الرابط، مزیج من الرابط المزدوج
الاعلى الى الادنى. كما ان قوة الربط بین اللب و الوتد عند معالجة الوتد بحامضالفسفوریك الھلامي فقط اعطت اقل قیمھ عند مقارنتھا مع المجامیع الاخرى وبمعنویة عالیة اسطح
و نظام التخریش الكلي الاصق الرابط لم تظھر أي اختلاف معنوي بقوة الربط عند مقارنتھا مع المجموعة المعالجھ بنظام التخریش silane الوتد المعالجة بمزیج من الرابط المزدوج
الكلي اللاصق الرابط فقط.

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Article
The effects of different acid porcelain surface treatments on composite - porcelain shear bond strength

Authors: Saifalarab A. Mohmmed --- Lamis A. Al-Taie
Pages: 22-27
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: A number of systems have been developed to facilitate bonding of composites to porcelain, surface
conditioning methods and agents accompanied with the use of silane coupling agent have resulted in improved
bond strength. This study was formulated to evaluate the effect of 37% phosphoric acid surface treatment in
comparison to 1%,5%,and 10% hydrofluoric acid on bond strength of resin composite to porcelain.
Material and Methods: Specimen preparation was divided in to two phases: fabrication of metal disks (8mm
diameter and 4mm thickness) and ceramic veneering. The metal specimens were obtained using lost wax
technique. Thirty two ceramic fused to metal specimens were prepared, sandblasted with 50 μm aluminum oxide,
and divided in to four groups of 8 samples: Group I: Etching with 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 2 minutes .Group II:
Etching with 5% hydrofluoric acid solution for 2 minutes. Group III: Etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid solution for 2
minutes. Group IV: Etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds. Monobond-s, Heliobond, Resin composite
(Tetric Evo Ceram, Ceramic repair ,Vivadent /Ivoclar.Schaan/ Liechtenstein)were applied to each specimen
according to manufacturer's instruction with the use of a plastic transparent split mold (4mm diameter and 4mm
height ) especially designed for this purpose, specimens were stored in 37 ºC in distilled water for 24 hours before
being thermocycled between 5ºC and 55 ºC for 100 cycles .Shear bond strength was determined by a universal
testing machine(Zwick 1454 ) at a cross head speed 5 mm/minutes .One way ANOVA test and LSD test were used to
analyze the bond strength.
Results: Mean shear bond strength values for the tested groups were 21.25±2.67 for group I, 23.47± 1.24 for group II,
23.68 ± 2 for group III, and 21.01 ± 2.16 for group IV. One way ANOVA test showed significant differences among the
tested groups. LSD test revealed that specimens treated with 5%,and 10% conc. hydrofluoric acid(group II, and
group III) were significantly higher than those treated with 1% hydrofluoric acid, and 37% phosphoric acid (group I,
and groupIV),while there was no significant difference between group II, and group III, also between group I, and
groupIV.
Conclusions: Surface preparation of the ceramic with 10% hydrofluoric acid for two minutes recorded the highest
bond strength with the composite, most of specimens treated with hydrofluoric acid exhibited cohesive failure within
porcelain.
Key words: Ceramic repair, Tetric Evo Ceram, hydrofluoric acid, shear bond. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):22-27).

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Article
Water sorption of newly formulated resin-modified and conventional glass ionomer cements

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Chemical bonding of glass ionomer cements to tooth structure may be affected by dimensional
changes associated with water absorbed by the material when it is in service inside the oral environment. The aim of
this work was to measure the amount of water absorbed by new formulated cements and compare it with cements
with old formula and two commercial cements.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four types of cements were prepared, two were resin-modified light-cured(1 and 2)and
two were conventional chemical-cured (4 and 5). Two commercial cements were used, the first was light-cured
cement 3 (Vivaglass) and the second was chemical-cured cement 6 (Nikang). Five specimens with 9mm diameter
and 4mm height were produced for each type of cement. The weight of each specimen was recorded after 24
hours before immersing in distilled water using very sensitive weight measuring balance with a precision ± 2 mg. A
desiccator was used to absorb water from the specimen material for 24 hours. Then the weight of each specimen
was recorded. The specimens were immersed in 20 milliliters of distilled water at room temperature (25ºC ± 2). The
weight of each specimen was then recorded after different immersing times of five minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes,
30 minutes, 60 minutes, one day, three days, one week, 10 day, and two weeks, until no more water absorbed. The
value of water sorption was calculated and the final value was rounded to the nearest 0.1mg/cm2.
RESULTS: Resin modified cements showed higher values of water sorption than those of conventional types of glass
ionomer cements. The highest value of short-term water sorption test was recorded for cements (5) followed by
cement (2). While the lowest value of water sorption was recorded for cement (3)
CONCLUSSION: Resin-modified cements absorb more water than conventional cements. Changing the powder
formula had no clear effect on water sorption, while the resinous components of the liquid had direct effect on
water sorption of the tested cements.
Key words: Water sorption, resin-modified glass ionomer cement, conventional glass ionomer cement. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2010;22(4):28-31).

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Article
Fluoride release from newly formulated resin-modified and conventional glass ionomer cements

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Glass ionomer cement has been used as a restorative material for its chemical bonding to tooth
structure and fluoride release to the surrounding tooth structure. The aim of this study was to see if increasing the
fluoride contents in the cement powder increases the amounts of fluoride released from the set cement.
Materials and Methods: Two types of cements were prepared with increased fluoride contents: cement (1) as lightcured
resin-modified and cement (2) as chemical-cured conventional glass ionomer cements. Two commercial
cements were used for comparison, cement (3) was light-cured (Vivaglass), and cement (4) was chemically-cured
(Nikang). Five specimens for each type of cement were used as discs of 6mm diameter × 3mm height. The
specimens were immersed in artificial saliva solution for 1 day, 1week, 2 weeks, 1 month and 2 months. The amount
of fluoride ions released in the saliva solution was then measured using fluoride ion specific electrode connected to
an ion- analyzer.
Results: The experimental cements (1 and 2) showed increased amounts of fluoride release than commercial
cements (3 and 4). The total amount of fluoride release from the resin-modified cement (1) was more than that of
conventional cement (2) through the time of test.
Conclusion: Fluoride release of prepared cements was higher than that of commercial cements. Increasing fluoride
contents within the cement formula led to increased fluoride release of the set cement.
Key words: Fluoride, resin, glass ionomer cement. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):32-35).

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Article
The effect of microwave disinfection on surface roughness and hardness of hot, cold acrylic resin and soft liner in different conditions

Authors: Rafah A. Ibrahem
Pages: 36-40
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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background Microwave disinfection has been suggested as a method to disinfect the denture base and soft liner,
however the effect of microwave heating on the surface roughness and hardness of cold cure acrylic resin, hot cure
acrylic resin and soft liner have not been completely evaluated.
Materials and Methods: 90 specimens of (12x12x3) mm were made from hot cure acrylic resin and cold cure acrylic
resin and soft liner and divided into two groups, the first group was tested for surface roughness by profilometer
before and after the specimen were disinfected by microwave in three different groups 40% concentration nacl
solution, Distil water and dry irradiation of microwave for 10 min. And the other group also 45 specimens made from
the same three different material were tested for hardness by a vicker’s hardness tester before and after disinfection
in 40% concentration nacl solution, Distil water and dry irradiation of microwave for 10 min.
Results: Microwave disinfection for 10 minutes in different conditions 40% concentration nacl solution, Distil water and
dry irradiation of microwave significantly increased the mean and SD values of surface roughness for hot acrylic
resin, cold acrylic resin. And highly significant increase in mean SD values of surface roughness for soft liner materials
after microwave disinfection in the three different conditions while the mean and SD values of hardness for cold, hot
acrylic resin and liner materials does not significantly affected after microwave disinfection in the three conditions.
Conclusion: Disinfection by microwave irradiation in 40% concentration nacl solution, Distil water and dry irradiation
of microwave for 10 minutes increase the surface roughness for all the materials been evaluated but it did not effect
the hardness values of all materials been tested.
Keywords: Microwave disinfection, surface roughness, hardness, soft liner, and nacl solution. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(4):36-40).

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Article
Study the hardness and temperature changes during tooth bleaching using different Laser Sources

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Today, the processes of teeth bleaching by utilizing oxidation chemical components became a public
and important as a cosmetically operative. Particularly the demanding on these processes increased with the
developing in bleaching techniques, where laser light is used as catalyzer agent to increasing the efficiency and
speed of these processes, and the latter known as office bleaching. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of different
laser wavelengths of bleaching on the surface hardness of the tooth and the temperature rise of the pulp due to the
influence of laser light in conjunction with the bleaching gel.
Materials and methods: Three different laser sources (KTP 532nm, LD 810nm and Nd:YAG 1064nm) were used as
accelerator agent in-office bleaching utilizing Hydrogen Peroxide at 37.5%, where the enamel micro hardness
measurements in the teeth (invitro study) pre and post operative was done.
Results: Then by using analysis of variance (ANOVA-Tukey’s test r = 0.05 ) the results shows there are insignificant
effects on tooth hardness due to the changes in the laser wavelengths in both pre and post bleaching.
Conclusion: Thereafter to evaluate the pulp chamber temperature rise induced by three different light sources
employed in this laser-activated tooth bleaching, the pulp chamber temperature was measured during the radiation
processes and the results shows that the minimum temperature rise was seen at the 532nm. So, we can say that the
KTP (SHG) Nd:YAG laser at the wavelength (532 nm) represent the best choice to use in-office bleaching processes.
Keywords: Hardness, Tooth Bleaching, (SHG) Nd:YAG laser, (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):41-46).

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Article
Correlation of gonial angle size, angular cortical thickness and mandibular bone height with age, gender and dental status in Iraqi sample

Authors: Nuhad A. Hassan --- Ahlam H. Fattah
Pages: 47-49
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ABSTRACT
Background: Mandibular angle plays an important role in ensuring a harmonious facial profile from esthetic point of
view so it is a representative of mandible morphology. The aim of the study was to measure the size of gonial angle,
angular cortical thickness and height of mandibular bone using digital panoramic radiography and correlate these 3
measurements with age, gender and dental status
Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 90 Iraqi subjects (40 female and 50 male) aged from (20-85)
years divided into 3 study groups:Complete dentated ,partially dentated and edentulous The collected data were
possessed and analyzed using Storage Package of Statistical Science SPSS package program (version 13).
Results: The angle size showed a statistically significant moderately strong positive linear correlation with age in both
complete and partial dentition The angular cortical thickness was significantly difference in the mean between
complete and partial dentition The thickness showed a statistically significant highly strong negative linear correlation
with age The mandibular bone height in edentulous study group showed a statistically significant strong negative
linear correlation with age
Conclusion: Age associated with increase in gonial angle. Angular cortical thickness and mandibular bone height
decreased with age.
Key words: Gonial angle, angular cortical thickness, mandibular bone height. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):47-
49).

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Article
Histological study of cell pulp response in replanted immature rat teeth

Authors: Inas Fadhil --- Nada Al Ghaban --- Athraa Al Hijazi
Pages: 50-52
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ABSTRACT
Back Ground: Pulpal changes represented by cell renewal and ground substance formation and deposition of
specific tissue was studied in replanted teeth. The aim of the study was to evaluate pulp response of replanted
immature teeth.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen rats of 3 days old aged was subjected to replantation process of upper 1st molar. They
were scarified after 7 days of replantation for histological analysis by Hematoxyline and Eosin stain and for
histochemical investigation by PAS stain.
Results: There was a growth in replanted tooth germ (experimental group) in 12 of the 15 rats.
The teeth showed well organized and well vascularized pulp tissue with regenerative potential response was seen in
pulp by apposition of newly ground substance detected by histochemical PAS stain. Other 3 rats showed
degeneration of replanted tooth germ. Control rats group failed to show apposition of acid mucopolysaccharides as
the experimental one.
Conclusion: Regenerative response for pulp cells recognized by well apposition of acid mucopolysacchrides
substance in pulp tissue of replanted immature rat tooth.
Keywords: Cell, pulp, rat. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):50-52).

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Article
Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonographic changes in major salivary glands with Sjogren’s syndrome (Iraqi sample)

Authors: Ahlam A. Fattah --- Dalia F. Tahir
Pages: 53-58
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ABSTRACT
Background: In recent years, the accuracy of new imaging modalities have widely improved and replaced
conventional examinations in scientific research. Among them, ultrasound of the major salivary glands seems the
most attractive as a non-invasive, inexpensive, and non-irradiating investigation. The aim of the study was to
evaluate the use of ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in Sjogren’s syndrome.
Materials and methods: Ultrasonographic examination was performed on the parotid and submandibular glands
glands of 33 patients diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome and 33 volunteer control subjects of matched sex and age
(age range 30-73 years). Five parameters were assessed by a semiquantitative scoring system in both paired parotid
and submandibular glands for each participant according to a semi-quantitative scoring system, these five
parameters were the echogenicity, inhomogeneity, the presence of hypoechogenic areas, the hyperechogenic
reflections and clearness of the salivary gland borders. Finally the ultrasonic scores of the Sjogren’s syndrome cases
group were compared to those of control group.
Results: The mean of the total ultrasonic score of the Sjogren’s syndrome cases was (25.8) which was significantly
higher than that of controls (4.1), the mean of total ultrasonic score in the Sjogren’s syndrome cases was highest
(30.2) in the duration above 10 years. The diagnostic performance for the total score by receiver operating
characteristics curve was 0.986 with P <0.001 and by using 15 as the cut-off score in this study, the diagnostic
sensitivity for Sjogren’s syndrome was 81.8% and specificity 97.0%.
Conclusion: Ultrasound of major salivary glands could be used as a first-line imaging diagnostic tool in the evaluation
of oral involvement in patients suspected of having Sjogren’s syndrome and the semi-quantitative scoring system of
major salivary glands shows higher diagnostic value in the evaluation of this oral involvement.
Key words: Sjogren’s syndrome, Ultrasonography, Major salivary glands. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):53-58).

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Article
Radiographic determination of the distance of the mandibular third molar tooth to the inferior alveolar canal

Authors: SaadW. Al Bayatti --- Bothaina M. A'Akil
Pages: 59-61
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ABSTRACT
Background: This study was done to evaluate the following:
1- Distance between the mandibular canal and the lower third molars
2- Distance between the mandibular canal and the lower cortex of the mandible
Materials and methods: One hundred radiographs were taken from patients’ files who attended the dental clinics
of the Faculty of Dentistry, Ajman University of Science and Technology. All radiographs were exposed and
processed in a standardized pattern. Substandard radiographs were excluded.
Results: The image of lower 3rd molars in of 66% of cases were found above the mandibular canal border, 16% of the
cases were touching the upper border, 14% between the borders ,2% below the canal border and 2% touching the
lower border. The vertical distance between the lower border of the mandibular canal and the inferior border of the
mandible at the area mesial to the lower thirds were not similar in both sides, in the right side 2% of cases are of 0.4
cm distance, and 1% of 2.2 cm distance and the majority 13% are of 0.9 cm distance. Whereas in the left side the
majority 14% is of 1.1 cm distance, 5% of 0.4 cm and 1% is of 3.5 cm distance.
Conclusion: In this study, it was found that 16 % of the cases touching the upper border of the mandibular canal in
right side and 31% in left side which indicates the presence of a deviation of the inferior dental canal.
Keywords: Mandibular third molar tooth to the inferior alveolar canal. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):59-61).

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Article
A new two dimensional facial contour tracing method

Authors: Emad A. Salman
Pages: 62-66
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ABSTRACT
Background: Having an accurate, reproducible, clinically applicable, and ethical quantitative method for tracing
facial contour is an asset in studying the effects of various surgical approaches or drug regimes on postoperative and
infectious swellings in oral surgery. The aim of this study is to develop and test a method and an apparatus that can
be used in clinical trials to trace and measure the facial contour in a coronal section in the face.
Materials and Methods : Our method relies on posing the head in a cephalostat in a well standardized reproducible
way and using a narrow beam from a laser diode to trace selected evenly spaced points on the contour of a
selected coronal section in the face and project them as illuminated points on a graph paper, the illuminated points
can be joined by a line to produce a graph which represents the traced contour, retracing contour graphs made in
successive sessions can be used to assess objectively progression of facial swellings. The method and the tracing
apparatus were tested on four carefully selected swelling-free subjects to determine the method's inherent as well as
posing error.
Results : Results showed that the method's inherent error was so small that can be neglected (0.2%), head posing
error of the method was only 0.56%.
Conclusions : Our method is relatively accurate, ethical, and clinically applicable, it can be used to trace contour of
facial swellings in the course of their progression under the influence of various surgical approaches or drug regimes.
Keywords : Laser beam, facial contour tracing. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):62-66).

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Article
Effect of manual tooth brushing on periodontal health status between right and left handed dental students (Inter and intra groups comparative Study)

Authors: Hayder R. Abdulbaqi --- Firas B. Hashim
Pages: 67-73
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ABSTRACT
Background: Mechanical plaque control is an effective way of treating and preventing gingivitis. The aim of this
study was to compare the effect of manual tooth brushing on periodontal health status between right handed and
left handed dental students(inter group comparison)and between right side and left side of dentition of each group
separately(intra group comparison).
Materials and Methods: One hundred dental students were enrolled in the study, the subjects with an age range (22-
23) year’s old, fifty students were right handed and the other fifty one were left handed. The study was cross
sectional, all subjects were selected regardless the periodontal health status and sex but adjusted according to age,
regularly tooth brushers and if they were right handed or left handed tooth brushers. All periodontal parameters:
plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical
attachment loss (CAL) were recorded for all teeth except the third molar which was excluded.
Results: there was significant difference in plaque index between both groups and high significant differences in
plaque index between right and left sides of each group separately. Non significant difference in mean gingival
index between both groups while there was high significant difference of gingival index between right and left sides
of each group separately. High significant differences of bleeding sites between both groups and between both
sides of each group separately. We use a scale for ease of estimation based on increased pocket depth for probing
pocket depth and the same method for clinical attachment loss parameters, it involve the scales (0,1,2,3) for probing
pocket depth and scales (1,2,3) for clinical attachment level. The results of probing pocket depth showed that there
was significant difference only in scale 1 and non significant differences in all other scales between both groups
while in intra group comparison, there was a high significant difference in scales 1, 2 and non significant differences
in scales 0, 3 between both sides of right handed group and high significant difference in scales 1, 2 and non
significant differences in scales 0, 3 between both sides of left handed group. The inter and intra group comparisons
showed that there was non significant differences in all scales of clinical attachment level.
Conclusions: Left handed group had better skills to manipulate with tooth brushing and good oral hygiene than right
handed group and each group separately showed better skills to manipulate with tooth brushing and good oral
hygiene in the side other than the side of the dominant hand
Key words: Dental plaque, gingivitis, manual tooth brushing. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):67-73).

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Article
A clinical comparison of a battery-powered toothbrush and a manual toothbrush in patients with chronic periodontitis

Authors: Raghad Fadhil
Pages: 74-77
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ABSTRACT
Background: Microbiological plaque is the main etiological factor in the development of periodontal diseases.
Regular and effective removal of plaque from all surfaces of the teeth is essential for the prevention of these
diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the plaque removal effectiveness of a battery powered and
manual toothbrush by using plaque index and to compare differences in pocket depth and gingival index between
the two groups over a 3-months period.
Material and methods: This study was randomized controlled and examine-blind designed. Forty patients were
included in the study, all the subjects were non smokers male and they were stratified and randomized to one of the
two brushing groups. A total of 5 visits were planed for data recording, the clinical parameters include: - plaque
index, gingival index, probing pocket depth.
Results Significant and highly significant differences was found for both groups during the study according to the f-test
in PI and Gl, Also significant difference was found between the two groups in favor of manual tooth brush. The
longitudinal changes in pocket depth show significant and highly significant difference from the base line in the both
groups and using f-test but No statistical difference was detected between the batteries powered brushing and
manual brushing groups in the outcome measure of PD at any time point during the study.
Conclusion According to the results obtained both toothbrushes' mean difference between baseline and postbrushing
plaque scores decreased. Manual tooth brush plaque removal was more efficient in comparison to battery
powered toothbrush also gingival health shows more improvement with manual tooth brush when compared with
battery powered tooth brush; no significant difference in pocket depth was found with both types of tooth brushes.
Keywords: tooth brushing methods. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):74-77).

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Article
Polycythemia and bleeding gum (clinical study)

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ABSTRACT
Background: The present study showed that patient with true polycythemia may manifest bleeding gum in addition
to other systemic manifestations. The aim of the study to exclude bleeding gum is one manifestation of
myloproliferative disorder.
Patient and Methods: Full history and physical examinations were achieved to all the 22 patients, with PCV higher
than 53. All patients were underwent plaque and calculus control, including motivation for good oral hygiene.
Results: We found that in secondary polycythemia 2 out 17 suffered from bleeding gum, these results made the
percentage of bleeding gum in polycythemic patients 9,1%.
Conclusions: Bleeding tendency like bleeding gum is reported complications of true polycythemia, this is because of
small blood vessels distention (congestion) and platelets dysfunction as in polycythemia rubra vera..
Key words: Polycythemia, packed cell volume, bleeding gum. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):78-80).

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Article
Mouth opening estimation for evaluation of closed treatment of unilateral mandibular subcondylar fractures in adults

Authors: Salah J. Muhsen
Pages: 81-84
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ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND: the incidence of condylar fracture is high, the choice of closed treatment versus surgical treatment
remains a controversial issue. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. The current study was designed to
evaluate the outcome of closed treatment of unilateral subcondylar fractures in terms of the degree of mouth
opening.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 adult patients with fresh unilateral mandibular subcondylar fractures were treated by closed
method and followed up for 1, 3 and 6 months after completion of treatment to record the degree of mouth
opening.
RESULTS: the most common cause of subcondylar fractures was alleged assaults (50%) then road traffic accidents
(39%) then falls and sport injury (11%). After one month follow up 17 patients recorded more than 30 mm mouth
opening, after 3 months follow up 16 patients recorded more than 35mm, after 6 months follow up 15 patients
recorded more than 40 mm with a mean of 42.5mm.
CONCLUSION: functional results with closed treatment of unilateral subcondylar fractures in terms of the degree of
mouth opening are good making this method effective in management of such fractures.
KEY WORDS: mouth opening, mandibular subcondylar fracture, closed treatment. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):81-
84).

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Article
The influence of prophylactic Dexamethasone on postoperative swelling and trismus following impacted mandibular third molar surgical extraction

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ABSTRACT
Background: Pain, swelling and trismus are the main minor complications encountered after surgical extraction of
impacted third molars, minimizing these postoperative complications is the center of many studies, one proposed
method is the prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of
prophylactic Dexamethasone administration on facial swelling and trismus after surgical extraction of impacted third
molars.
Materials and methods: 20 patients were included in this study, they were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10
patients each; a study group in which patients were given 8 mg. Dexamethasone 1 hour before surgical extraction
of impacted third molar and 4 mg. 6 hours postoperatively, and a control group in which no drug was given, mouth
opening and direct facial measurments were done preoperatively and 2 days postoperatively, data were collected
and analyzed.
Results: The study group showed less facial swelling and trismus postoperatively, in facial swelling the difference was
statistically significant, while for trismus the difference was not significant.
Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of Dexamethasone reduces facial swelling and trismus after surgical
extraction of impacted third molars.
Keywords: Prophylactic, Dexamethasone, Swelling, Trismus, Impacted third molar, Surgical extraction. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2010;22(4):85-90).

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Article
Evaluation of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Formocresol for pulpotomy in primary molar teeth

Authors: AbeerM.Zwain
Pages: 91-95
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ABSTRACT
Background: One of the most important goals for Pedodontists is the retention of the pulpally involved deciduous
teeth healthy until the time of normal exfoliation. Concern has been raised about the toxicity and potential
carcinogenicity of formocresol which is the most popular pulpotomy medicaments. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate is a
new biocompatible material which provides a biological seal and has several pulpal applications including
pulpotomy.
Materials and methods: 24 children with 31 primary molars requiring pulpotomy were selected in this study, 15 teeth
treated with MTA pulpotomy and in 16 teeth formocresol was used as a pulpotomy medicament. Clinical and radio
graphical follow up of the patients was performed after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months respectively.
Results: the clinical success rate of pulpotomy was 86.7% of the MTA group and 75% of the formocresol group, while
radio graphically the MTA group succeeded by a rate of 86.7% and the formocresol group succeeded by a rate of
68.75%.
Conclusions: Mineral trioxide aggregate showed clinical and radio graphic success rate higher than that of
formocresol (though not statistically significant) and can be used as a pulpotomy medicament in primary molar
teeth.
Key words: mineral trioxide aggregate, pulpotomy, primary teeth. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):91-95).

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Article
Molar dentoalveolar heights’ association with some vertical craniofacial measurements in class I skeletal pattern

Authors: Hadeel A. Yousif
Pages: 96-101
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ABSTRACT
Background: Cases with vertical discrepancy have proved to be the most difficult to treat and have the least
favorable prognosis. This study was designed to determine the relationship between maxillary and mandibular molar
dentoalveolar heights and several vertical skeletal variables; and to start up population standard for the vertical
position of the maxillary and mandibular 1st molar, in individuals with skeletal and dental class I.
Materials and method: The sample included 60 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs (33 females and 27
males) which had been taken in the Orthodontic department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. They
were determined radiographically to have class I skeletal pattern, and clinically to have normal Angle Class I
occlusion. Ten skeletal and two dentoalveolar cephalometric measurements were used to assess vertical facial
morphology.
Results: Males had a significantly larger molar dentoalveolar height than the females. Both in males and females,
maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar heights were significantly positively correlated with anterior total and lower
facial heights and posterior facial height. Ar-Go has higher significant positive correlations in females than males,
positive correlations were also found in males between SN-MP angle and molar dentoalveolar heights, and between
PP-MP angle and MxMDH only.
Conclusions: Positive relationship between dentoalveolar and craniofacial heights has been confirmed. Population
standard for the vertical position of the maxillary and mandibular 1st molar, in individuals with skeletal and dental
class I, were verified. The increase in dentoalveolar heights of males show more tendency toward backward rotation
of the mandible compared to that of females.
Keywords: molar dentoalveolar heights, vertical dimension, skeletal pattern. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):96-101).

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Article
Craniofacial features of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a sample of Kurdish adults in Hawler governorate

Authors: Jamil. A. Khshan --- Paymn F. Shareef
Pages: 102-106
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ABSTRACT
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the morphologic features of the craniofacial complex of
adult Kurds with skeletal class III malocclusion in Hawler government and to compare these features with skeletal
class I relationship.
Methods:The study sample comprised 64 individuals that were selected according to certain criteria from patients
attending the X-ray department at the Specialized Dental Poly Clinic in Hawler city; the age ranged from 18-40 years
with the mean age of 26.35 years. This study comprised two groups; the study group with skeletal class III
malocclusion and the control group with class I jaw relation.
Results:The study group exhibited a significantly shorter anterior cranial base, shorter maxilla, and longer mandibular
body, but non- significant shorter ramus and thicker chin compared to the class I skeletal relationship.
Conclusions:The craniofacial features of skeletal class III Kurdish adults follow the same pattern seen in other
populations and races.
Key words: Skeletal class III, Cephalometry. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):102-106).

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Article
The position of mandibular incisors in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I malocclusion

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Background: The attempt to make good diagnosis enforce the orthodontists to examine the relationship of the mandibular incisors position in patients with malocclusion to provide the practitioners with more diagnostic norms and correlation equation. This study aimed to determine the position of the mandibular incisors in a sample of adults (aged 18-25 years) with Class I malocclusion, to determine the existence of gender differences in mandibular incisors position, and to determine the correlation between the mandibular incisors position with some measurements. Materials and method: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for 60 adults subjects (30 males and 30 females). The cephalometric radiographs were traced and verified using AutoCAD 2008 program. Results and Conclusions: The results show non-significant gender difference in the position of the mandibular incisors, and very high significant direct correlation between GoGn-NB angle and the ˉ1ˉ-NB. The GoGn-NB angle can be classified as most important of the guiding angular variables in determining the lower incisors position (ˉ1ˉ -NB).


Article
Isolation and identification of bacteria in dummy sucking children with gastroenteritis (Comparative study)

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ABSTRACT
Background: Dummy sucking had been associated with many adverse effects on general health of the children, one
of them is infection due to contaminations, this study included the isolation and identification of microorganism
associated with gastroenteritis dummy sucking infected children to determine the most common microorganism
isolated in the sample of study group with age ranged between (1 -36) months from both gender in AL-karama
Teaching Hospital between Sep. 2008 to Jan. 2009.
Material and methods: the total studied specimens were sixty five (65) dummy swabs, Forty five dummy swabs from
gastroenteritis infected children (group I) and twenty dummy swabs from children without gastroenteritis (group II).
The samples were collected with sterile cotton swab and processed for direct microscopic examination (gram stain,
wet stain) then used culture for isolation and identification of microorganisms (swabs streaked on blood agar
,macConky agar and choclate agar). The morphology of different types of colonies was recorded and smears of
these different colonies were done by study the Gram‘s stain reaction, microscopic characteristics, colony
morphology on growth media then different types of colonies were subculture and stored for further biochemical
tests to reach complete identification of each isolates, in addition some isolated of gram negative were diagnosed
by API 20 E ® system (trade mark of commercial strips for identification of gram negative rods).
Results: Ninety two bacterial isolated were obtained in this study, sixty four from group I and twenty eight from group
II. The results revealed that there is statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two groups concerning
E.coli and Klebsiella species which is the most common bacteria isolated from group I, while the most common
bacteria isolated from group II was Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Conclusion: There is significant appearance of E.coli and Klebsiella species in dummy sucking gastroenteritis infected
children and suggested that the use of a pacifier is significant risk factor for recurrent of gastroenteritis .
Keywords: Dummy sucking, gastroenteritis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):111-114).

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Article
Determination of the antibacterial activity of MTA, and pulpotec filling materials against selected microorganisms (in vitro study)

Authors: Maha A. Mahmood
Pages: 115-118
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ABSTRACT
Background: This in vitro study concerned with the assessment of the antibacterial effects of two materials used as
a pulpotomy medicament, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new filling material Pulpotec (PD) on various
species of microorganisms, using agar diffusion test.
Materials and methods: Abase layer of petri plates was made using Muller-Hinton agar. After solidification, two
cavities were made in agar and filled with fresh mixed materials. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus Faecalis,
and Escherichia coli were seeded by pour plate. The plates were preincubated for 2 hours at room temperature
followed by incubation at 37◦C. The inhibition zone diameters were measured in (mm) at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Data
were analyzed statistically using descriptive and analytic statistics, the descriptive including mean and standard
deviation, and the analytic statistics in which t-test was run for multiple comparisons (between materials, and
microorganisms).
Results: The highest mean diameters of growth inhibition zones were observed around PD against all tested
microorganisms over 72 hours. According to t-test, there was a high significant difference between PD in comparison
with MTA (P< 0.01). The difference was highly significance between the tested microorganisms.
Conclusion: The in vitro antibacterial activity of pulpotec offers additional advantage over MTA.
Key words: antibacterial agent, mineral trioxide aggregate, pulpotec, pulpotomy. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2010;22(4):115-118).

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Article
Clinical and laboratory assessment of Herpes Simplex virus Type-I in saliva from patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration

Authors: Sana A. AL-Shaikhly --- Shaimaa Kh. Awad
Pages: 119-125
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ABSTRACT
Background: Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large enveloped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus and significant
human pathogen. It infects most persons early in life, primarily at mucosal surfaces following exposure to infected
secretions, and causes a range of diseases from labialis and stomatitis to blinding keratitis and, rarely, encephalitis.
Over 70% of the adult population have neutralizing antibodies to HSV and serve as reservoirs of the virus.
Aims of the study: The aims of the study are to show the prevalence of HSV-1 among patients with recurrent
aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and correlate with sex, age and clinical features of patients in comparison with healthy
control and to determine the diagnostic role of direct immunofluorescent (IF) and enzyme linked immunosorbant
assay (ELISA) for detection of HSV-1 antigen and antibody in saliva.
Materials and methods: Sixty patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and thirty healthy control subjects were
included in this study. Saliva samples were taken from all the subjects (patients and healthy control) and examined
by direct IF and ELISA assay. Two swabs from patients with oral herpes labialis were considered as a positive control.
Results: The results of our study showed that RAS affect both sexes with a wide age range but mostly in the second
and third decades and comprising middle to upper class professional persons or students, mostly non-smoker and
some with a family history of the same disorder. The most commonly affected mucosa is the labial mucosa, buccal
mucosa, tongue, and rarely the soft palate and floor of the mouth. Positive IF result was observed in 78.3% in
patients' subjects and 83.3% in healthy control. While in ELISA, the positive result was found in 55.0% in patients and
76.7% in control subjects.
Conclusion: There were a significant correlation between the IF and ELISA methods. As far as the saliva is regarded as
a tansudate of the serum and it contain the same antibodies as serum; although in smaller amounts, so, it can be
used as a substance to detect the immunoglobulins because it's easily available and simply examined. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2010;22(4):119-125).

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