Table of content

Adab AL Rafidayn

اداب الرافدين

ISSN: 03782867
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Arts
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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EMAIL: adabarafidayn@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2009 volume: issue:55

Article
The Linguistic Roots in the Dictionary (Al-MuhīT fi Al-Lugha) by Salih bin A’bad: Statistical Analysis
الْجُذُورُ اللُّغَوِيَّةُ في مُعْجَمِ (المُحيط في اللُّغةِ) للصَّاحبِ بنِ عباد إحْصَاءٌ ودِرَاسَةٌ وموازنةٌ

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Abstract

The present research investigates the linguistic roots in (Al-MuhīT fi Al-Lugha) by Salih bin A’bad (385A.H.). The origins are statistically analysed and studied. The statistical analysis of (Al-MuhīT fi Al-Lugha) depended on accurate deduction, then a descriptive analytical study was conducted and compared between the linguistic origins of Al-MuhīT and six other Arabic dictionaries namely: “Kitab Al-Ain” by Al-Khalil bin Ahmed Al-Faraheedi (157A.H.), “Jamharat Al-Lugha” by Ibn Duraid (321A.H.), “Tahtheeb Al-Lugha” by Al-Azhari (370A.H.), “Al-Sihah” by Al-Jawahiri (400A.H.), “Asas Al-Balagha” by Al-Zamakhshari (538A.H.) , and “Lisan Al-Arab” by Ibn Manzoor (711A.H.). After comparison, the study concluded that these dictionaries differed from each other in the method of presentation, explanation, the size and type of material of each dictionary. In addition to the similarities between them, the differences are related to the aim and purpose of writing the dictionary while the similarities are due to the similarities of the references. We hope that we were successful in doing this work.

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Article
A'rram bin Al-Asbagh Al-Sulami: "His Life and Linguistic Narrations"
عَرّامُ بنُ الأَصْبَغِ السُّلَمِيُّ: أخباره ومروياته اللغوية

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A'rram bin Al-Asbagh Al-Sulami is one of the old linguists who contributed greatly in linguistics. Some of his narrations were found in some references especially in dictionaries such as (Al-Ayn) by Al-Fraheedi (died 175A.H.) and (Tahtheen Al-Lugha) by Al-Azhari (died 370 A.H.). The present research consist's of an introduction and two parts: - Part one includes an autobiography of A'rram as well as a study of his narrations. - Part two includes the texts which are classified alphabetically. I have mentioned the reference in the footnotes of this research.


Article
The D Rhyme Poem of Durayd Bin Alssima, (A Stylistic Study)
دالية دريـد بن الصمة: دراسة أسلوبية

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The present research has dealt with the D rhyme poem of Durayd Bin Alssima in his elegy of his brother – a stylistic study. The study was divided into four parts: death, integration, kinship and blood unity and the triumph of life. The poem was studied according to the four levels: semantic, structural, rhetorical and phonological. The semantic level worked together with the structural level to confirm the triumph of life in spite of the poet's grief to his brother. The poet has found through the rhetorical level especially metonymy and simile for the semantic dimensions of woman and the person lamented. As to the phonological level; it has achieved a structural task by imparting life and liveliness versus silence and grief oppressing the text as well as revealing the aesthetic, semantic and rhythmical features of the text.


Article
Surat Al-Shareh: A Rhetorical Study
في سورة الشرح: دراسة بلاغية

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This rhetorical study of Surat Al-Shareh reveals the expressional and imaginative function of various rhetorical aspects that are basic in the structure of this sura. Meanings are clear and affect the minds and hearts together due to the use of a rhetorical style achieving creation in persuasion, wakening feelings and emotions. The sura starts with an extraordinary introduction making the reader eager for explaining the chest coinciding with the expressions “to have” and “to want”. They are interrelated to refer to specialization and dedicating time for Allah worship. Group speaker pronoun is clear while the speaker is one to indicate the many blessings given for the Prophet. Rhetorical styles, including metaphor and others integrated in Qur’anic expressions, in particular Qur’anic metaphor and coordination aesthetics among ayahs and coordination in intervals to be more affective in hearts.


Article
Phonological Changes and their Effect on Semantic Changes
التطورُ الصوتيُّ وأثرهُ في تطوّرِ الدلالة

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Abstract

Phonological changes are one of the causes of semantic changes. Words are usually linked with specific meaning in our minds. Any Changes in their pronunciations will definitely result in partial or complete changes in their meanings. The current paper tackles phonological changes in two sections. Section one deals with phonological changes in general, their definition, and their causes. Section two sheds light on the consequences of such semantic changes. The paper cites a number of words which witnessed phonological changes, which in turn led to semantic changes, as phonological changes usually lead to changes in the forms of words without changing the meaning of the words. Hence the current paper tackles those cases in which phonological changes led to semantic changes.


Article
Tribes in Holy Quran
الأسباط في القرآن الكريم

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Abstract

Praise to God, peace and blessings of Allah be upon the messenger mohammed, the illiterate prophet, and to all his companions. This research entitled "tribes in Holy Quran" I have tried to explain and study the meaning of this word in Holy Quran, then to show affair of yosif s brother concerning with prophecy, so that, this research is arranged according to these issues. Hence, the first matter that I have tackeld is its mentioning in Quran verses, showing its meaning as linquists see and its semantics. This was followed by explaining its meaning according to interpretors and Holy Quran, then studying yosif brother s affair and the openion of the learned ones obout their prophecy whether real or not. Again, for this word I made what has meutioned in moses story (peace upon him) to be clear in the context of four trends according to Quran uarration, so that every thing that is right citrd in this study is by God and his grece attriibute, other wise anything else is attribute to my fault and to my weak revise. our last invocation is praise be to Allah.


Article
Art of Iltifat in the Seven Qura'nic Recitings: Al-Baqarah as an Example
فنُّ الالتفات في القراءات السبع: سورة البقرة أنموذجاً

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Abstract

Al-Iltifat is one of the Arabic on Qura'nic rhetorical styles. This style has been mentioned abundantly in the seven Qura'nic recitings. It is worth noting that verses of Al-Baqarah various types of this styles concerning the seven Qura'nic recitings. Hense, this research tackled this phenomena and indications. Finally, the research dealt with a brief statistical study.


Article
The Poets Council of Mount Alfath in “Alman bil-Imama” Book: An Objective Study
شعر مَجْلِس شُعراء جَبَل الفَتح في كتـاب (المـَن بالِإمَامَة عَلـى المُسْتَضْعَفِينَ بَأَن جَعَلَهُم الله أَئِمَةً وَجَعَلَهُم الوَارثِينَ) لإِبن أَبي صاحب الصلاة: (دراسة موضوعية)

Authors: Fawaz Ahmed فواز أحمد محمد
Pages: 225-251
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Abstract

The social life of Al-Mowahideen State is an important aspect of the Mowahideen history. It is a subject that deserves to be studied in order to shed light on the nature of Mowahideen society; and to illustrate their traditions, habits and their social and literary conditions. The celebration of victory is one of the interest to the Mowahideen people. They celebrate this event by a number of activities and ceremonies. The poets council established by Caliph Abdul-Mumin bin Ali (555A.H.) in the occasion of liberating Mount Tariq (Gibraltar) is one of the social occasions celebrated habitually in Abdalucia where poets present their poems on this occasion. The present study focuses on the poem read by poets in the presence of Caliph Abdul-Mumin bin Ali to show their major objective aspects through paying special attention to the poems topics which were mainly four topics namely: 1. The Muslim leader. 2. The Muslim army. 3. The enemy leader. 4. The enemy army. 5. The objective criticism of the poets’ council of Mount Alfath. Due to the abundance of poetry on this occasion only the book entitled “Alman bil-Imama” written by Abi Sahib Ul-Salat Al-Baji (died 605A.H.). Whoever reads the poetry of Andalucia will find out that the Fifth century after Hijra enjoys the greatest number of poetic councils and forums held by rulers.


Article
جبهة مقاتلي الشرق الإسلامي العظيم في تركيا (1984-2008)

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In 1984, fundamental Islamic Front was established in Turkey "The Great Islamic oriental fighters Front". Its first aim is establishing an Islamic state in Turkey, then unifying Moslems all over the world. The front adopts the idea of reviving Islam within the concept of "The Great Orient". It depends on the principle of 'Al-Jihad' and the armed struggle to achieve its explicit objectives. The front calls all the revolutionists all over the world to stand against the octopus Zionism and American domination. The front applied its armed struggle in Turkey since the early nineties. It deals severe lows to Turkey targets and to foreign interests and establishments specially American, British and Zionist ones in Turkey. In spite of chasing, imprisonment and detention campaigns by Turkish security authorities against the individuals and leaders of the front, it still represents serious threat to Turkey.


Article
The Attitude of the Iraqi Muslim Scholars in Iraq to the Constitutional Movement in Persia in 1906 and the movement in Othman state in 1908
موقف علماء الدين الإسلامي في العراق تجاه الحركة الدستورية في إيران 1906 والدولة العثمانية 1908

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The first decade of the twentieth century witnessed two important events: the emergence of the constitutional movement in Persia and the Ottoman (1906-1908). Muslim Ulama in Iraq adopted certain attitude this movement. Fatwa’s issued by Clergymen played a significant part in supporting this movement, especially …..….. which was founded in Persia. These fatwa’s constituted the main source for its establishment Also, it succeeded in compelling the rulers of Persia from Al-Kagar to accept the parliamentary constitutional system which was similarly applied to the constitutional movement in the Ottoman State. Although there were divergent attitudes by Ulama in the big Iraqi cities. Yet, these attitudes contributed to the crystallization of the public consciousness concerning the purpose and the significations of the parliamentary system.


Article
The Military Role of the Crac de Marget Castle during Crusade Wars Age
قلعة المرقب ودورها العسكري في عصر الحروب الصليبية

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The Crac de Marget Castle considered one of the castles which was existent before the crusading invasion to the Syria then after the occupation it became one of the important military castles which being concerning the districts of the crusading power. The Crac de Marget Castle has a very important military role being it the sea and earth defense front from principality in addition to it’s role in defending to the holly lands which was the main purpose that was the military and religious organizations took all their efforts, and the castle was as a military base which the crusading assumed it to make attack on the Muslim authority districts of Al-Sham country. Concerning to the religions role, the castle was a central of the administration for the consultation order and it is considered as a location for the holding of annual meeting of the order guesting it’s older visitors. But for it’s religious role, the castle was the main head quarter in addition it is contain a church to perform their worshiping and rites duties. This castle has power that make many Moslem’s leaders couldn't occupied it for more than 180 year till was liberated from crucifixion at the era of Mamlokion sultan Al-Mansoor- KulaRoon (678-689A.H/1279-1290A.D), it is still it’s antiquities standing till now a days in spite of more than eight century from it’s structure.


Article
The Attitude of Lebanon toward Al- Soweis Crisis 1956
موقف لبنان من أزمة السويس عام 1956

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Abstract

In 1882 Egypt had submitted to the British occupization. The British foreign minister announced that Egypt became under the wing of Britain in 18th December 1914 after the breaking out of the first world war. In 26 August 1936 the British government set out about holding a treaty with the Egyptian government. This treaty includes a British acknowledgement of the Egyptian independence in home and foreign affairs. This will be in exchange of the Egyptian acknowledgment of the right of Britain to let her forces to study in the canal. After the end of the second world war, the Egyptian government saw that the treaty of 1936 has exhausted its purposes and the existence of the British forces. In the canal became unjustificated then and cm agreement was signed between the British and Egyptian governments to move out the British forces Egypt in June 13, 1956. After the British pulling out the Egyptian government worked hard to completed the national independence and to liberate from the western authority than the Egyptian precedent announced the nationalization the canal in July 26, 1956. Lebanon supported completely the decision of nationalization. The Lebanese government stood firmly in side of Egypt and assured its solidarity and support to Egypt and its nationalization of the canal. Also the popular attitude, represented by the parliament and the political parties, characterized by their complete support to the nationalization and they considered it as an magnificent step on the way of accomplishing the national sovereignty and independence. The demonstrations broke out in most of the Lebanese cities supporting Egypt in nationalization the canal. As for the trio aggression on Egypt in October 29,1956 the Lebanese government and people denounced this aggression. the government and the parliament announced their strong condemnation on the aggression. The Lebanese parties called to confront the colonization countries and to face the aggression. the demonstrations wandered about the streets at the Lebanese cities condemning that aggression. the demonstrator, demanded to volunteer in order to assist Egypt.


Article
Jama Mosque Cultures: Study Sosioantherpologic
المسجد جامع الثقافات: دراسة سوسيوانثربولوجية

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Abstract

The research mosque A place of cultural convergence Where he will meet the individuals despite the different cultural and ethnic, Almsadjad values that are present in the hearts of the walk to the mosque sectarian melt any difference or sectarian, ethnic or cultural, The researcher used the case study approach in the identification of the strengths of the relationships being formed between worshipers after to speak at length about tolerance of religious and cultural values melting Almsadjad How could it be the mosque cultural melting pot, and. Researcher out the results of their strong sense of connection ideological and religious Replaced Links and other affiliations and commitment to the principles of Islam and the teachings of the Koran created a sense of fraternal and spiritual individuals Lancet cultural and ethnic differences.

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المسجد ;


Article
Ibn-Rushed Knowledge Systems and the Patterns of Mind
أنظمة ابن رشد المعرفية وتعدد العقول

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Abstract

Mind has a special status in the Islamic thinking. Islam appreciation of mind has so many patterns. Due to the high status of mind, a research on “knowledge systems of mind” as were laid by Ibn-Rushed is being presented here, showing his view with regard to the reality of mind as it is commonly known, his opinion of its status, and whether it uniformed or it differs from one man to another according to the depth of man’s thinking. And its relation to the spirit and the nature of this relation. It was found out that Ibn-Rushed had a great impact on the development of human thinking, particularly his call to rely on the mind and experiment, starting from the nature or the external world through his foundation of epistemology and anthology. Ibn-Rushed’s objectivity appeared clearly in his view of knowledge as being relative and not absolute. He believes that human sciences are relative not absolute, because he realizes that knowledge is everchanging. It starts with sensations and then moves to imaginations and to the overall meanings. It can be seen that Ibn-Rushed did not give an absolute importance to the abstract rules of mind and disposing them to man’s feeling of reality and the surrounding. Instead he realized that man starts to apprehend this reality through his senses, thus he recognizes the importance of mind in studying reality and making judgment about it. Ibn-Rushed stresses the value of global mind, in realizing the material things and the reason behind their existence. Mind which realizes the reasons behind the existence, knows why do they exist. Knowledge about these material things could not be complete, unless the reason behind their existence is known. If these reasons are absent or ignored then this is the ignorance itself. And this is a significant factor in the formation of knowledge frame of human mind. This advanced understanding of the concept of human knowledge had undeniable effect on Europe in the modern ages to arrive at what is called controlling and bringing nature into subjection.


Article
Human Development and Human Rights
التنمية البشرية وحقوق الإنسان

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Abstract

Human development is the process of expanding people's choices by expanding human capabilities and functions. As such human development reflects the results achieved in the these functions and capabilities, which are very practical at the same time. At all levels of development there are three basic capabilities of people to live in a healthy life and have access to knowledge and obtain the resources necessary to an adequate standard of living. Human rights are rights which all people have by virtue of their humanity in common, and live in freedom and dignity. This is give all moral rights of people with regard to the conduct of individuals and in relation to the design of social arrangements. Human rights reflect the deepest commitments to ensuring the security of all people in the enjoyment of freedoms and the expertise necessary to live a decent life.

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Article
The Status of Information and Library Department in the College of Arts/Basrah University
واقع قسم المعلومات والمكتبات في كلية الآداب/ جامعة البصرة: دراسة حالة

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It has become quite necessary to start a modern study that tackles the status of the department of information and libraries in the College of Arts/Basrah Univ. It was established in 1983 nearly 25 years ago. The first batch of graduates was in 1987 when the studies of libraries developed and enlarged in Iraq in 80's. At the beginning it was only Diploma, then developed in to a B.A. and then into M.A a Ph.D. Three prominent Universities contained such a branch of studies Al-Mustansiriyah Univ., Basrah Univ., and Mosul Univ. The present study highlights the status of the dept of information and libraries in order to show the weak and strong points in this department. This will help the people in charge to and decision markers to enrich the powerful point and to remedy the weak ones, or get rid of them. The method of explaining this status is done in three main parts: The first one contains conditions of admission and secondly, the study syllabus. The third one tackles the problems and obstacles a long with the necessary suggestions that the researchers put forth. Collection the data has been done through the documents of the department, some modern studies in the field that deal with similar departments. The research is finalized by these recommendations: 1. Giving a bird eye-view about the department its importance and its scientific role concerning the libraries and information centers and those who use them. 2. The necessity of finding solution for problems that the department is facing now so as to make some progress in the educational process and solving the problems that the staff members of department face. 3. Working on developing the study curriculum and modernizing it so as to cope with the modern progress in the field of information and libraries.


Article
Internet and Its Services
الانترنيت وخدماتها المعلوماتية والمرجعية في المكتبات الجامعية

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Abstract The research aims at defining the internet advantages and the E-information sources, their uses, kinds and forms according to the medium used, access points, subject coverage, authorship, types of information, the possibility of being portable or not. The research concentrates on three main points: guarantee the E-information sources, the information and reference services which the library can offer via the internet with actual examples, then the criteria for evaluating the E-information sources and the web sites. The research followed the documentary method and depended on the printed sources and the sources available on the internet as a tool for collecting data. The research concluded that the internet accomplished great benefits for libraries in offering information and reference services as far as the research concerns for users in university libraries.


Article
Pleistocene Series and its Effects
فترة البلايستوسين وتأثيراتها

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Pleistocene is regarded the last series of the modern life that includes four of five series. This series is regarding the fourth one. Most scholars now days consider the modern life as an extension of Pleistocene. Others exclude it as a special period naming it Holocene. Pleistocene has witnessed many geological, geographical and natural changes that extended up till the present day. In this series many types of animals and plants have appeared clearly that some types of them still exist due to the convenant environmental factors. More over this series which can be traced back to (2) million years ago. as estimated by scholars also witnessed many changes as far as human physical and intellectual activities are concerned. More remarkably in this series glacier formation has occured in the northern part of the globe. This series was long enough to be divided into four glacial series: Gunz, Mindle, Riss and Wurm. It is characterized by severe coolness. It was punctuated by many inter-glacial Series in which the glacier thawed and heat temperature rose. Consequently these inter-glacial series had direct effect on the climate and on the flora and funa. A similar effect has been left on human life according to the environmental changes that accompanied those series.


Article
Hunting Arts in Ancient Iraq
فنون الصيد في العراق القديم

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Mankind has known and practice hunting since the earliest times by various tools and means. Hunting at that times started with simple tools and means step by step up to the best means. Iraqi are among the ancient countries who practiced hunting through what have shown in the archaeological discoveries like paintings, relieves and cuneiform texts. All these documents mention types of hunting that were practiced. Similarly, they show the types of animals that were have to be seen by people as nowadays named “zoological gardens”. Ancient Iraqi people were drawing hunting scenes with different positions like running, escaping positions…etc.


Article
Culture and Science in Ancient Iraq (Mesopotamia)
الثقافــة والعلــوم في العــراق القــديم

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When we study the ancient civilization of Iraq, we notice the cultural and scientific progression, during the ancient period until reaching the development in the late eras, was very active. A group of masterly professionals in their professions were originated from the ancient society, similarly from the inscribed tables that they left, we learned that they have been created them for the citizens to whom seek benefit. The research is about the Iraqi philosophy of the cultural concept in ancient Mesopotamia.


Article
A Book Named “Thakhirat Al-Athhan” Is It Written by the Priest Butras or Not?
ذخيرة الأذهان في تواريخ المشارقة والغارية السريان المنسوب إلى القس بطرس النصري الكلداني الموصلي من مؤلفه الحقيقي؟!

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The present study aims at investigating the allusions or rather some accusations that were raised by some well-informed scholars and writers about the author of a certain book. This book is named “Thakhirat Al-Athhan” lit. means (Minds’ Repertoire in knowing the history of Middle Easterners and Moroccans Siryans”. It supposedly belongs to the Priest Butras Nasri, the Kildan Mosuli Priest (died in 1917). After collecting and systemizing the relevant corpus to the subject between those who argue with the authority of book to the Priest and those argue against. Finally, the scholar tries to reconsider the legitimate right to his owner that were proved evidently.


Article
Woods, Their Sources, Sorts and the Fields of Their Uses by Assyrians
الأخشاب، مصادرها، أنواعها، مجالات استخدامها عند الآشوريين

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Woods are regarded as a necessary material in daily life. Assyrians used Woods for heating during winter and as fuel for cooking It is also in many in industries. In spite of the availability of some kinds of good woods in the north of Assyria there were no easy transportation means in this area, This was due to the scattering of the trees in rugged mountainous areas. and lack of security. So, the inhabitants used to bring good quality woods from Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine or sometime from Elam and others from the Arabian Gulf. Those woods were brought as goods or as booty. Undoubtedly, the Assyrians Knew many kinds of good quality woods They classified them in special groups according to their solidity. And gates also deals with the fields and usage’s of woods, like roofing houses, palaces, temples, making. ates, ship building, Cabinet making carts of inflated skins beside their military usage’s, namely, making Siege interments and gates, siege instruments.


Article
واقع الأقسام الداخلية في جامعة الموصل: دراسة اجتماعية تحليلية

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A simple summary a bout the beginning of the grown of the interior departments and what happens of developments of the firstlings of it growth, and how the science students was getting the sciences and knowledge in a various fields of life, and to identify the students of the interior departments by their rights and their duties inside the interior department from the hand of take care of their furniture's and their requirements and from the hand of how to deal with the workers and the interior department managers and some of guardianship and an important suggestions which make the behavior of the student very clear inside the interior department.


Article
A Pragmatic Study of English Discourse Markers in Spoken Conversation
دراسة تداولية لواسمات الخطاب الإنكليزي في المحادثة المحكية

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واسمات الخطاب هي كلمات وعبارات تعمل كمؤشرات للتركيبة التسلسلية للخطاب. وتبين هذه الواسمات العلاقات الخطابية وترشد المشاركين في الخطاب (أي المتلقي والمرسل) إلى كيفية فهم الكلمات المنطوقة من المتكلم مما تؤدي إلى خلق مسار باتجاه تكامل المكونات المتنوعة لاستخدام اللغة في خطاب موحد مترابط. في النقاط الانتقالية في التخاطب تبدو أن واسمات الخطاب تنتقل من معناها المفرداتي القاموسي في اللغة إلى معانٍ أخرى مختلفة لا يمكن تفسيرها بالاعتماد على المعنى القاموسي لواسمات الخطاب. لذا فإن قواعد ودلالات وسمات الخطاب منفصلة عن الألفاظ التي ترد فيها، إذن أن الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو إثبات أن واسمات الخطاب هي أدوات براغماطيقية تؤدي وظائف تفاعلية متنوعة في الخطاب لذلك نركز العناية على وظيفة واسمة الخطاب في سياقها الخطابي بغض النظر عن فحواها المفرداتي.


Article
The Speech Act of Requestives In Iraqi Romantic Poetry with Reference to English
أفعال الكلام الطلبية في الشعر الرومانسي العراقي مع الإشارة إلى اللغة الإنكليزية

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Abstract

إن إحدى الخصائص المتميزة التي تجعل البشر منفردين عن بقية المخلوقات هي استخدامهم للغة. ومما لاشك فيه أن استخدام اللغة هو أمر لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه ولا يمكن تصور الحياة من دونه، وهذا الاستخدام يتيح للبشر التواصل مع بعضهم البعض. وجوهر التواصل هذا هو رسالة يمكن نقلها عبر أناس متعددين ضمن مواقف متعددة تعتمد بشكل أساس على الغرض أو النية للمخاطب. وهكذا فإن الهدف الأساسي من هذا البحث هو الولوج في الوظيفة التواصلية المتعددة للطلب بوصفها نوع من أنواع أفعال الكلام التي استخدمها بعض الشعراء الرومانسيين العراقيين. ومن خلال ذلك فإن في النية التعامل مع الطلب في ضوء مفاهيم فن الأدب، لأن الأدب – شأنه شأن الفنون الأخرى – يفتح آفاقاً جديدة تمكننا من النظر إلى العالم بطريقة مختلفة. وأكثر من ذلك، فإن الأدب يعبد الطريق أمام اللغوي للتقصي أو البحث في الظواهر اللغوية المختلفة التي قد تكون موجودة في النصوص الأدبية، وخاصة الشعرية منها، وهذا ما نصبو لتحقيقه في بحثنا هذا. إن الشعر الرومانسي العراقي – الشعر الحر – كان ثورة على الشعر التقليدي خلال القرن التاسع عشر عندما كان العالم العربي يغلي بالثورات. ولهذا أصبح استخدام الطلب أكثر شيوعاً من قبل الشعراء للتعبير عن الأحداث الجارية لتلك الحقبة الزمنية مظهرين وظائف مختلفة للطلب: الدعاء، التحذير، الطلب، الاقتراح... الخ معبرين بطريقة أو بأخرى عن فكرهم تجاه ما يدور من أحداث. وهذا غيض من فيض للأجوبة على التساؤلات التي تضمنها العنوان.


Article
Stylistic Analysis and the Teaching of Literature: A Linguistic Approach
التحليل الأسلوبي وتدريس الأدب: طريقة لغوية

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يقترح البحث طريقة لتحليل الأسلوب ويبين كيف يمكن أن تطبق في الصف حيث يشجع المتعلمون أن يمعنوا بدقة في جوانب الاستخدام اللغوي في النص والذي يلعب دورا مهما في نقل الرسالة اللغوية وبذلك تكون مفيدة لتحليل النص. وقد حاولنا تفسير قصيدة ت. س. اليوت "الرجال الفارغين" على أساس التحليل اللغوي ويتم تذوق القصيدة عن طريق مناقشة الصف للمفردات وأنواع الجمل والتراكيب والأنماط الصوتية حيث يمكن تحليل ثلاثة أنواع من المعاني: صوتية وشكلية وسياقية. وتمّ إيجاد الكلمات النحوية والوظيفية في القصيدة وتحليل الانسياب النحوي والاتساق البنائي والانحراف النحوي والتكرار والتحليل العروضي وتكرار المقاطع في القصيدة والجناس الاستهلالي. وتبين الدراسة كيف أن علم اللغة يستخدم كنموذج في الشعر والذي يمنح حياة جديدة للنقد الأدبي ويبين النموذج كيف يمكن استخدام اللغة في تفسير الأدب. كما أن استخدام الأرقام والنسب المئوية يعطي للنموذج أسسا علمية أكثر


Article
The System of Theme in Clauses Related by Subordination

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يركز هذا البحث على مفاهيم الثيمة والريمة كمصدر لتنظيم الجملة كرسالة في الجمل الفرعية الانكليزية والعربية. وينطلق البحث من مفهوم الثيمة لهاليداي (1994) كعنصر يقع في بداية الجملة الانكليزية. ويهدف البحث إلى إثبات إمكانية تمثيل نحو أية لغة بشبكة كبيرة جدا من الأنظمة، وتنظيم الخيارات في علاقات هرمية. كما يهدف إلى تسليط الضوء على نقاط التشابه والاختلاف في الجمل الانكليزية والعربية قدر تعلق الأمر بنظام الثيمة. وقد توصل الباحثان إلى استنتاج مفاده أن بعض الجمل العربية الفرعية تختلف عن الانكليزية فيما يتعلق بالتبئير. كما تبين بان الثيمة البؤرة تكون ظاهرية في اللغة الانكليزية بينما تكون ضمنية أحياناً في اللغة العربية.


Article
The Effect of Loan Translation on Arabic: A Critical Study
تأثير ترجمة الكلمات الدخيلة على اللغة العربية:

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هذا البحث دراسة نقدية لتأثير ترجمة الكلمات والتعابير الدخيلة أو المستعارة على اللغة العربية. حيث تعد الاستعارة اللغوية بمثابة صفة بارزة موجودة في كل اللغات. وتتأثر كل لغة حية تأثراً ايجابياً بهذه الظاهرة. فهي عبارة عن نتيجة طبيعية لما يسمى بالترجمة الاقتراضية والتي تعد نوعاً مهماً من أنواع الترجمة. كما وتعد أيضاً أحدى وسائل الإثراء اللغوي في أي لغة حية. تبين بأن اللغة العربية قد حصلت على الكثير من الاستعارة اللغوية عبر الترجمة الاقتراضية على المستويين التركيبي والمفرداتي. كما وتبين أيضاً بأن الاقتراض اللغوي قد حصل بطريقة أو بأخرى على استحسان مستخدمي اللغة العربية من الناس العاديين والاختصاصيين في مجال اللغة والأدب على السواء. وهكذا فقد برهنت اللغة العربية حيويتها فضلاً عن قابليتها على التواصل مع غيرها من اللغات الحية.


Article
Problems of Translating Medical Metaphors from English into Arabic
مشكلات ترجمة التعابير المجازية الطبية من الإنكليزية إلى العربية

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يهدف هذا البحث إلى التحري عن مشكلات ترجمة التعابير الطبية الإنكليزية المجازية إلى اللغة العربية. فهو محاولة لتسليط الضوء على آلية ترجمة هذه التعابير المجازية، وتحديد المواضع التي قد تكون مصدراً للإخفاقات أثناء عملية الترجمة ومن ثم اقتراح ترجمات قد تكون أفضل من سابقاتها. فقد تناول البحث تحليل ثمان نصوص فقط تمّ انتقاؤها بطريقة عشوائية من مجلات طبية مختلفة. وقام بترجمة هذه النصوص تسعة من تدريسي قسم الترجمة/ كلية الآداب/ جامعة الموصل من حملة شهادة الماجستير. وقد تحرى البحث مدى نجاح هؤلاء المشتركين في الاستبيان في ترجمة هذه التعابير المجازية. وقد افترض البحث أن التعابير المجازية الطبية إنما تشكل لغة مستقلة بذاتها وإنها تختلف عن تلك التعابير المجازية غير العلمية وإن إمكانية حصر مثل هذه التعابير إنما يتم من خلال تعلمها. وقد كشفت هذه الدراسة صعوبة التعامل مع مثل هذه المجازات الطبية وذلك لكونها تشكل تعابيراً اصطلاحية ثابتة.


Article
Polysemy as a Lexical Problem in Translation
الاشتراك اللفظي كمشكلة في الترجمة

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الاشتراك اللفظي "تعدد المعاني" ظاهرة لغوية شائعة جداً، ويحدث الاشتراك اللفظي عندما يكون للمفردة معنى واحد شائع ومتعارف عليه بصورة أكبر من غيره من المعاني المقترنة بالمفردة التي هي أقل شيوعاً. ولأن ظاهرة الاشتراك اللفظي إحدى أهم مسببات الغموض المفرداتي فهي تشكل عقبة للمترجمين الذين يواجهون صعوبة في البحث عن المفردة المقابلة في اللغة المراد الترجمة إليها. تقع الدراسة في قسمين: الأول يهدف إلى البحث في ظاهرة الاشتراك اللفظي، أما الثاني فيركز على دراسة المشكلات الأساسية التي تواجه المترجمين في محاولتهم ترجمة المشتركات اللفظية من أجل وضع الحلول التي تساعدهم في التغلب عليها. تشمل الدراسة مفهوم الاشتراك اللفظي في كل من اللغتين العربية والإنكليزية والاختلافات ما بين الاشتراك اللفظي والمجانسة اللفظية مع تحليل ومناقشة المعطيات ومن ثم الاستنتاج الذي توصلت إليه الدراسة.


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Le costume et le caractère des personnages dans “Eugénie Grandet” de Balzac: Etude sémiotique

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يتناول بحثنا هذا العلاقة بين طبائع وأخلاق الشخصيات مع شخصيات الرواية "Engénie Grandet" للكاتب الروائي بلزاك أحد أعمدة الرواية الفرنسية للقرن التاسع عشر، فالبحث إذاً إجابة على السؤال الذي يتردد على ألسنة القارئ، هل هنالك علاقة بين الملابس أو الموضة وطبائع الشخصيات للرواية؟ تعد هذه الرواية تحفة فنية للموضة في ذلك العصر من حيث تعدد أنواع الملابس والموضة "ملابس أهل بايسي/ ملابس أهل القرى والأرياف" من وجهة نظرنا. كما يقدم البحث جداول تصف ملابس الرجال وملابس النساء في هذه الرواية لكي يتعرف القارئ على طبائع وأخلاق الشخصيات لكلا الجنسين. لذا جاء تحليلنا هذا نتيجة لدراسة سيميائية مكثفة لما ورد في هذه الرواية.

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Article
"Les thèmes principaux dans la condition humaine" D'André Malraux

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يتناول هذا البحث المواضيع الرئيسية لراوية "قدر الإنسان" للكاتب الفرنسي (اندريه مالرو) وهي الأخوة، الموت، والعزلة. وتدور حوادث هذه الراوية التي نال بها مالرو "جائزة جونكور" في شنغهاي سنة 1927، وراوية قدر الإنسان تطوير بلغ حدا فائقاً من الكمال والإتقان للنغمات الرئيسية الأخوة، والموت، والعزلة. وكان مالرو أول من ألح على هذه الموضوعات والتي هي موضوعات محورية رئيسية في الأدب الوجودي الفرنسي المعاصر وأول من صاغها في رواياته صياغة فنيه متبلورة متقدما بذلك على كل من سارتر، كامي، وسيمون دي بوفوار. وأبطال رواية "قدر الإنسان" للكاتب اندريه مالرو مثل كيو، كاتوف، تشن عاشوا هذه الموضوعات.

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Article
TÜRKÇEDE “İLE” SÖZCÜĞÜNÜN ANLAMI ve ARAPÇADA KARŞILIĞI “Karşılıklı İnceleme”
معنى كلمة "ile" في اللغة التركية وما يقابلها في اللغة العربية: دراسة تقابلية

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ﺇن الموضوع الذي يتضمنه هذا البحث يستند بالدرجة الأساس إلى معنى كلمة"ile" في اللغة التركية ووظيفتها والتغيرات الحاصلةعليها خلال حقب التاريخ. كما يتضمن مايقابلها من كلمات تؤدي نفس المعنى في اللغة العربية واوجه الشبه والاختلاف بين هذه الكلمات في كلتا اللغتين من حيث المعنى والاستعمال. ﺇذ أن هذه الدراسة، دراسة تقابلية بين لغتين من اسرتين لغويتين مختلفتين. فالتركية من اللغات الاورالية – الالطائية ذات اللواحق (اللواصق)، بينما العربية من اللغات السامية – الحامية التي هي من اللغات التصريفية. ولكلتا الاسرتين سمات لغوية متميزة تنفرد بها عن اللغة الاخرى. اللغة التركية تنفرد بقاعدة اكسبتها خاصية ميزتها عن بقية اللغات، الا وهي قاعدة التوافق للحروف الصائتة والصامتة. فاللواحق المضافة الى جذر الكلمة تكون متجانسة من ناحية التوافق الصوتي مع الحروف الصائته والصامتة التي يتكون منها جذر الكلمة. بينما نرى ان اللغة العربية تتميز أيضاً بخاصية مهمة ميزتها عن بقية اللغات واكسبتها المرونة الاوهي علامات الاعراب من حركة أو حروف أو حذف وغير ذلك من القواعد الاعرابية من تقديم وتأخير وما شابه ذلك. ﺇن كلمة "ile" من الادوات المستعملة كثيراَ مع الاسماء والضمائر في اللغة التركية، تفيد معنى المصاحبة والمشاركة. عند اضافتها الى نهاية الكلمة التي تأتي قبلها في الجملة، توضح معنى المصاحبة والمشاركة والواسطة والسببيةأو تقوم بوظيفة ربط عنصرين بعضهما ببعض يؤديان نفس الوظيفة في الجملة الواحدة. ﺇن القيام بأية دراسة تقابلية بين لغتين أو مقارنة لغتين بعضهما ببعض تأخذ بنظر الاعتبار خصائص كل لغة من اللغتين، وعند ترجمة أي نص من لغة الى لغة أخرى يتطلب فهم معنى كل جملة يتكون منها النص كي لا تكون الترجمة ركيكة بل ترجمة واضحة المعنى. فالترجمة السليمة الواضحة تتم من خلال فهم معنى كل كلمة في النص وترجمتها حسب معناها في سياق الجملة. وأخيراً أود أن أوضح ان "ile" على الرغم من كونها كلمة لا معنىً لها وﺇنما دورها كبير في تكوين الجملة من خلال ربط الكلمات التي لها معان بعضها ببعض. وبات من الممكن اضافتها الى الكلمات التي قبلها بشكل لاحقة (-le,-la) خاضعة لقاعدة التوافق للحروف الصوتية التي تتضمنها الكلمة التي قبلها وهذا لايمنعنا من أن نذكر أن هناك من يكتبها مستقلة بشكل "ile".

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Table of content: volume: issue:55