Table of content

Adab AL Rafidayn

اداب الرافدين

ISSN: 03782867
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Arts
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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approved scientific periodical issued by college of arts /university of mosul . the research offered to periodical then will send expert to inspect it.

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EMAIL: adabarafidayn@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2006 volume: issue:45

Article
Moses’ Birth and the story of Sargon
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم مولد موسى (عليه السلام) وقصة شرّوكين الأكدي

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Abstract

The story of the birth and early life of Moses who is supposed to have lived in the thirteenth century B.C. is a well known story both in the Old Testament and the Holey Qurān. But the discovery of cuneiform tablets that record a simillar story attributed to King Sargon of Akkad has raised many arguments since Sargon lived in the 24th century B.C., i.e., more than nine centeries before Moses. Many scholars, some of them are muslims, believe that the authers of the Old Testament have borrowed sargon’s story and at tributed it to their prophet Moses during their captivity in Babylonia in the sixth century B.C. Consequently the story of the Holey Qurān was borrowed from the Old Testament. It is the aim of this paper to explain the reasons behind the resemblence between the stories. It is beyond doubt that the story as is told in the Holey Qurān is the real and exact story and that of the Old Testament is related to the same story but was written by the authers of the Old Testament six centeries after the life of Moses. As for the story of Sargon it is believed that it was borrowed by the Assyrians during the seventh centuty B.C. from jews who lived in Palestine at that time and was attributed to Sargon of Akkad, one of their famous previous personalaties although he lived several centuries before that. This is proved by the fact that the date of cuneiform tablets which record Sargons’ story belong to the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. and not to the time of Sargon himself. Moreover, even if it was supposed that Sargon’s story was a real one it does not saise any question as it was customary in those days for unwanted children, whether in Egypt or Iraq, to be thrown in the river in almost the same manner that is told in both stories.


Article
Democracy: Difficulties of its Practicing in the Current Iraqi Society: Analyctical Study in Field of Sociopolitics
الديمقراطية ... وصعوبة ممارستها في المجتمع العراقي المعاصر دراسة تحليلية في علم الاجتماع السياسي

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Abstract

This research endeavors to explore the reality of democracy of modern Iraqi society by shedding lights upon the difficulties that faces it's application in the Iraqi society. It also tries to demonstrate the most vital effects that it may leave on the society. It came as a result of the noticeable deficiency of Iraqi literatures tackling democracy. This research concluded that we need a deepened Iraqi scientific study to acquaint democracy, including its mechanism, criteria and components when practicing it in our society. The outcomes of this research are the following: 1- Democracy is not an existing revolution in a certain people culture, it is in fact the result of multiple internal and external factors. 2- The current democracy in Iraq is considered to be an advanced step stemming from expanding the political participation. The insurance of democracy is only achieved when institutional multiplicity in its different forms and patterns is there. 3- Democracy in our Iraqi society is originally the birth of the growing social powers that pursues the political participation, in addition to political institutions failure to comprehend and meets its need.


Article
The Gregarious Environment in Bādoosh Jail “Practical Study”
البيئة الاجتماعية لسجن بادوش – دراسة ميدانية -

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Abstract

This study attempt to investigate the gregarious environment in Bādoosh Jail. The study shows how this environment plays a role in rehabilitating the prisoners. The department of rehabilitation of adults in Bādoosh as a society for the present paper. The paper includes three sections, the first one handles the methodology of the paper including determining the problem and aims of the paper as well as the devices used in collecting data such as interviews and observation, time, place. and human fields of the paper as well as the most important concepts of the paper have also been determined. Section two defines the reform firms and physical environment of that firm as well as social relations among prisoners... Finally, sections three summarizes some conclusions and recommendations based on the results achieved.


Article
AL – ’A zdei’s Archetectural Thought in his Book ‘The History of Mosul
الفكر العمراني عند الأزدي من خلال كتابه (تاريخ الموصل)

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Abstract

Arab and Muslim historians, geoahraphers and philosophers have dealt, and through their Writings, with archetetural thought in the Islamic city. Among them is Abu Zakereya Al–’Azdei (died 945/334 H), the auther of (the History of Mosul). The second part of the book is available only. AL – ’Azdei dealt with the archetecture of the society, economy and buildings. He speaks about archetecture of the seciety, through his description of Mosul tribes and their inhabitance. He mentions, too Mosul scientists and Wala’at and their achievements. Besides, his reference to the lineage of Mosul people. His economic thought lurks in his dealing with economy and his mentioning the money of Bait-AL-Mal. He mentions also Mosul revenue. Futher more, he speaks about Mosul’s markets and their functions and activities. His archetectural thought concerning buildings is presented through his reference to the expansion of the city and its content of: Mosques, churches... AL-A zdei refers to Mosul streets, markets and dwelling places.


Article
Railwaysin Iraq up to World War I
السكك الحديدية في العراق حتى نهاية الحرب العالمية الأولى

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The railway has been used in land transportation and in the Othmani state since the 60's of the 19th century and specially in 1866, when the first railway was opened between Azmeer and lydeen cities and that was followed by building railways in different provinces (wilaya), in the Othmani state. The Syria province (wilaya) witnessed using of the first train when the railway: Yafa- AlQuds was opened in 1892. In Iraq, although the great number of projects and the studies of the railways which competed by the great states in supporting them, but these projects didn't come into use, for political, technical and finance considerations. Germany comes at the beginning of the great states which tried to penetrate inside the state during the project of the railway. Baghdad-Berlin railways was considered as an important project during building railway between Anadolia and Al-Basrah harbour at entrance of the Arab gulf, but the Germans succeeded to have this privilege with its final formula in March 1903, but this privilege faced many obstacles disrupted its carrying out. one of these obstacles was the British opposition to the project, which threatened the Germans arrival to the entrance of the Arab Gulf, and this threatened the British advantages in the area, and these problems were not settled until July 1914, the Germans started to carry out this project when the World War I started. The Germans achieved the extended part between Baghdad and Samarra at 80 mile, so the Iraqis did not get benefit from the transportation services by the railways. At the beginning of the British occupation to Iraq in 1914, British realized the necessity of building railways in Iraq to achieve many aims such as: supplying a flexibility in its forces movement, arms and foods, in addition to the easiness of spreading these forces in occupying other parts in Iraq for the Benefit of the British occupation, and so far the Building of these lines was not for the Iraqis, but to achieve martial aims for the British occupation, one of the evidences against them is that these forces took off these lines after finishing their martial aims.


Article
Different Consequences of Earthquake on the City of Mousul During (132- 600 A.H.)
الآثار المترتبة على الزلازل في مدينة الموصل بين عامي (232-600هـ)

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Abstract

Many cities and districts of Islamic state faced Earthquakes, which obliged our scientists to pay attention to geolog,cal dangers phenomenon and investigate its reasons and finding log,cal explanations for its reasons, kinds and modes. Also it motivated our historians to collect events of earthquake and recorded it in their writings which are benefited to find most Islamic cities that faced earthquake with its damages (economical and residential). This search studies the earthquake which were happened in Mosul city, it is the biggest city among the Islamic cities which is characterized by its heavy residential. It is very importentcity from the geographical, economical, administration and military perspective. Also it finds out the economical and residential signs which were left by these earthquakes. This search reached to a summary, that city of Mosul faced many repetition earthquakes varied its power between heavy and light, and the power one made great signs on its elevations and its construction builds, which has great trace on the economical side cause made damaged and destruction for houses, agriculture lands and irrigation projects. And happened great ruins in the bestial wealth. But in its residential effect, it happened great ruins in human-beings, many stories refereed to the numbers of dead but the most stories have no statical number and satisfy just in calling general expressions.


Article
Wives in Early Islamic Poetry
الزوجات في شعر صدر الإسلام

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Abstract

In the early Islamic age, linguistic exchange between the Moslem wife with her husband depended on a deep understanding of Islam and eschewed all manipulation of imagination. Most poet and poetesses studied in this paper are not famous, whose poetry reflected their emotions and true suffering written in the city-dwellers language that avoided the austere and ambiguous idiom of the Bedouins. This was a result of the influence of Islamic life and language. Most of this poetry was short stanzas full of repetition, antithesis, analogy, metonymy as well as short pieces of dialogue and brief accounts of events. Their eulogy differed from that of pre-Islam with a rhythm reflecting their psychological states.


Article
Symbols of Numerals and Letters in Muhi-Iddeen Ibn Arabi Poetry
رموز الأعداد والحروف في شعر الشيخ الأكبر محيي الدين بن عربي

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Abstract

Sheikh Muhi-Iddeen Ien Arabi who died at (638 A. H.) is a Sufi (Islamic Mystic), Philosopher and a great writer. He was born and grown up in Al-Andalus. Then he emigrated to the east. His poetry is predominantly marked with symbolic style who used to serve his mystical philosophical and gnositic way of thinking. symbols of numbers, which are served by Ibn Arabi to support his gnositic way of life. symbols of letters, which made up an important aspect used in a gnositic occupation. Hence, letters refer to the universe and they are the opposite side of it.


Article
Al-Mu’tazilla Grammarians
النحاة المعتزلة

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Abstract

This research revealed the effort of (Al-Mu'tasilla Grammarians ) in studying Arabic grammar and pointed out that Al- Mu'tasilla grammarians formed a distinguished phenomenon in the history of Arabic grammar .In addition, it presented an index of the names of the most significant grammarians in order to facilitate tracing their efforts in the field of Arabic grammar study.


Article
Denotations of Colours in the Glorious Qurān
دلالات الألوان في القرآن الكريم

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Abstract

Colour has a special importance in human culture in general and Arab culture in particular. The Holy Quran uses colours according to its indications and signs. White colour, for example, indicates something to Arabs differs from that of other nations. According to Arabs, it indicates cheeriness, gladness and happiness, while black colour indicates sadness, sorrowness and gloominess. The Holy Quran uses white to refer to people of Paradise: their faces and clothes, while black is used to signify people of Hell; their sorrowness and gloominess. The same indication goes with other colours. Green colours. The green color indicates growth and fertility, while yellow indicates beauty. Hence, the researcher tries to find the relation between the Arab thought of colour and what the Holy Quran presents.


Article
"The Elegies of sons in The Beginning of Islam , and Al,amauy Period"
رثاء الأبناء في شعر صدر الإسلام والعصر الأموي

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Abstract

The Islamic religion affected much all the ways of life , the levels of society as well as the man in general. Beside its affection on the ways of life in the pre-Islamic period. Therefore hn this research I concentrated on the influence of Islam on the Arabic poetry in general, and the elegies of sons in particular. The study tackled that type of poetry in both periods, the Beginning of Islam', and "Al,amany" Reviod. Becanse the second was the continuation of the first one. And the cause behind such a topic is to reveal what elegies, and especially the elegies of sons could provoke inside human-being. Through those elegies the sons managed to express their own inner-conflect, their suffering, pain, and sumpathy with those fathers whon lost their sons. Inaddition that type of poetry contains a stream of a true sympathy of those sons toward the lossing fathers who were suffering from absence of their own sons. Not to forget the principles that Islam emphasized on about the rights of fathers, and their treat ment to their sons. Finally there is a reference to a comparative study of the different images within the pre-Islamic period.


Article
The handicap: Their informatic, educational and rehabilitational services
المعوقون : خدماتهم المعلوماتية والتعليمية والتأهيلية دراسة ميدانية تقويمية عن معاهد الرعاية والتأهيل في محافظة نينوى

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The research aims at knowing the actual informational, instructional, educational and rehabilitational services offered by special care and rehabilitation institutes in Nineveh province for the handicaps to amalgamate them within the society as normal people. The research depended on the field study method and the analytical descriptive method and used the subject literature, interviews, observation, questionnaire and statistical records as data collecting tools. The community studied was covered the special care and rehabilitation institutes in Nineveh. The main finding is that these institutes offer moderate services but they need qualified personnel, instructional aids and equipments to develop their services. The research ends with recommendations for advancing the services of these institutes.


Article
Floods and Earthquakes: Their Economic, Social and Effects on the Abbaside State (575-606H)
الفيضانات والزلازل وأثرهما الاقتصادي والاجتماعي والصحي في الدولة العباسية (575-656هـ)

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Abstract

This research deals with dangers in Iraq and Baghdad in particular, which include floods and earthquakes (575-656H). Baghdad and other states where subject to many floods and earthquakes which had left passive impacts on all fields of life. The research also tackles the measures taken by the Abbasid state against these dangers and lessened their effect by setting up dams and blocking holes and reconstructing what had been damaged particularly on the two sides of the river, inviting the public (common people) to cooperate with the authority in order to protect their life against all these disasters and reduce their destructive effects.


Article
Putting the Verb in the Masculine and Feminine Form in the Seven Rreadings
تذكير الفعل وتأنيثه جوازاً في القراءات السبع

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Abstract

In this paper we concentrate on one of the linguistic phenomena which has been widely studied by other linguistics. This phenomena in puts permissibly the verb in the masculine and extends the feminine mark to it. It is well known that there are some cases confined to this allowance, these cases are: The subject or subject of the passive; Separated from the verb by an object rather than - excepting-; It is a plural; Interpretative infinitive; It is pronoun belongs to masculine or feminine; or It is taken in the consideration the phonation and the meaning. The research takes from the Seven Readings evidence in order to apply these cases and to explain their reasons, It, in this aspect, emphasizes the rules that have been approved by linguistics in this trend


Article
Some Problems of Translating Past Tense Forms in the Glorious Qur’a:n into English
بعض مشكلات ترجمة الصيغ الزمنية الماضية في القرآن الكريم إلى الإنكليزية

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Abstract

يهدف هذا البحث إلى (1) دراسة الصيغ الزمنية الماضية في القرآن الكريم (2) بيان كيفية ترجمة هذه الصيغ إلى الإنكليزية من قبل مترجمين من ثقافات مختلفة (3) إيجاد اوجه التباين بين تحقيقات هذه الصيغ في اللغة الهدف (4) اقتراح بعض الترجمات الفاعلة عند عدم تطابق الصيغ التركيبية للترجمات المعطاة مع وظائفها الدلالية. وفي محاولة لحل مشكلات ترجمة هذه الصيغ تفترض الدراسة ما يلي: (1) يمكن إعطاء ترجمة فاعلة تفسيرية عندما يكون المترجم ملما بنظام الصيغ الزمنية واستعمالاتها في اللغتين العربية والإنكليزية فضلا عن امتلاكه معرفة عميقة عن التفاسير القرآنية (2) المترجمون الذين يستخدمون الترجمة التواصلية في ترجمة الصيغ قيد البحث يكونون اكثر توفيقا من المترجمين الذين يستخدمون الترجمة الدلالية.


Article
Student's Problems in Translating Collocations from Arabic into English
مشكلات ترجمة القرائن من اللغة العربية إلى الإنكليزية

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Abstract

يتناول هذا البحث مشكلات ترجمة القرائن التي يواجهها طلبة الترجمة من اللغة العربية إلى الإنكليزية. تكمن المشكلة الرئيسة في كيفية إيجاد المكافئ في لغة الهدف لبعض القرائن كما استخدمت في لغة الأصل. فقد تم دراسة وتحليل ترجمة الطلبة لبعض القرائن وقد أظهرت الدراسة ضعفا في تبني طرائق مختلفة في ترجمتهم لهذه القرائن. كما أوضحت الدراسة أن معظم طلبة الترجمة لم يتمكنوا من إعطاء الترجمة الملائمة لهذه القرائن. وتوصلت هذه الدراسة إلى أن الترجمة الغير ملائمة للقرائن تضعف تماسك نص لغة الهدف ونسيجه وتؤدي إلى العدول عن طبيعته. ما جاء في خطاب الرئيس الأمريكي بوش من ربط بين ما يسمى بخارطة الطريق وضرورة تحقيق الإصلاحات السياسية في البلدان العربية و إلحاق الهزيمة بالإرهاب، يؤكد على المواقف المزدوجة الأمريكية التي تحمل العرب مسؤولية العنف وتتجاهل في الوقت ذاته الجرائم البشعة التي ترتكبها إسرائيل وبهذا تقوم الإدارة الأمريكية وبشكل غير مباشر بإيقاف الانتفاضة واستئصال جذورها لإعطاء المجال إلى إسرائيل في تنفيذ نواياها المبيتة وتحقيق أطماعها التوسعية في المنطقة. وفي ما يتعلق بالعراق فقد ادعى الرئيس بوش بأنه سوف يجعل العراق بلدا ديمقراطيا مثاليا في المنطقة، إلا أن الممارسات الخاطئة التي تقوم بها القوات الأمريكية المحتلة في العراق ستكون لها عواقب وخيمة وستثير أسئلة كثيرة قد تؤدي إلى تخفيف وطأة الموقف الأمريكي على الصعيد العالمي.

Keywords


Article
On The Relationship Between Grice's Maxims And Humorous Discourse
العلاقة بين النصوص الفكاهية وأحكام غرايس

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Abstract

يتمحور هذا البحث حول إيجاد علاقة بين النصوص الفكاهية و أحكام غرايس (Gricean maxims). إذ تم اختيار نصوص فكاهية عربية لغرض التحليل. وقد تبين ان خرق هذه الأحكام متوقف على العلاقة المتبادلة بين الأحكام وان حكم المواءمة (maxim of relevance) يتضمن الأحكام الثلاثة الأخرى: الكمية والنوعية والأسلوب.


Article
Uncourtly Love In Shakespeare's “Dark Lady” Sonnets
الحب الحسي في سونيتات "السيدة السمراء" لشكسبير

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Abstract

Shakespeare's sonnet sequence consists of 154 sonnets. It is unanimously divided into two parts. The first part (sonnets 1-126) is addressed to a young man, the second (sonnets 127-154) to a dark lady. The sonnets of the first part deal with such traditional themes as love, beauty, fear of time, fear of death, immortality of beauty through poetry, and survival in spite of the cruelty of time and death, some of which overlap and are related to the major theme of love in one way or another. The type of love explored in the whole sequence is unsatisfied. "Neither of the poet's loves", Michael Alexander writes, "can be satisfied: the worship of the young man, because he is a man; the love of a woman because it is lust",(1). This paper claims that the love the sonnets of the second part express is of uncoventional nature, i.e. it is physical, uncourlty love or lust. It is beyond the scope of such a short paper to discuss all the twenty-eight sonnets that are about or addressed to the dark lady. Hence only those sonnets which are as representative of the theme of love as possible have been selected for discussion. They are sonnets 127-135. 137, 144, 147, 151 and 153-154. Sonnet 127. the opening sonnet of the second part which is related


Article
The Translation of Juxtaposed Synonymous Adjectives in Legal English into Arabic
ترجمة الصفات المترادفة المتجاورة في اللغة الإنكليزية القانونية إلى العربية

Authors: Atheel A. Sa’eed --- Luqman A. Nasser
Pages: 516-527
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Abstract

دائماً ما يواجه المترجمون القانونيون مفردات متجاورة ذات معنى متقارب إلى حد كبير وهذه المفردات من الممكن تصنيفها نحويا إلى أفعال و أسماء وصفات وظروف. يهدف هذا البحث إلى دراسة هذه الظاهرة والمشاكل التي تواجه هؤلاء المترجمين عند ترجمتهم لإحدى هذه الأنواع ألا وهي الصفات المتجاورة والتي تحمل معنى متشابه. كما يتحرى البحث عن الاستراتيجيات التي يتبعها المترجمون لحل هكذا مشكلات ويقترح ترجمة بديلة ان كانت الموجودة غير ملائمة. في الجانب النظري يسلط البحث الضوء على ظاهرة التجاور والترادف بشكل عام وعلى استخدام الصفات


Article
Natural Elements in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights
عناصر الطبيعة في رواية اميلي برونتي مرتفعات وذرنج

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من الجدير بالذكر ان ديفد دجز وفي مقدمته الرائعة لطبعة جديدة من مرتفعات وذرنج والتي نشرت عام 1965 أشار إلى الحياة العائلية الروتينية التي استخدمتها أميلي برونتي في هذه الرواية وبشكل خاص "الطعام" و "النار"، يسلط هذا البحث الضوء على عناصر الطبيعة: "النار"، "الماء"، "الهواء"، "الأرض" والحيوانات التي استخدمتها أميلي في رائعتها مرتفعات وذرنج. حيث استخدمتها أميلي بصورة مجازية وتقليدية تعكس الصورة التي كانت تفهم بها الجو الرومانسي الذي عاشت فيه شخصياتها والتي هي في نفس الوقت انعكاس لتجربتها الحياتية وتأملاتها. ويبدو أن أميلي لم تكن تشعر بالسعادة إلا في منزلها وفي عالم خيالها.


Article
The Arabic Defective Verb كان :Some Syntactic/ Semantic Problems in Translation with Reference to the Glorious Quran
الفعل الماضٌ الناقص (كان): بعض المشكلات النحوية والدلالية بالإشارة إلى ترجمتها في القرآن الكريم

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Abstract

"فـَعَلَ" تدل في صيغتها الافرادية على المضي وتتلون بألوان زمنية عندما تتدرج في السياق أو تعتريها عوامل التبديل من زمن إلى زمن آخر كأدوات النصب والجزم والشرط وغيرها، فهي تتصرف عن الزمن الماضي إلى الحال أو الاستقبال. والفعل الماضي الناقص كان، شأنه شأن بقية الأفعال الناقصة، يفتقر إلى الحدث ويتمتع بطاقة زمنية. ان هذه الأفعال تصلح إطارا عاما يترجح عليه الزمن ويتحدد فيه، فهي أحداث عامة تحمل الزمان وتقترن به ولذلك جاءت في القرآن الكريم ذات دلالة زمنية خاصة بحيث يطغى المعنى الزمني فيها على المعنى المعجمي وتتنوع الدلالة الزمنية لهذه الصيغ في القرآن الكريم حسب تركيب الجملة التي ترد فيها وحسب الأدوات التي تسبقها أو تلحقها، كما تتوقف الدلالة الزمنية على السياق الذي ترد فيه. انطلاقا من هذا المفهوم وجدنا ان كان، فضلا عن دلالتها على الماضي، تدل على الحاضر والمستقبل وماضي المستقبل والزمن العام وتأتي أيضا بمعنى صار. وهذا يستوجب على المترجمين العرب إدراكه لئلا تترجم كان في جميع الأحوال كفعل يقتصر في معناه على الزمن الماضي فقط.

Keywords

Glorious Quran ;


Article
Les Difficultés De L'accentuation Rencontrées Par Les Étudiants Dans L'apprentissage Du Françis
النبر في اللغتين العربية والفرنسية دراسة مقارنة

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Abstract

يعني هذا البحث بدراسة مقارنة للنبر في كل من اللغتين العربية والفرنسية وقد تحدث عن النبر لكل من اللغتين العربية والفرنسية (بقدر ما يتعلق بالبحث) موجزاً لنقاط الاختلاف بين النظامين، كما حدد البؤرة التي يقع فيها الاختلاف والتي افدنا منها في معرفة الأخطاء التي يقع فيها الطلاب وبيان مسبباتها، ثم إسداء بعض النصائح المتواضعة التي تكفل تلافي تلك الأخطاء عند كل من الطالب والمدرس. منها ان على الطالب الذي يريد تعلم لغة جديدة أن يراعي نظام لغته الأم أثناء تعلمه اللغة الأجنبية. على الرغم من أن ما يتعلمه نظام جديد لا يصح مقارنته باللغة الأم في جميع المستويات، فلكل لغة قواعد وأسس خاصة تميزها عن غيرها من اللغات وهذا ينطبق على اللغة الفرنسية فهي لغة لا يصح مقارنتها باللغة العربية لأنها لغة لا تنتمي إلى العائلة اللغوية التي ولدت منها اللغة العربية ومع ذلك يركز علم اللغة التطبيقي في أحد مناهجه على مراعاة وجوه الاتفاق والاختلاف في تعلم اللغات مع عدم انتمائها إلى اصل واحد. كما بين البحث دور المدرس وأهميته في تلافي وقوع الطالب في الأخطاء، فيجب أن يكون متنبها إلى أخطاء الطلبة ويعلمهم اللفظ الصحيح لكل صوت، ويركز على الأصوات الجديدة فيتجنب بذلك وقوع الطلبة في الأخطاء. وفضلا عن ضرورة تنبه المدرس إلى أخطاء الطلبة فيجب أن يكون هو بدوره قد تلقى تعليما مكثفا يؤهله لتدريس اللغة الأجنبية وهذا دور الجامعة في تأهيل مدرسين ذوي كفاءة عالية جديد لا يصح مقارنته باللغة الأم في جميع المستويات، فلكل لغة قواعد وأسس خاصة تميزها عن غيرها من اللغات وهذا ينطبق على اللغة الفرنسية فهي لغة لا يصح مقارنتها باللغة العربية لأنها لغة لا تنتمي إلى العائلة اللغوية التي ولدت منها اللغة الفرنسية ومع ذلك يركز علم اللغة التطبيقي في أحد مناهجه على مراعاة وجوه الاتفاق والاختلاف في تعلم اللغات مع عدم انتمائها إلى اصل واحد. كما بين البحث دور المدرس وأهميته في تلافي وقوع الطالب في الأخطاء، فيجب أن يكون متنبها إلى أخطاء الطلبة مركزاً عليها فيتجنب بذلك وقوع الطلبة في الأخطاء.

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue:45