Table of content

Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science

مجلة الفرات للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 38752072
Publisher: Al-kasim University
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The magazine accepts and disseminates authentic scientific research with outstanding level of agricultural sciences and other sciences associated with them.The journal publishes research in both Arabic and English, with summaries in both per search.
Date of the first issuance of 2009
Publications in year 4 numbers for each folder
Number of issues during the period of 2009-2012 is 14

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Contact info

alfuratagriculture@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2011 volume:3 issue:عدد خاص بالمؤتمر الدولي الاول ( العراق / ايران 9

Article
The Effects of Different Levels of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes Powder on Productive Performance Characteristics of Laying Hens

Authors: Sh. Ghazi --- Malekizadeh, M --- Moeini , M. M
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

Abstract : This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different levels of Ginger rhizome powder (GRP) and Turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) on production performance in laying hens. Ninety 103-week old laying hens were divided into 5 treatments in a completely randomized design with 3 replicates and 6 birds in each cage. The birds were fed a corn-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of GRP (1 and 3%) and TRP (1 and 3%) and control (0 %). During 9 weeks of experimental period, the data of production parameters were collected. The results indicated that the inclusion of GRP into the diets increased egg production percent, egg mass, feed intake. As a result of this study, supplementation with ginger (GRP1%) might have some positive effects on production performance of laying Hens. Keywords: Ginger, Laying hens, Performance, Egg mass, Turmeric.

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Article
Evaluation of turmeric powder in diets based soybean oil on performance, energy and protein efficiency ratio and immune system of broiler chicks

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Abstract

Abstracts : Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of turmeric powder in diets based on soybean oil, on performance, energy and protein efficiency ratio and immune system of broiler chicks. Methodology: Two hundred sixty-four one-day old broilers were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments containing 0, 0.4 and 0.8% turmeric powder (TP). Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times with 22 broilers each. Feed and fresh water were supplied ad libitum. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. At 28 days age of broilers, one bird from each replicate slaughtered and the relative weight of each organ were computed. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance using the General Linear Model of SAS. Results: As a result, dietary treatments did not affect (P >0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and feed: gain ratio of broilers. The European production index increased in broilers fed diets contained 8 g TP /kg. Energy and protein efficiency ratio, were not statistically different among dietary treatments but broilers fed highest level of TP has numerically higher value. TP did not affect relative weight of organs except the relative weight of heart increased. The turmeric powder was not influenced on antibody response against SRBC, IgG and IgM. Conclusion: Supplementation of turmeric powder to diets based soybean oil could improve production index in broiler fed diets contained 8 g/kg. Key words: Tturmeric powder, soybean oil, energy and protein efficiency ratio, broiler

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Article
Choosing a ground herbal plant for antibiotic growth promoters substitution in broiler Based on multi-criteria Decision Analysis

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Abstract

Abstract : In an experiment the effect of funnel and licorice on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler were investigated.Experimental groups were consisted of 1- Basal diet without any additives( Control -), 2- Basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg funnel, 3- Basal diet + 5 g/Kg, 4- Basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg licorice, 5- Basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg licorice and 6- Basal diet+ Antibiotic growth promoter. In the experimental periods, feed intake, body weight, livability, feed conversion was measured. At the end of the experiment carcass percentage, breast (%), leg and abdominal fat, and some of intestinal organs weight were measured with 6 birds (3 male and 3 female) from each pen.In this experiment,Maximin, Equally likely averaging, and weighted averaging were usedto choosing a ground herbal plant for antibiotic growth promoter’s substitution. Based on this methods,using 2.5 g/Kg licorice inbroiler diet in comparison to other groups had a best score in three muticriteriadecision analysis, so we could say it can be used a safe feed additives for improving broiler performance. Key words: Herbal plant, Funnel, Licorice, Broiler and Muticriteria Decision Analysis.

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Article
Evaluation of opuntia ficus - indica cactus grown in western region of Iran as animal feed

Authors: H.Khamisabadi --- , F.Kafilzadeh --- G.Taasoli
Pages: 15-19
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Abstract : Under arid and semiarid conditions of the tropics and subtropics, poor quality and inadequate supply of feed and lack of water are among the major constraints on livestock production. Spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica) is an important feed for ruminants in drought regions especially, during the dry season due to forage shortage. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro ruminal fermentation using gas production technique, of opuntia ficus indica cactus that was cultivated in west region of Iran. High NFC content of opuntia ficus indica cactus resulted in rapid fermentation in early hours of incubation. It was highly digestible. Opuntia ficus indica was moderate in CP and similar to common temperate or tropical grasses and legumes. Opuntia ficus-indica may serve as a link between crop residues, legume forages and NPN sources by supplying readily available organic matter.

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Article
Effects of turmeric powder in diets based on soybean oil on antioxidant status, blood enzyme and lipid metabolism of broiler chicks under heat stress

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Abstracts Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of turmeric powder in diets based on soybean oil, on antioxidant status, blood enzyme and lipid metabolism of broiler chicks. Methodology: Two hundred sixty-four one-day old broilers were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments containing 0, 0.4 and 0.8% turmeric powder (TP). Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times with 22 broilers each. Feed and fresh water were supplied ad libitum. The daily temperature was increased from 21 to 32oC for 5 hours at 28 to 42 days of age. At the end of experiment blood samples for plasma and hemolysate were taken. The concentration of blood lipids in serum was determined. The activity of some enzyme including Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), and Creatine kinase (CK), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance using the General Linear Model of SAS. Results: The Triglyceride, LDL were not affected by the level of turmeric powder (TP) in dietary treatments. Serum cholesterol decreased when birds fed 4 g/Kg TP, but the HDL increased. The activity of ALP decreased in birds fed TP; however the activity of ALT and AST did not affected. Turmeric powder decreased the tiobarbituric acid reaction score (TBARS). The activity of GPx and SOD enzyme increased when birds fed turmeric powder. Conclusion: Supplementation of turmeric powder to diets based soybean oil could improve antioxidant status (GPx, SOD, and TBARS) and decreased activity of ALP of broilers fed diets contained TP. Key words: Tturmeric powder, soybean oil, lipid metabolism, enzyme activity, broiler.

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Article
Effect of feeding diet containing flax seed on certain egg quality traits of Japanese quail

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Abstract

Abstract : This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with flax seed on egg quality of laying quail. A total of 320 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 9 – wk old were allocated to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates containing 20 quail each. Birds were fed commercial diet containing 0 % (C), 2 % (T1), 4 % (T2) or 6 % (T3) flax seed. Birds received water and diet ad libitum during the total period of experiment. Egg quality characteristics were monitored over 3 consecutive 21 – d periods. Egg quality criteria involved in this experiment were egg weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk weight, albumen height, albumen weight, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen percentage, yolk percentage and shell percentage. Results showed that supplementing diet of laying quail with flax seed resulted in significant increase in total means of egg weight, yolk diameter, albumen height, shell thickness, Hough unit, albumen percentage and albumen weight. Total means of shell weight and yolk percentage were not significantly (p > 0.05) different from quails consuming 0, 2, 4 or 6 % flax seed; However, total mean of shell percentage was reduced (p < 0.05) in laying quails fed flax seed when compared to control group. In conclusion, Feeding laying quails with different levels of flax seed (2 %, 4 %, or 6 %) caused significant improvement as regards most of egg quality parameters included in this experiment. Therefore, adding flax seed to the ration could be used as a good tool for improving productive performance of Japanese quail

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Article
The effect of Locally prepared Synbiotic as early feeding on production performance of broiler Chicks

Authors: Naji , S. A.2 --- Mirza , R. A.1
Pages: 43-53
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Abstract : The study evaluated the use of synbiotic locally manufacture for broiler chicken ( Cobb-500 ) as early feeding by different methods on production performance characteristics of broiler chickens . The broiler chickens distributed on four treatments , each of treatment distributed to three replicates ( 20 Chicks / replicate ) . The results revealed the following : Control ( T1 ) no treatment was offered , Synbiotic was offered directly after hatch sprayed on cages of birds (T2) , synbiotic was sticked on the transport cage directly after hatching ( T3 ) , Synbiotic was offered to the birds directly at arrival to the farm ( T4 ). The trail included in this experiment were : Live body weight, Weight gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion and Total Mortality percentage in broiler chickens . Results showed using synbiotic was sticked on the transport cage directly after hatching ( T3 ) as early feeding for broiler chickens that is improved significantly ( P>0.05 ) in live body weight characters on the all of the other treatment, as well as, improved significantly ( P>0.05 ) in weight gain characters in treated by synbiotic as early feeding compared the control group in first and second weeks , But there were no significant effects ( P<0.05 ) among of the all treatment in the end experiment period , but feed intake, feed conversion and total mortality percentage were no significant ( P<0.05 ) by using synbiotic ( T2, T3 and T4 ) compared to the bird of the control group ( T1 ) . It can be concluded using synbiotic locally manufacture for broiler chicken ( Cobb-500 ) as early feeding by synbiotic was sticked on the transport cage directly after hatching ( T3 ) improved significantly in all production performance characteristics of broiler chickens.

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Article
Effect of pruning and spraying with N , Ca and GA3 on some characters of fruits and percentage of cracking offig cv. Asowd Diala .

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Abstract : An experiment was conducted on private orchard at Al- Abbasyia / Nijaf on 15/1/ at 2009 and 2010 respectively to investigate the effects of pruning 50 % and spraying with N , Ca and GA3 at conc. Of 0.3% , 1%, 200 mg/L each ather in single way or combination on the leaf area , total chlorophyll , percentage of carbohydrate , calcium pictate , Firmness , type of crackings and total crackings on ripe Fruits of Fig cv. Aswod Diala . Results indicated that Fruits of treated trees with nitrogen was increased the kinds of crackings , total percentage of crackings and decreased the Calcium pictate and Firmness siginificantly compared with control treatment . Treatmented trees with pruning , Ca and GA3 in single way or combination together with N produced a siginificat increase in leaf area , total chlorophyll and contening Fruits from percentage of carbohydrate , calcium pictate , Firmness and reducing percentage of type of crackings and total crackings compared with control treatment . The treatment of ( P + N + Ca + GA3 ) was siginificantly increased leaf area , total chlorophyll , percentage of carbohydrate , calcium pictate , Firmness , which were (7.54 m2/tree , 115.42 mg / 100g .32.42 % ,o.431kg/cm2 , 3.82 % ) and (8.86 m2 /tree , 114.17 mg / 100g , 22.31 % , 0.422 kg/cm2 ,3.66 % ) for the two growing seasons , respectively and , this treatment gave the lowest percentage of lengitudial , tertiary , quaternary , basal cracking's and total cracking which were ( 1.84 , 1.67 . 1.48 , 0.44 , 5.43 ) % and ( 1.79 , 1.72 , 1.76 , 0.50 , 5.77 )% for both seasons respectively . Key words : Pruning , Nitrogen , Calcium , Gibberellin , Fig. .

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Article
Effect of Landuse in the Evaluation of Activity of Nitrifying Bacteria and Viability of some types of Fungi in the Dissolving Phosphate Compounds during different Cropping Periods at AL- Mishkhab Region

Authors: Nihad Habib Mutlak AL- Ezerjawi
Pages: 63-73
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Abstract : This study was conducted at Al-Mishkhab region – Al-Najaf AL- Ashraf governorate, in the rice research station, which included four land uses, , the first was a research station of rice, and the second represents the soil of a farm cropped with Mongbean, and the third site was a soil planted with date palm and fruit, and the fourth location was un cropped soils (Fallow), soil samples were collected from these sites for the chemical , physical and biological analysis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of landuse on some chemical,physical and biological properties of the soil under land uses in addition to evaluate the activity of nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) during the different Cropping periods and the ability of some species of fungi in the dissolving phosphate compounds during the different periods of cropping. Rice soils have ahighly activity for the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter at the three periods of the study in compared to of other land uses, that reached 5.57, 3.39 colony forming unit. gm -1 respectively in the surface horizon soils of rice , whilst the fallow soils were poor in its nitrifying activity ,it has reached 1.13, 0.80 colony forming unit. gm -1 respectively. Studying soils were contained much of the phosphate-dissolving fungi, as Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum which isolated from Rice soils were the most efficient in the dissolving the phosphates on the Martin media ,its halo diameter reached 4.2,4 mm respectively , while the Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma harzianum which isolated from Mongbean soils achieved significant increase in dissolved phosphate, as the halo diameter were reached 4.5, 4.3 mm respectively, also the results showed that the best period of incubation, which verify abest efficiency of the fungus in the phosphate dissolving, was 120 hours.

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Article
Wheat farmers' perceptions of sustainable agriculture: the case of Kermanshah province of Iran

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Abstract : The objective of this study was to investigate wheat farmers' perceptions towards sustainable agriculture. The sample included 140 farmers that were determined using Cochran (1977) formula. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.86 for the scales of perception. The findings revealed that farmers have good perception about sustainable practices such as resource conservation, negative effects of agrochemicals, pests' invasion arising from successive cultivation. However, there was moderate attitude towards the negative environmental effects of modern agricultural technologies. Regarding negative long-term effects of agrochemicals on agricultural productivity and low tillage, respondents has negative perception. It was found that there should be a relationship between a numbers of socioeconomic factors, such as education, information sources’ use, extension participation, and the perception towards sustainable agricultural practices. Keywords: wheat, perception, sustainable agriculture, farmer.

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Article
The Effect of Boron Fertilization on Faba bean (Vicia faba L) yield, fertilizer and water productivity

Authors: N.S. Ali --- Ati, A. S.
Pages: 81-86
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Abstract : A field study was conducted to investigate the role of boron fertilizers application on Faba bean (Vicia faba L) and water productivity. Treatments included foliar application of four rates of boron 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Kg B ha-1 applied in 2, 4, 6 and 8 applications in a RCBD experiment with 3 replicates. Results indicated that, plant height, numbers of branches per plant, green pod and dried bean seeds and water use efficiency (WUE) increased with increasing amount of boron applied and number of applications. Faba bean dried seed yield increased from 1.63 Mg h-1 for control to 3.82 for 2.0 Kg B h-1 applied in 8 split applications. Values of WUE ranged between 0.44-0.97 Kg dried beans and 2.46-4.11 Kg fresh (green) pods m-3 water applied. Results of nitrogen and phosphorus percentage (% of dry weight) and as uptake by beans increased with increasing rate of boron applications. Boric acid Fertilizers productivity ranged from 64 to > 700 Kg dried bean seed for each Kg of boric acid applied. This signifies the economic justification for this application. Therefore, it can be concluded that proper boron application with good crop management can achieved good productivity and high WUE under middle of Iraq conditions.

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Article
Effect of Intercropping and Agricultural Periods into Some Winter Vegetable Crops for the Quantitative Characteristics on Broad Bean Vicia faba L. var. acwadlgy

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Abstract An experiment was conducted out in Nursery of Baquba/Agriculture Department, Diyala in Autumn season of 2009-2010. The aim was to investigate the intercropping between beans Vicia faba, onion Allium cepa, garlic Allium sativum, and the best agriculture periods for the quantitative characteristics in fields. Three crops were planted in four dates, 15/9, 1/10, 15/10 and 30/10/2009. The crops were set out in rows width one meter, in three parts: Bean alone (monoculture) on both sides of the rows, the bean in side and onion in opposite side, and the bean in side and garlic in other side. Both garlic and onion were brought from the local market. The percent and period of germination bean seeds, the period between germination until flowering starting, the mean of height of plant, the mean of branches/plant, the weight of fresh and dry yield Kg/m2, have been conducted. The data was statically analysis, as variance (ANOVA) test in factorial design experiments. The mean of the results was compared with least of significant differences level of 0.05. The results indicated that the best period of planted were bean interference with onion and garlic on first and middle of October. The differences were significant comparing with date of middle August and the end of October for all the investigated characteristics. Whereas the earlier date of planted was significant, comparing with the most of other characteristics, except for period of germination percentage. The results were showed very strong relationships between bean intercropping with onion and garlic in style of agriculture in most of characteristics study. The conclusions were indicated that planted broad bean with onion and garlic was the best manner for production per unit area in agricultural aims, comparing with monocular bean alone, but the intercropping plants may be required more effort and service than monocular culturing.

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Article
Calibration of Hargreaves equation for estimating monthly reference evapotranspiration in the west of Iran

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Abstract : In the present study, the Hargreaves-Samani method was calibrated by the Penman-Monteith (PM) equation under semi-arid conditions in the western region of Iran. Different correction coefficients were used for each station under study instead of the constant coefficient 0.0023 in the Hargreaves equation based on monthly and annual scales. The corrected coefficients obtained for different regions can be used to estimate ETo for the PM method under the same climates where reliable data are available. The results also showed that as a larger study area with more weather stations is used and a larger amount of data is obtained, the coefficient of 0.0023 in the Hargreaves equation does not need any further corrections for local calibration purposes. Keywords: Reference evapotranspiration, FAO-56 Penman –Monteith, Hargreaves method

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Article
The effect of rice straw and poultry waste addition on the soil physical properties I- clay soil

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Abstract: The study was conducted in fall 2009 at the College of Agriculture/ Babylon University. The purpose of the study is to show the effects of two types of organic matter on the physical properties of clay soil. The results show a significant increases in both of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil porosity with the addition of chicken waste and rice straw. However; the increases were more pronounced with chicken waste than with rice straw. Moreover; the values of the bulk density decrease significantly with organic matter addition to the soil, nevertheless; the reduction was more pronounced with chicken waste addition than with rice straw addition.

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Article
Climate Classification of the Kifil Area South Babylon Governorate / Iraq

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Abstract : The studied area ( Al-Kifil region ) is located on the main road between Babylon and Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf governorates. It is about ( 346.653 ) km² and the geographic coordinates is latitude ( 32º 27׳ 00״ – 32º 11׳ 00״) and longitude ( 44º 29׳ 00״ - 44º 20׳ 30״). The climatic data recorded in four meteorological stations ( Al-Najaf, Karbala, Al-Kut and Diwaniya ) for the period (1985- 2006), indicate that the average annual rainfall is (101 mm), the average annual temperature is (30.1Co) and the average values of Relative Humidity is ( 49.4 % ). The studied area classed as Arid – Desert- hot region (BWh) according to Koppen's climate classification and sub arid – moist according to (Al-Kubaisi ,2004) climate classification.

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Article
Effect of soil salinity on germination and growth of Cicer arietinum , Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis

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Abstract : Sandy soil in pots were used to study the effect of four levels (1,3,9,15 ds.m-1) of soil salinity on germination percentage , shoot and root lengths , shoot and root dry weights and leaf area of three legume plants Cicer arietinum , Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sienensis . The results showed that increasing soil salinity significantly reduces all the growth parameters mentioned above and for the three legume plants. Vigna sinensis showed more tolerance to salinity stress than the other two legume plants .

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Article
Bacteriological and Physiochemical Analysis of Drinking Water in Hilla City , Iraq

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Abstract : This study was carried out from 6 th December 2008 to 5 th April 2009 . In order to ascertain the drinking water quality in Hilla city for human consumption, bacteriological and physiochemical characterizations were evaluated. The data for bacterial counts showed that the total aerobic bacteria count (TAB) were between 0-70 /100ml, total coliform (TC) 0-2/100ml , fecal coliform (FC) 0-2/100ml , fecal streptococci (FS) 0-2/100ml , while for physiochemical analysis revealed that the chlorine were between 3-5.8 mg/L, turbidity 2.8 - 7.5 NTU, pH 6.9 -7.5 and biological oxygen demand (BOD) 3.1 - 14.8 mg/L. These findings indicated that the water after treatment at the plants was suitable for human drinking, but at the points of use in houses was unsuitable for drinking during the study period.

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Article
Ability of Agricultural Wastes Employ in Manufacturing of Thermal Insulator

Authors: Layla M. Abass --- Majed H. Ali
Pages: 134-140
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Abstract: We chose rice husk for this research and we have been grinded and sifted on three phases (20,60, 100, mesh) as a primary stage ; then different kinds of adhesives were used to form the grinded husk panels with certain dimensions. The adhesive that has been used in this research is sharris, which is an agricultural product made up with industrial starch, phenol formaldehyde adhesive, acrylic and polystyrene. Grinded husk were manufactured by mixing different kinds of adhesives individually within templates which have been pressed and left to dry at normal weather conditions. Different kinds of tests were done on these panels like endurance, hardness, moisture resistance, fire retarding and most important thermal conductivity. Rice husk has a thermal conductivity of about 0.0359 W/(moC)the values compare well with the thermal conductivity of excellent insulating materials"(Houston,1972).

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Article
Study on β -exotoxin (thurigiensin) effect on biology and growth parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on common bean

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Abstract : The direct toxicity of β-exotoxin (thurigiensin) of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner on different stages (reproduction and population development) of Tetranychus urticae Koch were evaluated in laboratory conditions. Immature stages of T. urticae were more susceptible to thuringiensin than adults. Fecundity of T. urticae was significantly reduced when females were exposed to residues for 3 days. At the LC50, larvae and protonymphs were significantly more susceptible to thuringiensin than deutonymphs and adults. Thuringiensin not effect on egg stage. The LC50 on larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults was 148, 176.6, 293.4 and 318.5 ppm respectively. The daily eggs laid exhibited significant differences among six concentrations of β-exotoxin (thuringiensin) and non-significant difference in the percentage of eggs hatching for all concentrations. The maximum reduction of fecundity for T. urticae was 75% (in 500 ppm). Key words: β –exotoxin, Bacillus thuringiensis, Tetranychus urticae, common bean.

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Article
Effect of temperatures on life expectancy and reproductive parameters of Megaselia halterata (Diptera: Phoridae) on different varieties of button mushroom

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Abstract: Throughout the past decade, edible fungi cultivation has become one of the most important fields of agriculture in Iran. Among edible fungi, white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus Lange, is the most commonly grown mushroom in the Iran and all of the world and accounting for up to 95% of the total mushroom production. There are many limitations in production of button mushroom in Iran. The phorid fly, Megaselia halterata Wood, is one of the most destructive pests of button mushroom in the entire world. Some biological characteristics of M. halterata including reproduction parameters and life expectancy were investigated on three different varieties of button mushroom (2200, 512 and Delta) and at 20 and 25°C in laboratory condition. According to the results, no significant differences were observed for gross fecundity rates among different varieties of button mushroom and various temperatures. The highest values of gross fertility rate were 42.5 and 50.5 (females/female/generation) on Delta and 512 varieties at 20 and 25°C, respectively. The greatest egg mortality at both 20 and 25°C were occurred on 2200 variety. Temperature showed significant effect on net fecundity rate on 512 variety between 20 and 25°C. Also, net fecundity rate were significantly different among three varieties of button mushroom at 25°C. The maximum mean numbers of fertile eggs were obtained on Delta variety at both examined temperatures. Life expectancy of M. halterata at different conditions increased after the first larval period.

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Article
The inhibitory effect of some plant crude extracts against Podosphaera xanthii the causal agent of cucumber powdery mildew

Authors: Ghasemi, S --- Zare, A --- Bahraminejad, S. --- Abbasi, S.
Pages: 152-155
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Abstract : Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of cucumber. It has been found that P.xanthii is the main agent of this disease in Iran. Application of fungicide is the most effective method for the disease control. However, regarding the problems created by synthetic pesticides application, environmentally safe methods are needed to replace chemical pesticides or reduce their consumption in the ecosystem. Therefore, in this study, the antifungal activity of plant natural extracts was investigated against P.xanthii. The crude extract of 15 plants was obtained using methanol as a solvent. The extract (50 mg/ml) was sprayed on cucumber seedlings at the second true leaf stage. Twenty-four hours after spraying, the seedlings were inoculated with a conidial suspension at concentration of 5×104 spore/ml. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with four replicates. Twelve days after inoculation, the severity of powdery mildew was evaluated based on number of spores produced over the first true leaves of each plant. The results of the experiment showed that seven out of 15 plants were effectively reduced the severity of the disease. The most active plant extracts against P.xanthii were Synzygium aromaticum, Carum copticum and Hypericum perforatum with 99, 98, 97 % inhibition, respectively.Key Words: Powdery mildew, plant extract, Synzygium aromaticum, Carum copticum

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Article
Study of Plasmid Profile and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Pseudomonas Spp. Isolated from Biofilms and Urine

Authors: Hassan Fadhil Naji1 --- Mohammed Aouda Hamad
Pages: 156-168
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Abstract : A total of four hundred and twenty seven clinical samples were collected, these included, 83 catheter biofilm samples, 113 catheter urine samples and 231 midstream urine samples taken from patients suffering from urinary tract infections (UTI) . From these samples, 44 isolates of Pseudomonas were isolated, 30 isolates were isolated from biofilms, of these 25 isolates were P. aeruginosa and 5 isolates were P. fluorescens . While the Pseudomonas which isolated from urine were 14 isolates, of these 8 isolates were P.aeruginosa and 6 isolates were P. fluorescens. The isolates were identified depending on their morphological properties and biochemical tests . These isolates exhibited different abilities to produce the blue–green pigment, pyocyanin, (61.36%), yellowish–green pigment, pyoveridin (36.36%) and brown or black pigment, pyomelanin, (2.27%). The results revealed that 41 isolates from total isolates ( 93.18% ) produced the capsule . Some of the isolates possessed on one of iron providing systems due to the production of siderophore ( 43.2% ) or haemolysin (56.8%) and showed different abilities to produce the protease (20.5% ) and urease ( 52.3% ) enzymes. Twenty seven antibiotics were tested against these isolates, using disk diffusion method . The imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on biofilm isolates, while the amikacin and imipenem were the most effective on urine isolates. The agarose gel electrophoresis of whole DNA of 7 biofilm isolates and 10 urine isolates exhibited that these isolates harboured on one or two plasmid bands or plasmidless. The genes responsible for resistance of antibiotics were located on the plasmid or the chromosome, these were confirmed by the data obtained from curing experiments

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Article
The Knowledge Of Components Of Extension Planning Process And Its Importance For Ministry Of Agriculture

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Abstract : The research aimed to measure the knowledge importance of agricultural extension planning process stages components for program and activates which provided by the affiliations development institutions in ministry of agriculture , which comes part within the scope of its duties at the level of the center &departments to serve and development goals of local committees in different regions of rural agriculture in Iraqi , which include state boards & companies and its departments in governorates. As the research aimed to coordinate efforts to eliminate duplication and reverse extension activity between these affiliations from side, and with the extension state board on other side, in the extension planning, implementation and deployment of services and guidance provided recommendation absorbed and to increased contribution to dissemination &diffusion propaganda and audience for farmers to adoption modern Agriculture technologies transfer. To achieve the aim of research, as scale was prepared to estimate measure for knowledge importance for extension programs and activities for planning process, including 6stages consisted 30 item, which are : I the general from work to planning :2 external environment :3 organizational structure of extension planning process :4 planning mechanism :5 monitoring :6 evaluation. Data was collected by questionnaire from sample of 67 employers ,distributor in to categories of existing extension planning and programs , include the first working in the agricultural state boards and companies and the second include managers working in agriculture directorates, , and select the rank measure of five degrees scale, very important, important, middle importance, little importance, very little importance, were given 5,4,3,2,1 degrees. The results showed the weighted mean for the measures knowledge important for extension planning process stages was 4.14 degrees and the result showed that all the planning process paragraphs& component item of knowledge important located within the degree is also important. The survey showed no significant differences among each categories employers working for state boards companies and agents in agricultural provinces for the weighted mean of knowledge importance planning process estimate. The research has recommended to adoption purposed extension planning by the affiliations of the ministry of agricultural& training to learn how to counter the plans, programs ,activities and events guidelines required in clear and independent to perform its development to improve quality of life of rural people.

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Article
Virtual Water Trade and Its Relation to Sustainable Water Consumption

Authors: Majid Bahrami --- Hossein Heidari --- Hossein Agahi
Pages: 185-188
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Abstract : Average annual precipitation in Iran is 413 billion cubic meters and 130 billion cubic meters of renewable water resources, and has irregular distribution of water resources in terms of time and place. In the other hand, population growth and the need for more food has led the agricultural sector remains the largest water consumer in the country, but its production still does not meet the total demand for food . Virtual water is the amount of water used by a commodity or an agricultural product during the production process to reach the stage of growth and it is equivalent to the total amount of water at different stages of the production chain from the start to the end. Low-water countries like Iran can import products, such as food, that needs more water to produce, and save the water instead to produce in other parts of their consumption. The purpose of this library research is to study virtual water trade and food security with emphasis on the country of Iran. The results showed that with increase in dehydration process in Iran, the importance of virtual water in food security is growing. Thus, the exchange of virtual water, as a political policy in water resource management, with reasonable modifications in the structure of agriculture, would result in food security and long-term sustainable consumption of water. Keywords: virtual water, Sustainable water use, Trade.

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Article
Androgenesis and Spontaneous Chromosome Doubling in Triticum aestivum L

Authors: Abbas Rezaeizad --- Danial Kahrizi --- Maryam Mirzaei
Pages: 189-193
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Abstract : This research was carried out to study the spontaneous chromosome doubling of two wheat genotypes (W23 and W86) by using androgenesis technique. For this purpose a completely randomized design with 3 replications under in vitro condition was used. Statistical analysis of embryogenesis and cytogenetic results showed that genotype had a significant effect on haploid embryogenesis (P<0.01) and spontaneous chromosome doubling (P<0.05). The results showed that the genotype W23 had higher potential to show haploid embryos (76 embryos from 100 anthers) whereas the genotypes W86 had the lowest and gave 22 embryos from 100 anthers. Regarding spontaneous chromosome doubling, the highest percentage (19%) was observed in the genotype that had the lowest embryogenesis (W86) and the lowest (16%) was observed in the genotype with the highest embryogenesis (W23). All large embryos which used had high regeneration ability and good performance in plantlet formation. Key words: Triticum aestivum L., haploid embryogenesis, spontaneous chromosome doubling, androgenesis

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Article
Exploring Solutions Regarding Sustainable development agricultural Systems

Authors: Hadi Fathi --- Somaye Latifi --- Mohsen Seyedi
Pages: 194-200
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Abstract

Abstract : Problem statement: The sustainability of agricultural systems has become a major focus for debates about future human survival. Much of the argument appears to rely on simplistic interpretation of ecological models, and fails adequately to define what sustainability objectives are being sought. Studies show that no effective measures have been taken towards sustainable agriculture in Iran. Social, economical and technical agricultural factors and conditions need to be provided to meet sustainable agriculture at the farm, regional and national level. Accordingly, this research aimed at exploring some solutions to protect and conserve agriculture. Approach: To achieve this, of all 100 populations, included both 93 faculty members of college of agriculture at Bu-Ali-Sina University and 20 subject matter specialists in Hamedan's State Agricultural Organization, 35 people were selected based on the criterion type of purposeful sampling. Data were gathered through interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze textual data. Results: Results of this study showed that the building awareness and culture along with factors such as proper sustainable agriculture practices, effective planning and management and attention to agro-ecological issues are basic factors to promote Sustainable development of agriculture in the surveyed area. Conclusions:Lack of awareness and knowledge of farmers and people towards sustainable agriculture, no adoption of sustainable agriculture by farmers and lack of education and training services for sustainable agriculture were the most important issues that found in this research about sustainable agriculture. Therefore, support the creating of cooperatives to provide necessary services for implementing sustainable agriculture practices is definitely recommended. Key words: Sustainable development, agricultural Systems, farmers, extension services, Hamedan province of Iran, Pesticides, cooperatives, conventional rotations, Farmer Field Schools (FFS)

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Article
Evaluation of Rapeseed Genotypes (Brassica napus L.) under Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Zebarjadi, A. R
Pages: 201-204
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Abstract : Colza is one of the important agricultural crops that primarily for its edible oil. The meal remains after oil extraction is valuable as a source of protein for the livestock feed industry. In Iran, production of the rapeseed is mainly limited by drought and soil salinity. Therefore, evaluation and selection of genotypes with increased drought tolerance is important for successful agriculture in water limited area. For this aim, 16 genotypes of B. napus was investigated under two different water regimes, irrigated and non-irrigated. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. Drought resistance indices, including mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), tolerance index (TOL), stress tolerance index (STI) and stress susceptibility index (SSI) were calculated based on two conditions. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all indices. Correlation analysis indicated strong association between Yp, Ys, STI, MP and GMP. Cluster analysis based on STI, MP, GMP and seed yield under both stressed and non-stressed conditions divided the genotypes into four groups. According to results of drought resistance indices, Dante cultivar had the highest STI (1.22) index, therefore we suggested that, this genotype is tolerant variety under mild drought stress. Key words: Rapeseed, Drought stress, Drought Resistance Index

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Article
The effect of seed priming with zinc sulphate on germination characteristics and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under salinity stress

Authors: Mohsen Seyedi1
Pages: 205-210
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Abstract : A laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the effects of seed priming (NP: non prime and P: prime with zinc sulphate) on seed germination characteristics and seedling growth of chickpea under different levels of salinity stress (0, -2, -4, -6, -8 and -10 bar). Therefore, a factorial experiment was used based on completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Results indicated that, with increasing salinity stress germination characteristics such as germination percentage, germination rate and seedling fresh weight decreased, but decreasing amount of these characteristics in primed seeds were less than non-primed. In comparison with control (NP treatment) at all salinity levels, P treatment showed more germination rate and seedling fresh weight. Also, germination percentage in P treatment was more than control. In general, it is concluded that seed priming improved germination characteristics of chickpea under salinity stress conditions and increased the resistance of chickpea to salinity stress at germination phase. Keywords: priming, chickpea, germination, salinity, zinc.

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Article
Interrelationships of Some Agronomic Characters of Durum Wheat Under Supplementary Irrigation at Grain Filling Stage Conditions

Authors: L. Zarei1
Pages: 211-215
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Abstract : Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) yield in the semi-arid regions are limited by inadequate water supply late in the cropping season. The relationships between various morphophenological traits and yield were studied in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) inbred lines grown under supplementary irrigation at mid anthesis stage conditions. The experimental material consisted of 133 F6 families of durum wheat. Correlation analysis and stepwise regression performed to evaluate traits affecting grain yield under supplementary irrigation conditions. The results indicated that the number of tillage per plant, the number of spikes per plant and above ground biomass mainly contributed to a better grain yield of durum wheat under supplementary irrigation at mid anthesis stage conditions. Keywords: durum wheat, supplementary irrigation, correlation, stepwise regression.

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Article
Cell wall degradability and partitioning factor (PF) of whole crop forage and straw of two oat ecotypes from west of Iran

Authors: N. Heidary
Pages: 216-220
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Abstract : Cell wall degradability and partitioning factor (PF) of whole crop forage and straw of two oat ecotypes from west of Iran was studied. The oat ecotypes were grown under the similar agronomic condition in three replicates in a randomized complete block design at Research Farm of School of Agriculture, Razi University. There were no significant differences between chemical composition of forages and straws (except ADL) from 2 ecotyps (p>0.05). The mean of In vitro true DM degradability (IVTDMD) and NDF degradability (NDFD) of oat forages were 59.9 and 34.2% while the mean of IVTDMD and NDFD of oat straws were 48.7 and 21.3 %, respectively. The mean calculated PF from forages and straws were 2.83 and 2.92 mg ml-1. The results of this study indicated that whole crop forage and straw from these two ecotypes of oat have similar and sometimes better nutritive quality compared to the most of the known varieties. Keywords: Degradability, Oat ecotypes, Partitioning factor

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Article
Cell wall content and fermentation parameters of two common grass species at three growth stages from pasture of western region of Iran

Authors: E.Maleki1
Pages: 221-225
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Abstract : The type of plant species present in any range depends on their adaptation for survival. The effect of different growth stages on cell wall content and kinetics of fermentation from Festuca ovina and Aegilops spp (as the main annual grass) was determined. With increasing growth stage, NDF and ADF increased and potential gas production (A) in both grasses (p<0.05) but only the rate of fermentation (c) of Aegilops spp at three stages of growth was significantly different (p<0.05). It was concluded that although advance in stage of maturity was associated with an increase in cell wall content and a decrease in total gas production but change in the rate at which the gas was produced with maturity was different in the two grasses.

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Article
Lactation Performance of Primiparous Holstein Dairy Cows in Early Postpartum Period an affected by feeding Dry glycerol

Authors: V. Piri Hoseinabadi
Pages: 226-228
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Abstract : Effects of feeding a dry glycerin product (minimal 65% of food grade glycerol, dry powder) to 20 primiparous Holstein dairy cows (10 control and 10 glycerin supplemented) on milk yield and composition were investigated. Dry glycerin was fed at 250 g/d (corresponding to 162.5 g of glycerol/d) as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration. Study was carried out from parturition to 21 d postpartum. Individual milk was sampled from 3 consecutive milkings weekly and was analyzed for its components. Average milk yield and milk compositions were not affected by dry glycerin supplementation.

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Article
Comparing fermentation kinetics of straw from different small cereal grains by using gas production technique

Authors: 1B. Rahimi
Pages: 229-232
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Abstract : Chemical composition and gas production of straw from four different small grain cereals was studied. There were significant (P < 0.01) differences between straws from different cereals in terms of NDF, ADF and ADL contents, but CP and OM content not affected by source of cereal (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between potential gas production (A), of straws from the four cereals. Results of this study shows that inspite of some differences in cell wall fractions of straw from these four cereal grains they had similar kinetics of gas production indicating similar fermentation pattern.

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Article
Composition and in vitro rate of gas production of canola and safflower seed affected by chemical treatment

Authors: M.Sahebi ala
Pages: 233-238
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Abstract : The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical treatment on composition and in vitro gas production of canola (Okapi) and safflower (PI-59-239) seeds. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a randomized complete design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. Canola and safflower seeds were treated with 0.7g formalin 37%. The gas production kinetics was described using the equation: G = A (1-e-c (t-L)-d ( - )). Formaldehyde treatment had significant effects on gas production kinetics. Formaldehyde treatment reduced total gas production (a), and organic matter digestibility (OMD).

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Article
Chromium supplementation effects on serum nitrogen constituents of dairy cows in late gestation and early lactation

Authors: M.R. Targhibi1
Pages: 239-242
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Abstract : This study was performed to evaluate the effect of chromium supplementation as chromium-L-methionine (Cr-Met) on some blood constituents of Holstein dairy cows in late gestation and early lactation. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided equally into two groups according to prior lactation, parity, body weight and expected calving date. Group 1 received no Cr supplement and served as control. Group 2, received supplemental Cr at manufacturer’s recommended level (8 mg/head per day) from days 21 before expected calving date until days 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected at days -7, 0 and 21 relative to actual calving time for determination of serum protein fraction and urea nitrogen. Adding chromium to the diet of dairy cows increased albumin and albumin to globulin ratio in days 21 postpartum. Supplemental Cr had no effect on serum urea concentration in periparturient period. The results suggest that Cr supplementation had positive effect on some aspects of nitrogen constituents of dairy cow in early lactation. Keywords: chromium, late gestation, albumin

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Article
Evaluating Performance of Broilers Fed Guar Meal-incuded diet Supplemented by Enzyme

Authors: R. A. Larhang
Pages: 243-247
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Abstract : this study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of Guar meal (0, 4 and 8%) and commercial enzyme (0 and 0.05% of Natuzyme) on broiler performance. Two hundred forty unsexed one day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed among 24 wire battery cages (n=10). Treatments in a factorial experiment (2×3) based on completely randomized design were used. For this experiment six experimental diets were offer to the experimental units. guar meal had significant effect on all the measured parameters, but enzyme had no significant effect. Interaction between diets inclusion of guar meal and enzyme was significant on performance parameters except for feed intake.

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Article
Androgenesis and Spontaneous Chromosome Doubling in Hordeum vulgare L.

Authors: Maryam Mirzaei
Pages: 248-252
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Abstract : Androgenic embryogenesis is a method to produce haploid plants. In this research androgenesis and spontaneous chromosome doubling of 2 barley genotypes (B1 and B2) were studied via isolated microspore culture. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Donor plants were grown in desired conditions in Research Field of Razi University. The spikes were harvested in mid to late uninucleate stage and surface sterilized by 70% ethanol. The anthers were removed and placed in 0.3 M mannitol for 4 days and 25o C. After filtration, the microspores were collected via centrifugation. Microspores were cultured in FHG induced liquid medium with Phenylacetic acid and transferred to incubation conditions (dark and 25o C). Numbers of produced haploid embryos from 100 anthers were recorded after 3 weeks. The embryos subcultured to regeneration medium. Statistical analysis of embryogenesis and cytogenetic results showed that genotype significantly affected haploid embryogenesis and they were not significant in spontaneous chromosome doubling. Obtained results showed that B1 genotype had higher rank for haploid embryo formation (345.2) embryos from 100 anthers) and B2 was in lower percentage as produced 180.3 embryos from 100 anthers. The spontaneous chromosome doubling were 63 and 72%, respectively. Key words: Haploid embryogenesis, Spontaneous chromosome doubling, Genotype, Isolated microspore culture, Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

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Article
The Role of micro and medium industries in Rural Sustainable Development: Case of the Villages around Sanandaj City

Authors: Somaye Latifi1
Pages: 253-262
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Abstract : rural economy has an important role in rural sustainable development in every region or country. However, the rural economy in Iran is too much depending on agriculture and development of other rural economy in particular rural industry activities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities Therefore, it accounts an economic approach through it rural sustainable development can be achieved with creating employment, enhancing and distributing balanced income, and improving standard of living. With regard to this point, this study aimed to identifying the role of rural industry on rural sustainable development in Sanandaj city. This study was a type of surveying research and employed both questionnaire and interview tools with a validity of 78 percent. Results of the study showed that micro and medium industry can contribute to employment growth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanent migration from rural areas. Keywords: rural industry, Villages, Rural Sustainable Development, Sanandaj City

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Article
Decisive role of women in achieving sustainable development in rural

Authors: Ali Asghar Mirakzadeh
Pages: 263-269
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Abstract : Vital role in many rural women to sustainable development matters such as providing food security, sustainability, environment, poverty eradication, population control and social development for the international community has been clear. World Earth Summit in 1992 in the "Rio" was held in the capital of Brazil, governments called for a coordinated action in order to use the knowledge and experiences of women in management and natural resources were protected. Most women in sustainable development strategies as the main and central forces are considered. However, rural women constitute the majority of the world's poor and compared with others of a more severe form of natural resources and destruction of villages are suffering from decay, hence the skewed gender in agricultural systems of the world considered as major obstacles to sustainable development. Since the decade of 1360 to compliment a variety of concepts of sustainable development is presented. However, the official Sustainable Development Report 1987 on Development and Environment Commission to change the attitude of common sense in determining the interest part limited to a comprehensive approach that targets environmental, social and economic was used to learn. According to common definitions of sustainable development with economic development is based on the need for the present generation without compromising the rights of future generations to provide. Sustainable development enables people to benefit from various aspects of economic, social, political and environmental, social growth and development process - a way to sustainable economic pride. This article tried in rural sustainable development expressed in the form of simple and more rural women's role in the development and consumption patterns, resource management is described this way to show that women can staminate sustainable development in villages.

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Article
Aloe Vera and its applications

Authors: Mozhgan Molsaghi1
Pages: 270-274
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Aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) belongs to the Liliaceae family, original of the north of Africa and introduced in the Antilles and tropical America where it grows naturally and is sowed commercially (Albany et al‚ 2006). Common names include “Medicine Plant,” “Burn Plant,” “First Aid Plant,” and “Miracle Plant” (Tanabe and Horiuchi‚ 2006). It is one of herbaceous or woody plants, and characterized by stemless, large, thick and fleshy leaves showing lance shaped, a sharp apex and a spiny margin (Steenkamp and Stewart, 2007).

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Table of content: volume:3 issue:عدد خاص بالمؤتمر الدولي الاول ( العراق / ايران 9