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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2012 volume:9 issue:1

Article
Influence of post materials on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

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Abstract

The bending stiffness of the post should have the ability to transfer and distribute forces and stresses in an endodontically treated tooth to prevent root fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluative the post materials on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with three types of post materials. Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars after root canal preparation and obturation with gutta percha; the roots were divided into three groups according to the type of post material, group Fc restored with fiber post, group Sc restored with stainless steel post and group Tc restored with titanium post. All teeth restored with composite restorative material as core materials. Then all the teeth were subjected to compressive load at 130o angle from the horizontal plan at a 5mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Results showed that there was a significant different between groups in term of fracture loads (P= 0.0301). Also the fracture loads of teeth restored with titanium post has highest mean fracture load (830N), whereas teeth restored with Fiber post demonstrated the lowest mean fracture load (701.3N). This study concluded that the teeth restored with metallic post were more fracture resistant than those restored with fiber posts. But the combination of a fiber post and composite core has the favorable mode of fracture that considered reparable, while considered unfavorable when restored with metallic post.


Article
Apical microleakage in root canals obturated with lateral compaction, warm vertical compaction and Gutta-Flow techniques (in vitro study)

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Abstract

The sealing ability of root canal filling materials is crucial to the goal of preventing reinfection via microleakage of microorganisms and their by-products. Thirty palatal canals of 12mm length from extracted upper first molars were selected then instrumented and divided into 3 groups. Group I was obturated with lateral compaction technique, group II was obturated with warm vertical compaction technique and group III was obturated with Gutta-Flow system. Except for the apical 2 mm, all other segments of roots for the 3 groups received two layers of nail varnish and immersed in a methylene blue 2% and stored at 37Cº for 30 days. Under stereomicroscope liner dye leakage was measured. No statistical difference was found between lateral compaction, warm vertical compaction and Gutta-Flow sealing ability.


Article
Evaluation of fracture resistance and fracture pattern of roots following canal preparation by hand and rotary instrumentation

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Abstract

The present in-vitro study was undertaken to compare fracture strength of roots following canal preparation by hand (step-back) and rotary (ProTaper) instrumentation and, further, to determine the direction of fracture lines. Twenty freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly divided into two groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, canals were prepared with step-back technique using standardized nickel-titanium K-files. In Groups II, canals were prepared with crown-down technique using ProTaper rotary files. After instrumentation, a vertical load was applied by means of a spreader attached to the Instron testing machine and inserted into the canal until fracture occurred. The roots were subsequently examined under a stereomicroscope with 10X magnification to determine the direction of fracture lines. The results were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. The Mean fracture load was 10.420 ± 3.451 kg for K-files and 12.40 ± 4.064 for ProTaper files, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Most of the fracture lines observed were in bucco-lingual direction, followed by proximal and compound fractures. Increased canal taper by ProTaper instrumentation technique did not increase the fracture susceptibility of mandibular premolars any more than conventional step-back K-file preparations and may even increase the fracture resistance

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Article
Estimation of pubertal growth using Hand-Wrist radiographs and Orthopantomographs (prospective study)

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Abstract

The present study tried to verify the most familiar method to orthodontist for pubertal stage estimation which is very important in orthodontic diagnosis and plan by using Hand – Wrist radiographs and Orthopantomography (OPG). The sample of this study has been selected from patients who were attending the Orthodontic department and Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry department at the College of Dentistry – Baghdad University. Before starting the study a legal approval was obtained and the objective of the study was explained to the parents of each participant. The sample consisted of 90 subjects (45 females and 45 males), of certain criteria, between 10 and 16 years of age. The subjects of the sample were of Iraqi Arab origin; the radiographs were interpreted by specialist radiologist. Developmental stage of mandibular left 2nd molar show a higher correlation with skeletal maturation stage of hand and wrist bones (r=0.9) than the canine (r=0.7) for both males and females and can be considered as reliable indicator for maturational stage of individual. The skeletal age is matched the chronological age at the pubertal growth spurt approximately 12 years for females and 14 years for males, and then the sample had a tendency towards advanced maturation with mean skeletal age of the participating subjects being greater than the chronological age at the maturity stages. Developmental stage of mandibular left 2nd molar might be considered as reliable indicator for maturational stage of individual, For the sample of this study, the skeletal age is matched the chronological age at the pubertal growth spurt approximately 12 years for females and 14 years for males.


Article
A lateral cephalometric and arch width Study between class II division 1 malocclusion and Class II division 2 malocclusion (A comparative study)

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Abstract

Background: the purpose of this retrospective study was to compare some craniofacral cephalometric measurements and arch width dimensions between subjects with class II division 1 and class II division 2 malocclusion in Iraqi population. Materials and methods: 60 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs 30 for class II division 1 and 30 for class II division 2 subjects (15 males, 15 females for each group ) were selected from the files of the patients attending the orthodontic clinic in the college of dentistry, university of Baghdad with an over jet more than 6 mm and class II molar and canine relation. Also for each group a study model were take to measure the arch width for both upper and lower arches. The inter molar, inter premolar and inter canine measurements were carried out on study models. The radio graphs were digitized by using the Auto CAD program in the personal computer all the data compared by independent t- test. Results and conclusions: For the dental arch width measurements the statistically significant difference was found between the mandibular inter canine width and maxillary inter molar width. The cephalometric results that class II division 1 showed a retrognathic mandible, and this due to the difference in SNB angle between the two groups, the class II division 2 subjects had anterior position of the mandible relative to the cranial base, more concave profile, great posterior face height, horizontal growth, the mandibular inclination is interiorly, more deep bite, and reduction in the mandibular inter canine width and maxillary inter molar width .


Article
Effect of certain disinfecting solutions and surfactant on the wettability of silicone rubber impression materials D

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Abstract

Back ground: All dental impressions should be disinfected before pouring to control cross contamination but disinfection may affect impression wettability. This study evaluated the effect of disinfection and the use of surfactant agent on the wettability of some silicone impression materials by contact angle registration of the gypsum slurry on flat surfaces of the impressions. Materials and methods: addition silicone regular body –automixing type- and condensation silicone (light body)with two types of disinfecting solutions 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 1% povidone iodine for two disinfecting times and one surfactant agent (soap) were used in this study. Three treatment regimes were investigated: The first group of impression materials specimens was exposed to saliva for 5 minutes (control group). Second group of specimens was exposed to saliva then to disinfectant agents, and third group of specimens was exposed to saliva, disinfectants and surfactant agent (experimental groups), a computerized photographic procedure was used to measure the wettability of the specimens. Statistical analysis was performed by using t-est at p<0.05. Results: the results revealed that treatment with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate as a disinfectant alone or when tested with the surfactant improved the wettability of addition and condensation silicones at 30min. disinfection time ,but surfactant coating of disinfected condensation silicone produced a significant increase of the mean values at 60min. disinfection time. While treatment with 1% povidone iodine disinfectant increased the mean contact angles for both addition and condensation silicones significantly. Same result was seen when povidone iodine was used in combination with the surfactant. Conclusion: disinfection with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate produced a high-energy impression surfaces for both addition and condensation silicones

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Article
Risk Factors for Less Common Postoperative Complications Following Surgical Extraction of Mandibular Third Molar: A Prospective Cohort Study

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Abstract

Background: The less common postoperative morbidity following third molar surgery such as inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia, lingual nerve paresthesia, adjacent tooth injury and post-perative bleeding is affected by a number of risk factors. Material and methods: In this prospective randomized study 159 consecutive cases in which removal of impacted lower third molars in 107outpatients were evaluated. Five groups of variables have been studied which are regarded as a potential factor for one or more than one complication after mandibular third removal Results: The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia, lingual nerve paresthesia, adjacent tooth injury and post-operative bleeding is addressed with location of the most significant risk factors. Conclusions: It was found that the difficulty of surgical extraction and the operation time are the main high significant risk factors; sex and smoking aren’t significant factors for any complication. The oldest age group has a little statistics significant differences. Background: The less common postoperative morbidity following third molar surgery such as inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia, lingual nerve paresthesia, adjacent tooth injury and post-perative bleeding is affected by a number of risk factors. Material and methods: In this prospective randomized study 159 consecutive cases in which removal of impacted lower third molars in 107outpatients were evaluated. Five groups of variables have been studied which are regarded as a potential factor for one or more than one complication after mandibular third removal Results: The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia, lingual nerve paresthesia, adjacent tooth injury and post-operative bleeding is addressed with location of the most significant risk factors. Conclusions: It was found that the difficulty of surgical extraction and the operation time are the main high significant risk factors; sex and smoking aren’t significant factors for any complication. The oldest age group has a little statistics significant differences.


Article
Assessment of anesthetic efficacy of 4%articaine and 2%Lidocaine during implant pilot hole preparation in the mandibular posterior region infiltration

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Aim.The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine (both with 1:100,000 epinepherine) for buccal and lingual infiltration in patients need implant placement. Materials and methods.Forty patients have edentulus regions posterier to mental foramen were divided into 4 study groups and received buccal and lingual infiltration of either 4% articaine or 2% lidocaine. Surgical procedure was begun 5 minutes after solution deposition. Success was defined as no or mild discomfort (VAS recordings) during during pilot hole drill. Results.The success rate for mandibular infiltration to produce anesthesia using articaine was 100% in premolar and molar area for the articaine solution and success rate was 80% in preamolar and 30% in molar area. There was high significant difference between the articaine and lidocaine solutions (ANOVA P < 0.001). Conclusion. The efficacy of 4% articaine was superior to 2% lidocaine for mandibular posterior regoin.


Article
A clinical assessment of periimplant marginal bone loss and soft tissue status in dental implant placed by flapless implant surgery. (A one-year prospective study)

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Abstract

Despite several studies have been conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes of flapless implant surgery limited information presents regarding the clinical conditions after flapless implant surgery, for this reason this study was carried out to evaluate the peri-implant marginal bone loss and soft tissue status in dental implant placed by flapless implant surgery. In the present study, 143 implants were placed in 68 patients by using a flapless 1- stage procedure. In these patients, peri-implant soft tissue conditions and radiographic marginal changes were evaluated one year after surgery. Results: None of the implants was lost during follow-up, giving a success rate of 100%. The mean score of GI was (0.28 mm SD = 0.21), the average BOP index was (0.12, SD= 0.05) and the mean pocket probing depth was (2.7 mm, SD= 1.1). The mean marginal bone loss (0,4 mm, SD = 0.49) range ( 0.0 – 1.2 mm ). Whereas 34 implants showed no bone loss at all. The results of this study demonstrate that flapless implant surgery is a predictable procedure. In addition, it is advantageous for preserving crestal bone and mucosal health surrounding dental implants.

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Article
Facilitating osteogenesis of Hydroxyapatite granules by Autogenous bone marrow

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The aim study to evaluate whether Hydroxyapatite granules alone or in combination with autogenous bone marrow can facilitate bone formation. Materials and Methods: (8) dogs of both sexes were used as a model in this experimental study ,they were divided into two groups , the control group in which ( 4) dogs were operated on in this group received Hydroxyapatite granules alone in defect created in the body of mandible (1cm) in diameter and experimental group in which (4)dogs were operated on in this group received Hydroxyapatite granules mixed with autogenous bone marrow implanted in the defect also created in the body of mandible (1cm) in diameter .Alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) used as parameter to evaluated the degree of osteogenesis ,so blood sampling from femur vein was aspirated at 1st ,2nd ,3rd and 4th weeks respectivelly for biochemical analysis .Results :Statistical analysis showed that there is significant elevation of serum (ALP) in experimental group at day 15 and 21 comparing to control group .Conclusion: Hydroxyapatite with autogenous bone marrow than it is used alone. has great effect on facilitating of osteogenesis.


Article
Alpha – amylase enzyme evaluation In Saliva of acutely stressed student

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Alpha - amylase is one of the major protein components of saliva. The main function of salivary alpha-amylase is the enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, but it is also important for mucosal immunity in the oral cavity. The salivary enzyme alphaamylase has been proposed as a marker for stress-induced activity of the sympathetic nervous system. In the growing field of amylase research, recent studies have underscored the usefulness of salivary alpha-amylase in this regard. Fifteen Iraqi male students were considered in this study with mean age of 19.0 years old during examination period as stress students, another fifteen students without examination were considered as .control. α-Amylase assay were achieved by using colorimetric photometry method. The collected data predicted elevation of amylase level from 2354.260 ± 379.757 to 2817.977 ± 125.375 IU/L with a significant change. Positive correlation was recorded when plotted the correlations values of stress and no stress individual's. In Conclusion we found that acute stress caused by examination associated with elevation of amylase in saliva significantly, however one of the main causes of academic stress is test anxiety for Undergraduate students seem to be more emotionally vulnerable due to examinations.


Article
Tissue response to implanted dental material in rabbits

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Aim of the study: is to assess the tissue compatibility of implanted dental material. Material and methods: fourteen albino rabbits were used for subcutaneous implant for 14 days of different dental metallic material includes titanium, cobalt chrome and nickel chrome. Result: titanium and cobalt chrome show fibrous capsule formation while nickel chrome shows necrotic tissue filled the area of the implant. Conclusion: to minimize biologic risk, dentists should select dental materials that have the low tissue toxicity, allergy and sensitivity, with proper manufacturing and quality control of metals.


Article
Cpitn in Iraqi Females with Thyroid Dysfunction

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Background: Changes in thyroid function have significant health consequences on human beings. Women's risk of developing thyroid problems is seven times that of men. The associations between periodontal diseases and thyroid dysfunction had received great attention in periodontal literature in last few decades. In the only few studies that conducted in Iraq, the concentration was primarily directed toward oral health status and dental treatment needs while the periodontal treatment needs have been omitted. This omission is definitely due to absence of implementation of CPITN in these studies. Aim of the study: to estimate the periodontal health status and periodontal treatment need among Iraqi females with thyroid dysfunction. Material and methods: sample of this study consist of 225 adult Iraqi females allocated into three comparable groups. Group A (patients with hypothyroidism), Group B (patients with hyperthyroidism) and Group C (control group). CPITN, CAL & TN indices were recorded and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS program. Results: generally, healthy women found to have better periodontal health and less clinical attachment loss compared to those with thyroid dysfunction but these results was not significant for all CPITN scores. On the other hand all population sample were found to need periodontal treatment in different levels. Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction in its both types (hypothyroidism & hyperthyroidism) has its impact on periodontal health status, but this impact still in need of more extensive researches to expand our knowledge about this vital subject.


Article
Clinical Outcome of Azithromycin dehydrate used in treatment of acute apical periodontitis and severe chronic marginal gingivitis compared to other antibiotics

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Ninety six patient aged between 12 – 50 years attending the college of dentistry , Al- mustansyria university and the investigators clinics , they were divided into two equal groups; 48 Patients suffering acute apical periodntitis ( painful ) were subjected to different antibiotics after drainage and their prognosis towards nonpainful chronic apical perioddontitis was observed and were as follows : 29.3% with Azithromycin, 20.8 % with ampicilline and 29.3% with ampicilline plus metronidazole with a total of 79.4 % . The second group, were 48 students aged 12- 20 years suffering from severe marginal gingivitis ( GI-3 ) and were subjected to different antibiotics after prophylaxis and some of them were kept on prophylaxis alone and their progress to mild marginal gingivitis ( G.I.1) was observed and were as follows :20.8 % with azithromycin , 16.7 % with ampicilline, 22.9 % with ampicilline plus metronidazole and 20.8 % with prophylaxis and oral hygiene practice alone with a total of 81.2 % showing no significant difference between prophylaxis alone and those with prophylaxis and antibiotics .


Article
Assessment of oral manifestations of patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis by serum and salivary biomarkers

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Background: Renal failure refers to a condition where the kidneys lose their normal functionality. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) have to undergo hemodialysis (HD), With impaired renal function, a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the accumulation and retention of various products of renal failure, the oral cavity may show a variety of changes as the body progresses through an azotemic to a uremic state. The general dentist should be able to recognize these oral symptoms as part of the patient’s systemic disease and not as an isolated occurrence. Aims of the study: To evaluate the biochemical properties of the saliva and Assessment of oral manifestations in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Patients and methods: Spectrophotometer was used for measuring serum and salivary calcium, phosphorous, urea and creatinine in thirty three hemodialysis patients and twenty two control healthy subjects . Salivary PH, Gingival index and salivary buffering capacity was also recorded. Results and discussion: All serum and salivary biomarkers (calcium, phosphorous, urea and creatinine) were significantly changed in hemodialysis patients (calcium decreased while the others increased).Also salivary PH and buffering capacity were significantly increased in hemodialysis patients. Gingival index also increased, and the oral manifestations that was recorded include: dry mouth (n=21), uremic odor (n=20) , bad taste (n=17) , burning sensation (n=14) , coated tongue (n=10) ,pale mucosa ( n=5) petechia (n=3), fissured tongue (n=3). Conclusions: there was differences in salivary parameters between hemodialysis patients and control group and the salivary variables was correlated too serum variables , many oral manifestations found to be in hemodialysis patients.

Table of content: volume:9 issue:1