Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2011 volume:23 issue:special issue

Article
An in vitro comparative evaluation of microleakage in open sandwich technique in Class V restoration (A dye penetration study)

Authors: Alaa J. Khadhim الاء كاظم
Pages: 1-4
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Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the microleakage at dentin margins of class V cavities filled with compomer alone and compomer lined with conventional glass ionomer cement or resin modified glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: fifteen recently extracted human premolars were prepared with standardized box shaped class V cavities of 3.0 mm (mesial-distal), 2.0 mm (occlusal-gingival), and 2.0 mm depth with margins located on enamel and dentin/cementum on the buccal or lingual surfaces. The cavities were randomly assignedinto three groups (n=10): Group I –compomer Dyract extraDetsply DetryGmbH (control); Group II – compomer Dyract extraDetsply DetryGmbH lined with conventional GIC (promedica Medifil). Group III – compomer Dyract extra Detsply DetryGmbH lined with RMGIC (3M ESPE Vtrebond). After being immersed in tap water for 24 h, the specimens were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5°-55°C, 30 sec dwell time) and immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsine solution for 24 h. The restorations were sectioned longitudinally and gingival margins were evaluated for microleakage using a 0-4 scale. Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U tests at p<0.05. Results: a statistically significant difference among groups was observed. The RMGIC show the less gingival microleakage while the conventional GIC show the most microleakage. Conclusion: The use of a RMGIC liner under composite in open sandwich technique minimizes the gingival micro leakage, while the conventional GIC exhited the contrary.


Article
The shear bond strength of an immediate and delay repaired light-cure composite restoration (In vitro study)

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Background: Defects in composite resin restoration whether discovered at the time of placement or associated with old composite resin restoration could be repaired without replacing the entire restoration. This in vitro study was conducted to determine and compare the shear bond strength of an immediate and delay repaired light cured composite restoration. Materials and methods: Eighty acrylic blocks (25x25x15 mm) were constructed from cold cure acrylic resin; each one contained an acrylic hole (6mm diameter and 3mm depth) that filled with Helioprogress composite resin. The surface layer of the composite resin samples was light cured through plastic strip, abraded by finishing discs and rinsed with deionized distilled water for 15 sec. The eighty specimens were divided randomly into two groups according to the storage time in deionized distilled water before the repair: Group I: Stored for 15 min. (Immediate repair group) Group II: Stored for 1week. (Delay repair group) Both groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups according to the surface treatment they received: Subgroup 1: No surface treatment (control) Subgroup 2: 37% phosphoric acid etchant (15 sec.) Subgroup 3: Heliobond (light activated for 20 sec.) Subgroup 4: 37% phosphoric acid and Heliobond. Repair was done by using a standardized translucent plastic straw (3mm diameter and 6mm length) and was filled Helioprogress composite resin and light cured for 40 sec. in four directions. All the specimens were stored in deionized distilled water for 24 hr. testing was done by the Zwick testing machine by applying shearing force with specially designed chisel-shape rod. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance test and t-test. Results: The results showed very highly significant difference between the similar subgroups in group I vs. group II and there was non-significant difference between subgroup 1 vs. 2 and between subgroup 3 vs. 4. Conclusion: Delaying the repair procedure for 1 w resulted markedly reduced the bond strength, the surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid slightly reduced the bond strength in the immediate repair while slightly increased it in the delay repair, Furthermore, the surface treatment with Heliobond fifth generation bonding agent markedly increased the bond strength in both repairs.

Keywords

Repair --- composite --- shear bond


Article
Effect of different metal surface treatments and thermocycling on shear bond strength and microleakage of the flexible acrylic at Co/Cr interface

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Background: Optimum bond strength at the valplast nylon (V.N.)-Co/Cr interface of a prosthesis is essential for the success of that prosthesis. The junction between metal alloy and resin is an area of clinical concern. The aim of study evaluation of the effect of different metal surface treatments and thermocycling on the shear bond strength and microleakage at the V.N.-Co/Cr interface. Material and method: A total No. of 140 samples were prepared and divided into two main groups according to the type of test carried out. Group {A} referred to the metal samples of microleakage test which consists of 60 metal samples, which were then subdivided into two groups; each one consists of 30 metal samples, according to the number of thermal cycles: (A1 subjected for 1000 thermal cycles and A2 for 3000 thermal cycles). Samples of each group were then subdivided into three subgroups; each one consists of 10 metal samples, according to the type of surface treatment that was applied. Each group either had an air abrasion (A1a and A2a) or application of metal bonding agent (Metal Primer) (A1P and A2P) or combination of air abrasion and Metal Primer application (A1C and A2C). Each metal sample was divided into experimental half which received one type of surface treatment and controls half which was kept untreated. Group {B} referred to the metal samples of shear bond test which consists of 80 metal samples. The samples of this group were then subdivided into two groups; each one consists of 40 metal samples, according to the thermocycling: (B1 subjected for group without thermocycling and B2 for thermocycled group with 1000 cycles). Samples of each group were then subdivided into four subgroups; each one consists of 10 metal samples, according to the type of surface treatment that was applied. Each group was either untreated (B1U and B2U) or had an air abrasion (B1a and B2a) or application of metal bonding agent (Metal Primer) (B1P and B2P) or combination of air abrasion and Metal Primer application (B1C and B2C). Before thermocycling the valplast nylon was applied to the metal samples. Result: The results showed that the metal samples treated with metal primer II had the highest value of shear bond and lowest value of microleakage followed by the metal samples treated with metal primer II combined with air abrasion. The metal samples treated with air abrasion only had the lowest value of shear bond and highest value of microleakage The results of present study showed that specimens had a reduced shear bond in comparison with the specimens of the same treatments after different thermocycling period


Article
Clinical evaluation of the antibacterial action of different root canal medicaments

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Background: Different intracanal medicaments were evaluated in vivo for their antibacterial action. Materials and methods: A total of one hundred and twenty anterior opened necrotic teeth with no apical radiolucencies were chosen for this study. Endodontic treatment procedures were performed to the teeth which were medicated between the appointments by different intracanal medicaments (Tricresol formalin, formocresol , 2% acetic acid, CMCP, calcium hydroxide, and normal saline as control). The elimination of the bacterial flora of these teeth was monitored during the treatment appointments by swabbing the root canals and culturing the swabs on blood agar culture media. Results: The teeth medicated by tricresol formalin formocresol and 2% acetic acid experienced the most decrease in the bacteria count and showed the highest negative cultures. CMCP was next, then calcium hydroxide and lastly normal saline. Conclusion: The chemo mechanical debridement of the root canals was effective in eliminating most of the bacterial flora but not to the degree of sterility


Article
Effect of different denture cleanser solutions on some mechanical and physical properties of nylon and acrylic denture base materials

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Background: Thermoplastic non –metal clasp denture became recently the most attractive option for patients due to its esthetic outcome and many other advantages. The chemical immersed denture cleanser is the most widely used method by the patients to maintain clean and healthy denture , but the use of such cleanser may have harmful effect on the denture base materials .This study aimed to evaluate some physical and mechanical properties of one of the thermoplastic denture base materials which is (nylon) compared with those belong to conventional heat cured acrylic and to observe the effect of two prepared denture cleansers ( 4% oxalic acid ,4% tartaric acid ) in addition to one commercial denture cleanser (lacalut dent) on the indentation hardness , flexural strength , flexibility , surface roughness and color stability of nylon and conventional heat cured acrylic. Materials and method: Two hundred and sixty specimens (130 nylon and 130 acrylic) were prepared ,60 specimens (30 nylon ,30 acrylic ) were used to test each of the properties mentioned above except an 80 specimens were used (40 nylon ,40 acrylic ) to test flexural strength and flexibility. Results: The result obtained in the present study showed high significant difference between nylon and conventional heat cured acrylic in four properties which were: indentation hardness , flexural strength , flexibility and color stability ,with no difference in the surface roughness .Furthermore oxalic acid and tartaric acid cleansers significantly decrease the indentation hardness and flexural strength of conventional heat cured acrylic while lacalut dent didn’t significantly affect those properties of acrylic, also all the three cleansers didn’t affect the indentation hardness and flexural strength of nylon .oxalic acid and tartaric acid cleansers significantly decreased the flexibility of nylon while lacalut dent didn’t significantly changed this property. All the three cleanser had no effect on the flexibility of acrylic. All the three cleanser had no effect on the surface roughness or color stability of nylon and acrylic. Conclusions: It can be concluded that nylon had better flexibility and translucency than conventional heat cured acrylic while conventional heat cured acrylic had better indentation hardness and flexural strength than nylon. Regarding surface roughness the two polymers show no significant difference between them. There were an adverse effect of the prepared denture cleansers which contain isopropyl alcohol on indentation hardness and flexural strength of conventional heat cured acrylic , it decreased both those properties , so it is advised not to use solution containing alcohol as acrylic denture cleanser also it is advised not to use it with nylon denture because it decreased its flexibility. Lacalut dent which is an oxygenating commercial denture cleanser, had no adverse effects on both polymers used in the study, so it can be used safely with them


Article
Effect of three types of mouth rinses and human saliva on microhardness of packable and nanocomposite resins (In vitro study)

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Background: The purpose of this an in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the influence of three types of mouth rinses (alcohol- containing, alcohol-free and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinses) and human saliva on microhardness of two types of composite resins (packable and nanofilled composite). Materials and Methods: Total numbers of 64 specimens were prepared, using molds specially fabricated for this study and divided according to type of composite resins used, into two groups: 32 specimens made from packable P60 and 32 specimens made from Filtek Supreme XT nanocomposite. Then each 32 specimens subdivided into 4 subgroups according to treatment solutions used (Listerine, oral-B, chlorhexidine containing mouth rinses and saliva). The specimens of each subgroup was immersed, after curing, in distilled water for 24hr at 37°C then subjected to microhardness measurement for baseline readings determination using Vickers microhardness tester. Then each subgroup was immersed in 20 ml of treatment solutions and incubated at 37°C for 24 hr and re-subjected to microhardness measurement. The change in hardness value was calculated for each sample. The resulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and t- test at 0.05 significance level. Results: The results revealed that, all mouth rinses tested decreased the hardness of both tested resin-composites and non significant reduction in microhardness with saliva. Conclusion: Both alcohol-containing & alcohol-free mouth rinses cause, highly significant reduction in microhardness of composite resins while saliva causes non significant reduction in microhardness. Chlorhexidine-contaianing mouths rinses highly significant decrease the hardness of nanocomposite and significantly decrease the hardness of packable composite.


Article
Repair of root canal perforation by different materials

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Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass ionomer cement (GIC) and Epiphany obturation system in repairing the iatrogenic lateral root canal perforation. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human teeth with single and straight canals were used in this study. These teeth were cleaned and their crowns were removed at the cemento-enamel junction. The roots were instrumented using the step-back technique. A perforation was created on the mesial root surface at about 45- degree angle to the long axis of each root apico-coronally at the middle third by small round bur #1/2 with copious irrigation of 2.5% NaOCL and 17% buffered solution of EDTA was used as the final rinse to remove the smear layer and to prevent the blockage of perforation. The 30 roots were divided randomly in to three groups (10 roots for each group):- Group A: The root canal perforation was repaired by MTA then obturated by lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. Group B: The root canal perforation was repaired by GIC then obturated by lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. Group C: the roots were obturated with Epiphany obturation system by lateral condensation technique. The external surfaces of all roots were coated by two layers of sticky wax except the perforation site then immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 48 hrs in incubator at 37C°. After that all roots were longitudinally sectioned for linear measurement of dye penetration through the perforation using a stereomicroscope at X40 magnification with calibrated scale ocular grid. Results: The result showed that group A showed the lowest mean of dye leakage (0.77mm) while group C showed the highest mean of dye leakage (4.45mm). Conclusion: Significantly less dye leakage in roots which perforations repaired by MTA than those repaired by GIC and highly significant less dye leakage than those repaired by Epiphany obturation system


Article
Electrophoretic deposition of Hydroxyapatite on tapered Ti-6Al-7Nb dental implants: Biomechanical evaluation in rabbits

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Background: Advances in implant design have often focussed on altering the micro-topography and chemistry of the implant surface. This study was done to evaluate the effect of Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the bond strength between the bone and tapered screw-shaped Ti-6Al-7Nb dental implants. Materials and methods: Electrophoretic deposition technique (EPD) was used to obtain a uniform coating of Hydroxyapatite on the tapered Ti-6Al-7Nb screws. Structural investigations were carried out on the HA coating surface of the Ti.6Al.7Nb alloy using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in vivo studies were performed by the implantation of tapered screw-shaped uncoated and coated implants in the tibia of white New Zealand rabbits. To understand the bone-implant interface, biomechanical test was carried out after 2, 6 and 18 weeks healing periods. Results: The XRD result shows that the ceramic layer consists of highly crystalline form of hydroxyapatite and the crystalline HA belong to characteristic peaks of (211) at 2Į 31.7o with the hexagonal symmetry. Biomechanical result shows that there was increased mechanical strength (torque value) of bone-implant interface with time, and the greater increase in the torque value was noticed between 6 and 18 weeks. Also the result shows that the tapered implant coated with HA have higher removal torque values than uncoated one in different time intervals. Conclusion: The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a good alternative coating technique for dental implant. HA coated implants demonstrate high torque value and early healing than uncoated implants, which is very important in early loading of the implant


Article
Evaluation of osseointegration using partially stabilized zirconia coated implants by electrophoretic deposition &dipping methods

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Background: Partially stabilized Zirconia(PSZ)coated implant demonstrated the distinct effects on the surface composition of the implant, and activates on osteoblasts. Zirconia improves cell proliferation significantly during the first days of implantation, and may improve attachment and adhesion strength of the implant. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the coated biomaterial (zirconium) on osseointegration of cpTi implant radiographically with mechanical test. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two commercially pure titanium implants(cpTi)were used in this study,(24)implants were coated with PSZ by electrophoretic deposition(EPD)method,&(24) by dipping method, the rest24 implants were used as controls, they were inserted in the tibia of (32)New Zealand white rabbits & were followed for 2,&6weeks .Mechanical torque removal test for evaluation of osseointegration was performed, Results: Results revealed that bone –implant contact (BIC), increased with time &that implants coated with PSZ by dipping method have shown higher torque mean values than those coated by EPD method. Conclusion: Dip-coating of the cpTi implants with PSZ, can be considered as an alternative coating method and enhance better bone implant contact than EPD.


Article
In vivo immunohistochemical investegation of bone deposition at collagen coated Ti implant surface

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Background: Dental implants provide a unique treatment modality for the replacement of lost dentition. Functional surface modifications by organic material such as collagen coating seem to enhance early peri-implant bone formation, enhancing the initial cell attachment. The aim of the study was to study the expression of osteocalcin and growth hormone receptor as bone formation markers in collagen coated and uncoated implant in interval periods(2,and 6 weeks). Materials and Methods: Commercially pure Titanium(cpTi) implants, coated with collagen protein, were placed in the tibias of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, immunohistochemical tests for detection of expression of osteocalcin and growth hormone receptor were performed on all the implants of both control and experimental groups for (2, and 6 weeks) healing intervals. Mechanical test (torque removal test) was performed as an indicator for the presence of osseointegration and as a test for the mechanical property of bone-implant interface, because the torsion appears to be primarily probing the interface mechanics. Results: Removal torque mean values in all studied groups (uncoated and coated with collagen at two and six healing intervals were increasing with advancing time (higher at 6 than 2 weeks periods). And coated implant showed high value in comparison to control. Results have shown that positive reaction for OC&GHR was expressed by osteoblast cells (OB)at implants coated with collagen ,indicating that bone formation &maturation was accelerated by adding biological materials as a modification modality of implant surface.. Conclusion: Immunohistochemical findings revealed high positive expression range from strong to moderate of osteocalcin and GHR in coated implant in comparison to uncoated specialy in early periods.


Article
Influence of oral zinc sulphate supplementation on the development of the teeth and jaws of growing rat (Histological study)

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Background: This study was carried out to determine the effect of oral zinc supplementation on the growth of molar teeth and jaws on growing rat. Materials and methods: Fifteen western albino pregnant rats subjected to zinc deficiency diet from time of 16th of gestation till day 21 postnatal days. Oral Zinc supplement in different dose (o.25 and o.5 mg) were added to the normal zinc diet of the mothers from one day to 21 day postnatal periods). Neonate rats were sacrificed at the followings postnatal periods ( 7, 10, 14, 18 and21 day) .Histological evaluation for the development of 1st molar tooth with development of the jaws were estimated under light microscope .In addition ,serum zinc level in all studied periods were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Histological examination for experimental group(0.5) showed acceleration in the growth of molar teeth and the bones of the maxilla and mandible illustrates in early apposition of dental hard tissue and bone trabeculea. Declination in zinc levels were observed approximately in all studied groups with the increment of the period of the growth. Conclusion: This study was illustrated that there are obvious effects of oral supplementing zinc on the growth of teeth and jaws of the rat suffered from zinc deficiency in gestation period and ameloblast showed to be the most affected dental cells


Article
Sex determination using linear measurements related to the mental and mandibular foramina vertical positions on digital panoramic images

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Background: Identification of gender type is a very important issue in forensic dentistry. The mental and mandibular foramina are important anatomic points in the mandibular region. The objective of this study is to predict the validity of the linear measurements related to the mental and mandibular foramina vertical positions on digital panoramic images in sex determination. Material and method: A total of 300 Iraqi subjects, (150 male and 150 female) were examined, age distribution of them was ranging between (20-49) years old. Four linear vertical measurements were performed on the radiographic image of each subject on both right and left sides of the mandible (600) sides, to evaluate the validity of the linear measurements related to the vertical positions of the mental and mandibular foramina in sex determination. Statistically significant differences were observed in all of the linear measurements between genders where males almost have higher measurements than females. Sex of the patient could be successfully identified using measurements carried out in this study. Linear measurements that related to the mandibular foramen vertical position used in this study can be used as best parameters to predict male gender differentiate it from female, while the measurements that related to the mental foramen vertical position ranked after in their discriminating abilities


Article
Reliability of digital, panoramic and periapical radiological techniques in the assessment of marginal bone level

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and repeatabilityof digital, panoramic and intraoral periapical Radiological techniques in the assessment of marginal bone level. Materials and method: Digital, panoramic and periapical Radiological techniques were performed for forty eight randomly selected patients between twenty five to the thirty five years of old. Dimax3 digital system pan/ceph, PLANMECA, Helsinki, Finland was used for panoramic Radiological techniques. Intraoral periapical exposure was done using the same digital radiological system. The X-ray unit operated at range of 70-80 kV and 10- 12 mA according to the patient age for panoramic technique while 70KV,8Ma for periapical technique which was done according to the user manual of the machine. Posterior periapical image were taken by paralleling technique. Five observers assessed the marginal bone level in both techniques independently. Results: Assessments of the marginal bone level by five observers for both techniques were analyzed by paired samples t-test, Anova test and reliability test. The statistical analysis of marginal bone level show no significant differences in periapical radiological techniques, while in panoramic radiological techniques shows high significant differences between the observers. Reliability test (used for measuring the degree of agreement between the first observer and other observers), show high degree of agreement in periapical technique than panoramic technique in assessment of alveolar bone level. The overall agreement in periapical technique for observer one and two, three, four, five was 81.3%, 93%, 90.1%, 75.6% respectively. While in panoramic radiography was 51.7%, 19.2%, 35.8%, 28.2% respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that digital periapical view could be considered the radiological technique examination of choice for assessment of marginal bone level, comparing with digital panoramic technique.


Article
P53-tumor suppressor gene overexpression in human papilloma virus-infected patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Via molecular DNA hybridization, more than 120 different genotypes of human papilloma virus have been confirmed. Many studies have described an association of high risk-HPV genotypes and overexpression of mutated P53 gene with a variety of oral benign tumors as well as malignant squamous cell carcinomas. This study aimed to: 1) Determine the prevalence of HPV DNA in archival tissue specimens with a range from apparently healthy tissue to invasive oral S.C.C by using one of the recent versions of insitu hybridaization. 2) Define the genotypes of the obtained HPV and to find out rational significance and relation of such genotypes to the severity of underlying lesions. 3) Study the correlation of over expressed products of mutant p53 genes with HPV-negative and HPV-related oral cancers. Materials and methods: A total number of 72 tissue specimens were collected from 41 patients with oral squamous cell (OSCC) and 31 individuals with apparently-healthy oral tissues (AHOT). The molecular detection methods for HPV detection and genotyping were performed by in situ hybridization using cocktailed- and specified high- risk HPV DNA probes, respectively. Immunohistochemical method was used to demonstrate the prevalence of P53 overexpression in those oral cancers. Results: Among oral OSCC group, 16 archived tissue blocks were found to contain HPV DNA related to the cocktailed HPV genotypes. This result constituted 39% of the total oral SCC screened for HPV DNA. HPV-18 positive oral SCC tissue blocks constituted (68.75%) whereas HPV genotypes 16& 31/33 constituted (43.75%) & (12.5%), respectively. Mixed infection of HPV genotypes was found in 31.3%. Interestingly, HPV DNA detection was documented in 3.2% of those appeared as healthy tissues on histopathological examinations. Among oral SCC group, 22(53.7%) showed over expression of P53 tumor suppression gene. Interestingly, the co-occurrence of mutated P53 overexpression and high oncogenic risk HPV genotypes was documented in 75% of Iraqi patients with OSCC. Conclusions: The significant prevalence of high oncogenic HPV genotypes detection in those patients with OSCC indicates a herald marks for the spread of such important sexually transmitted infection among Iraqi general population. Both of mutated p53 genes as well as high-oncogenic risk HPV genotypes could play an important role in oral carcinogenesis.


Article
Accuracy of digital panoramic system in sex identification using certain mandibular measurements

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Background: Identification of the skeletal and decomposing human remains is one of the most difficult skills in forensic medicine. The aim of the study were to evaluate the accuracy of digital panoramic system as quick, easy and reproducible supplement tool in sex identification using certain mandibular measurements in predicting sex. Material and method: The sample in the current study consisted of 280 Arabic Iraqi patients from both sexes and with age range from 20-60 years old divided in four groups .For each patient panoramic image was taken and the following measurements were done with the aid of computer program “AutoCAD 2010”. 1. The distance from mental to mandibular foramina.2. Intercondylar distance. 3. The distance between the mandibular foramina in both sides.4.Mesiodistal width of each mandibular canines.5.Intercanines distance. The data were subjected to a discriminant analysis using SPSS version 13 Results: The various parameters measured for males and females when compared are statistically significantly different. All mandibular measurements gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determination by discreminant analysis (76.8%). The stepwise selection method gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determination by discreminant analysis (76.4%) .Age showed no statistical difference among the studied age groups. Conclusion: Panoramic measurements of mandible bone are useful to support sex determination in forensic radiographic odontology.


Article
Immunohistochemical study of BCL-2, PCNA and VIMENTIN markers in oral and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (Comparative study)

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Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may arise in any stratified squamous epithelium or muosa that has undergone squamous metaplasia. The aims of the study were immunohistochemical evaluation and comparison of PCNA, BCL-2 and VIMENTIN expressions in oral and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and correlating such expressions with the clinicopathological behavior in both sites. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pathologically diagnosed oral and laryngeal SCC blocks for the period of June 2006 till July 2010.Age, sex, site and histologic grades were recognized. The samples were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies toBCL-2, PCNA and VIMENTIN. Results: The age of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity was between 40 and 86 and between 32 and 66 years in larynx. The male/female ratio was 10/5 and 8/7 for oral and Larynx respectively. The majority of the cases of Oral squamous cell carcinoma were located on the buccal mucosa, Whereas Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases were distributed on glottic mainly..No significant statistical difference in the age and gender between the two groups .Histological grading was recognized for each case of oral and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Two thirds of the oral cases were well differentiated. While 8 of the fifteen cases were moderately differentiated SCC. Regarding histological grading there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups .PCNA expressed in 14 of the fifteen oral cases whereas in laryngeal, 12 cases were positive. Collectively, 9 of the 30 cases were positive for vimentin antibody with different score values,.Bcl-2 was expressed in one case only from fifteen immunostaining laryngeal cases and all the oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were negative No significant relationship in immunoexpression of he above markers between the tow groups. Conclusions: The results of this study proved that the biological behavior namely the PCNA, VIMENTIN and BCL-2 activities was comparable between SCC of the oral cavity and larynx with a spectrum of clinical behavior, due to the differences in location


Article
Histological evaluation of Platelet – rich plasma effect on bone healing in alloxan – induced diabetic rabbits. (Experimental study)

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Background: Diabetes Mellitus has an impact on bone healing process, Platelet – rich plasma PRP ameliorated the deleterious effect of diabetes on bone healing process so the aims of this study were to assess histologically the effects of PRP on bone healing in intrabony defect of maxillary bone in alloxan – induced diabetic and nondiabeic rabbits, and to correlate the effect of time of bone healing in two experimental groups with that of controls. Materials and methods: Fifty rabbits were used, thirty – five rabbits rendered diabetic by the use of alloxan (five of them dead for unknown reasons), the remaining fifteen rabbits left normal. An intrabony defect was created in the maxilla of each rabbit, the defect of control group left for normal healing, while diabetic rabbits divided2groups First diabetic group, the defect filled with autologous PRP as experimental group -Second diabetic groups, defect left empty. The specimens were collected at 1, 3, 6 weeks postoperatively. Histological examination was performed under light microscope for sections stained with heamatoxylline and eosine to assess histomorphometric analysis including, counting of inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and bone cells infiltration. The regeneration levels were detected by measuring the thickness of new bone trabeculae by a special graduated lens, at the end of each three periods. Results: Histological examinations showed that with the use of autologous Platelet – rich plasma in a bone of diabetic rabbit, an obvious enhancement of new bone forming and neovascularzation significantly more than that of diabetic group without PRP application, the results of diabetic group treated with PRP reached the levels of normal group in all the three periods postoperatively. Conclusions: this study illustrated that PRP has an osteopromotive activity that accelerated bone healing process in maxillary bone of diabetic rabbits.


Article
Morphometric analysis of mandibular canal course and position in relation to gender and age of Iraqi sample using digital panoramic imaging

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Background: The knowledge of the course and position of the mandibular canal in relation to anatomical landmarks of the jaw is of great importance in certain dental interventions; therefore it involves preservation of the anatomic structures that pass through it. Morphometric study by means of digital panoramic radiography reveals the differences and inherent alterations between genders or ages, it has become a useful tool in research that analyzes the craniofacial complex development process, which are important for planning the dental, clinical and surgical procedures. The aim of the study was undertaken to analyze mandibular canal morphology and position along its course and its relation to mandibular anatomical landmarks by using digital panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: 300 subjects, (150 male and 150 female) were examined, age distribution of them was ranging between (20-49) years old, factors considered included the age and sex of the patients. Ten linear vertical measurements were performed on the radiographic image of each subject on both right and left sides of the mandible (600) sides, to evaluate the position of the mandibular canal along its course. The relation of proximity between the mandibular canal and the roots of the mandibular posterior teeth were also evaluated. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in six of the linear measurements between genders, males almost have higher measurements than females. However, no significant linear trend was evident between age groups of the same gender for any of the measurements. The most frequent position of the mental foramen was between the two mandibular premolars, the mandibular canal presented a relation of proximity to the roots of the mandibular third molar, moving gradually away from the roots of the other posterior teeth. Conclusion: the measurements related to the mandibular canal performed in this study can be influenced by the gender but are independent of age


Article
Efficacy of topical flax paint for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis

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Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is commonly observed and is mediated by the immune system. Lesions appear as painful, tiny, discrete vesicles. Flax (Linum usitatissimum) has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled conducted to assess the efficacy of Flax paint in this disease. Methods: Dermal irritation study; was performed by primary irritation to the skin and measured by a patch-test technique on the intact skin of the albino rabbit. Clinical study; 64 RAS patients, randomized to receive Flax paint or placebo topically (three times a day, for five days). The efficacy of the treatment was estimated (healing time, ulcer size reduction, pain score, change in condition), β-2 microglobulin (β-2M), α-1Antitrypsin (α-1AT), CRP & ESR, Safety, tolerance, side effects were assessed. Results: Dermal irritation test in vivo showed no sign of irritation in Flax paint. Clinical study; four days after treatment, 95% of Flax group were completely healed from aphthous ulcers, compared with placebo group ( p < 0.0001). Flax paint group showed significant pain reduction after the 1st or 2nd dose application compared to baseline and placebo. Serum β-2M, α-1AT, CRP, & ESR values showed significant reduction in Flax paint treated group compared to baseline and placebo. No sign of adverse effects or tolerance. Conclusion: This is the first time reporting that Flax paint reduced the time to repair mucosal tissue (ulcer healing), and pain persistence, it has anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effect. There was no evidence of any adverse effects


Article
In vivo study of the effect of collagen protein coated implant as compared with implants coated with a mixture of partially stabilized zirconia and collagen on osseointegration

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Background: Biocompatibility of orthopaedic surgical implants with bone tissue allows adequate osseointegration between the bone and implant. To achieve this, implants are coated with biocompatible materials Commercially pure titanium is widely used as dental implant material because of its suitable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility,and to enhance osseointegration of the implant,organic and inorganic materials are used as a bioinert coating material. Aim of the study: Comparison of the influence of the implant coated by biological material(collagen),and implant coated by both bioinert ceramic(zirconia) and( collagen), on osseointegration by immunohistochemical , and radiographical studies with mechanical test. Materials and Methods: Commercially pure Titanium(cpTi) implants, coated with PSZ powder by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, collagen protein, and mixture of collagen and partially stabilized zirconia(PSZ) were placed in the tibias of( 12 )New Zealand white rabbits, immunohistochemical tests for detection of expression of osteocalcin and growth hormone receptor were performed on all the implants of both control and experimental groups for(3days,1, 2and6weeks) healing intervals.Mechanical test (torque removal test) was performed as an indicator for the presence of osseointegration and as a test for the mechanical property of bone-implant interface. Results: have illustrated that removal torque mean values, in all studied groups (uncoated and coated with both PSZ and collagen at (2&6weeks) healing intervals were increasing with advancing time (higher at 6 than other periods),also results have shown that positive reaction for osteocalcin(OC)& growth hormone receptoe(GHR) was expressed by osteoblast cells(OB)at implants coated with collagen and implants coated with zirconia and collagen,indicating that bone formation &maturation was accelerated by adding biological materials as a modification modality of implant surface.. Conclusion: It is concluded that coating of implant with collagen and coating with both PSZand collagen showed an increment in osseointegration in short interval period.


Article
Salivary uric acid, total protein and periodontal health status variation in relation to the body mass index (A Clinical and Biochemical study)

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Abstract

Background: Obesity is the fastest growing health-related problem in the world. It plays an affecting role in the biochemistry of many serious systemic diseases like diabetes and CVD. Periodontitis appeared to have a reciprocal relationship with both, obesity on one hand side and the serious systemic diseases on other hand. Aim of study: is to investigate the effect of obesity and periodontitis on the salivary flow and its uric acid and total protein. Material and method: Eighty one male, aged 30-40 y, systemically healthy, no smokers, having chronic periodontopathic inflammation(gingivitis and / or periodontitis), grouped in three according to BMI, each of 27; GI; normal weight, G2; preobese, and G3; obese. PL.I, GI, BOP, PPD, CAL were clinically recorded at the same hour of unstimulated saliva collection. Probing depth and attachment levels were arranged in scales. Result: Obese group showed significantly high scores of all periodontal data over other 2 groups. Pre-obese showed also significant high scores on the normal weighted. Uric acid was insignificantly low in obese than other 2 groups, while the total protein, in obese was significantly higher than other 2 groups, as the salivary flow did. The differences in uric acid and total proteins values were insignificant between normal weights and pre-obese. A significant positive correlation have been found among periodontal parameters, scale 1 PPD/CAL salivary flow, uric acid, total protein and obesity. Conclusion: Obesity is not only enhancing the severity of periodontopathy, but also modifies the chemical Constituents of saliva.


Article
Prospective study of incidence and related risk factors of postoperative alveolar osteitis and secondary infection related to mandibular third molar surgery

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Abstract

In this prospective study 159 consecutive cases in which removal of impacted lower third molar in 107 outpatients were evaluated. The incidence of specific most common postoperative complications (alveolar osteitis and secondary infection) is addressed with location of the most significant risk factors five groups of variables have been studied with 23 subgroups and 46 divisions which are regarded as potential factor for more than one complication after mandibular third molar removal in order to offer a preventive or management strategy.

Keywords


Article
Detection of specific IgG and IgA anti Epstein-Barr virus in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subjects

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Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth. Recent studies have demonstrated that various human herpesviruses especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a part in the pathogenesis of human chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to detect anti EBV IgG and IgA in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and to determine the differences between males and females regarding the periodontal condition and the levels of anti EBV IgG and IgA . Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of sixty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (32 males and 28 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (16 males and 14 females) with age ranged from 30 to 50 years. Both groups without any systemic disease. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all subjects and examined by ELISA test for EBV IgG and IgA antibodies detection. Results: The results of the present study observed that there was no significant difference of PLI and GI between males and females in chronic periodntitis patients. Concerning BOP the number of bleeding sites in females was more than in males. For PPD and CAL, there was increased PPD with its different scores (0, 1, 2) in males compared with females and there was increased CAL with its different scales (scales 0, 1, 2, 3) in males than females. The percentage of control group who were positive for anti- EBV IgG was (36.7%) and in chronic periodontitis was ( 81.7%). Concerning IgA, 40.0% of healthy group and 68.3% of chronic periodontitis patients showed a positive reaction for anti- EBV IgA . Conclusions: The present study showed that EBV Abs (IgG and IgA) were detectable in saliva from healthy individuals but they were significantly more frequently found in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients. The present study showed that there was no significant gender difference regarding the salivary level of anti- EBV IgG and IgA.

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- EBV --- IgG --- IgA


Article
Etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of facial fractures: a clinical study of 92 cases

Authors: Yahya A. Ali يحيى علي
Pages: 129-133
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Abstract

Background: Maxillofacial injuries pose a therapeutic challenges to trauma, maxillofacial and plastic surgeons practicing in developing countries. This study was carried out to determine the etiology, injury characteristics and management outcome of maxillofacial injuries at Maysan general hospital in Maysan, southern of Iraq from November 2008 to April 2010. Patients and methods: The data collected included age, gender, etiology, anatomic site of the fracture and treatment outcome. A total of 134 facial fractures were found in 92 patients, Results: most fractures occurred in adults with age ranging from 21 to 30 years. Men were more affected than women, with a male-female ratio of 4.1:1. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the major cause of trauma, followed by interpersonal violence and gunshots and missiles. When the relation between the gender and the etiology of facial fractures was analyzed, a significant relation was noted between these variables. There was also a relation between the patients’ age and the site of the fractures. The mandible was found to be the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton, followed by the zygomatic complex. Surgical or non-surgical approach was chosen according to characters of each case. There were significant differences between the kind of treatment applied and the site of the fracture. Surgical site infection and malocclusion were the most prevalent complications. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents remain the major etiological factor of maxillofacial injuries in our setting. Measures on prevention of road traffic accidents should be strongly emphasized in order to reduce the occurrence of these injuries


Article
Measurement of Mercury Concentration in Saliva of Selected Sample of Children in relation to Amalgam Fillings

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Background: Dental amalgam fillings interact in a complex way with the environment in the oral cavity as they are subjected to chemical, biological, mechanical, and thermal forces. These forces change the restoration’s appearance and properties, causing metal ions, amalgam debris, non-metallic corrosion products, and mercury released into the oral cavity. The aims of this study were Measure the concentration of mercury in saliva of children in relation to the number of amalgam fillings before and after chewing and measure the continuous release of mercury vapor from amalgam fillings in children and its relation to gender and age. Materials and methods: The sample consists of 51 children between 8-10 years of age and they were divided into three groups according to the number of amalgam fillings they have in their teeth (1st group children didn't have amalgam fillings in their teeth, 2nd group children had 1-2 amalgam fillings, 3rd group children had ≥3 amalgam fillings). Then saliva samples were collected from each child before and after chewing of sugar free chewing gum in sterilized disposable cups. Results: The results indicated that minute amount of mercury were continuously released from amalgam restorations and the release is accelerated after stimulation (chewing).Also the results demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of amalgam fillings and mercury concentration in saliva, mercury in saliva of children who didn't have amalgam fillings in their teeth may come from other sources such as air, water and food. There was no relation between mercury concentration in saliva of children and the gender and age of children

Keywords

children --- mercury --- saliva --- amalgam filling


Article
The relation of salivary antioxidants to dental caries among overweight and obese adult aged 30-40 year-old at textile factory in Mosul city

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas بيداء ياس
Pages: 141-145
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Background: Overweight and obese people are at higher risk for systemic diseases as well as oral diseases like dental caries. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of salivary antioxidants (albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C) in addition to salivary flow rate and magnesium level with dental caries severity among overweight and obese adult aged 30-40 year-old at Textile Factory in Mosul City. Material and method: The sample for this study consisted of all subjects aged 30-40 year-old (thirty five subjects) at the Textile factory in Mosul city. Body weight can be measured by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity through the application of D1-4 MFS index. Salivary flow rate was measured after collection of unstimulated saliva then salivary samples were analyzed for the measurement of salivary antioxidants (albumin, vitamin E, and vitamin C) and magnesium level. Results: Salivary vitamin E and C levels were higher among overweight and obese subjects respectively compared with non-obese though statistical differences were not significant. Albumin level was significantly higher among overweight than non-obese subjects. In addition Obese and overweight subjects revealed reduced salivary flow rate compared with non-obese but with no significant difference; whereas salivary magnesium level was elevated among obese compared to non-obese individuals though statistical difference was not significant. Regarding caries severity, obese and overweight subjects revealed higher dental caries severity (i.e. DMFS, MS, DS, D3 and D4 mean values) compared with non-obese. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity could be risk factor for increasing dental caries severity thus educational and preventive programs that include dietary counseling (for lowering body weight and caries severity as well), oral hygiene practices, and regular visits for the dentist are needed


Article
Digitalized measurement of maximum bite force in Iraqi adult sample aged 18 – 25 years with different malocclusion groups

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Background: Information concerning the maximum bite force in human population is important to clinical orthodontics. Additionally, the influence of bite force on the vertical stability of any treatment result is important. The new position of the dentition should be compatible with the dynamics of the muscular and occlusal forces in all planes. This study was conducted to assess the maximum bite force in the molar (left and right) and incisor region of Iraqi adult persons aged 18-25 years. Materials and method: The total sample size is (150) persons (75 male, 75 female) of untreated Iraqi subjects divided according to the class of malocclusion. The maximum bite force measurements were performed by a digital device (GM10) placed in the first molar area unilaterally on both the left and right sides which was used especially for this study. After that measured the maximum bite in the right central incisor region. Results: The maximum molar force was higher in class III followed by class II and then class I. The maximum incisal force was higher in class I followed by class II then class III. Conclusions: there was a very high significant difference between molar and incisal bite force. There was non significant difference between right and left side in all classes of malocclusion. Generally there was a very high significant difference regarding the genders, males have a greater bite force than females for class I, II, III malocclusion.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries and the effect of sugar’s types, frequency of sugar intake and tooth brushing practice on dental caries among children aged 7-9 years inWassit governorate-Iraq

Authors: Hanan F. Abaas حنان عباس
Pages: 151-154
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Background: Dental caries is an important dental health problem and it is the most prevalent oral disease among children in the world. The strength of the relationship between sugar intake and the prevalence of dental caries has long been a subject of dispute. Some evidence suggests that sugar consumption is a very important determinate of caries risk, accounting for as much as half of the variation in caries prevalence among human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the effect of sugar's type, frequency of sugar intake and tooth brushing practice on dental caries among children aged 7- 9 years of both genders in Wassit Governorate. Methods: The sample was collected during period started from 1/September to 1/ November 2010. Information about types of sugars intake, frequency of sugar intake and tooth brushing practice were collected by formation of questionnaire to all children according to Yabao 2005. All children subjected to clinical examination to assessment of DMFT and dmft according to WHO 1997. Data analyzed using statistics package for social science (spss Inc., 2000 version 10 for Windows and Excel 2000). Results: Five hundred of schoolchildren in Wassit Governorate were examined belong to age group 7-9 years of both gender (258 males and 242 females). The mean of DMFT was (1.3±1.4), while the mean of dmft was (4.5±2.5). The prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth was 54% while in primary teeth was 93.2%, the prevalence of dental caries increased with age in both primary and permanent teeth. The mean of DMFT in children taking hard candies, soft drink, and ice-cream was (1.45±1.46), (0.99±1.33), (0.88±1.15) respectively, analysis of variance showed there was significant difference between the mean of DMFT with different sugar’s types. Also in present study, the most sugar sources taking by children were hard candies (68%) and soft drink (70%).The mean of DMFT and dmft increased with increasing the frequency of sugar intake, analysis of variance showed there was significant difference between mean of DMFT with frequency of sugar intake. The mean of DMFT and dmft was higher in children with no tooth brushing practice than in children with tooth brushing practice; also the prevalence of dental caries in children with no tooth brushing practice was 81% while in children with tooth brushing practice was 30.5%. Conclusion: It was concluded that hard candies is more risky on dental caries than soft drink and ice cream and the frequency of sugars intake effects on dental caries severity , also tooth brushing practice minimizes the dental caries severity and prevalence


Article
Detection of skeletal maturity using periapical radiographs (A study on Iraqi growing sample)

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Background: Among different treatment modalities of skeletal malocclusion, growth modification is the interceptive procedure undertaken in a growing child. For the growth modification to be successful it is absolutely essential that it should be initiated at the right time. This study aimed to verify the possibility of clinical employment of the developmental stage of middle phalanx of the middle finger and that of mandibular second molar in the determination of maturity in both genders. Materials and method: The sample consists of 216 Iraqi subjects, 108 males and 108 females, for each subject two periapical radiographical films were used, one for mandibular left second molar and the other for the middle phalanx of the middle finger, to determine their developmental stage according to the method described by Demirjian et al (1973) for ossification of teeth, and Hagg and Taranger (1982) that later modified by adding E ¾ stage given by Leite et al (1987) to describe the relation of epiphysis to metaphysis in the middle phalanx of the middle finger. Results: A high significant correlations were found among chronological age, in years, calcification stages of mandibular left second molar , and developmental stages of middle finger (P<0.000), with a higher puberty stage in female than in male within the same dental calcification stage. Conclusion: The maturity stage of growing subject can be detected depending on calcification stage of mandibular 2nd molar using periapical radiograph.


Article
Oral health status in Najaf City

Authors: Raed Al-Huwaizi رائد الحويزي
Pages: 162-166
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Background: This study assessed the oral hygiene status of teenagers. Materials and methods: Three hundred and two teenagers aged 13-16 years (151 boys and 151 girls) and 291 young adults aged 20-23 years (150 males and 141 females) collected from secondary schools and the University of Kufa in Najaf city. Oral hygiene was assessed by three indices (plaque, gingival and calculus indices). Results: Plaque free subjects represented 22.3% of males and 44.2% of females with a mean PI of 0.717±0.742 for males and 0.444±0.619 for females. While, gingivitis was found in 68.1% of males and 46.6% of females with a mean GI of 0.436±0.526 for males and 0.255±0.447 for females. The majority of the sample was calculus free (91.1% of females and 88.7% of males) with a mean CI of 0.020±0.081 for males and 0.014±0.056 for females. Conclusion: Males showed significantly higher mean PI, GI and CI scores than females. Teenagers were found to have significantly higher mean PI and GI than young adults. This indicates that young adults are keener on keeping a good oral hygiene than teenagers and that males neglect their oral hygiene more than females

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