Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2012 volume:24 issue:1

Article
The laboratory dental cutting rates in comparison with the clinical dental cutting rates and the cutting rates on a new suggested training block

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Abstract

Background: Preclinical cavity preparation performed in the laboratory on different types of typodont mannequin teeth that keep changing in chemistry and properties by the manufacturer ,while clinical cavity preparation performed on natural teeth of well known chemistry and properties without a transitional format, the aim of this study was to compare the laboratory dental cutting rates with the clinical dental cutting rates and the cutting rates on a new suggested transitional training block Materials and methods: the cutting rates were evaluated on 30 artificial teeth and 30 natural teeth the roots were sectioned and the crowns were embedded in acrylic blocks (25x25x15 mm) exposing the flat labial surface, the specimens were divided according to the cutting equipment and the type of the exposed labial surfaces into: Group 1: the previous laboratory dental cutting (10 original Frasaco/Nissin dental product) Group 2: the current laboratory dental cutting (10 Frasaco Dent Iran) Group 3: dental cutting on anew suggested training block (10 denture teeth –Pigeon teeth China) Group 4: low speed clinical dental cutting (10 dentin specimens) The cutting was performed in all the above groups with stainless steel fissure bur and low speed hand piece Group 5: high speed clinical dental cutting on dentin (10 dentin specimens) The cutting was performed with carbide fissure bur and turbine Group 6: high speed clinical dental cutting on enamel (10 enamel specimens) The cutting was performed with diamond fissure bur and turbine. The cutting rates (mm/sec)were recorded and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and t-test Results: the results showed there was no significant difference between group 3and the mean of the clinical dental cutting (group 4, 5&6),a significant differences were presented between group 1Vs group 3 and between group 1 Vs the mean of the clinical dental cutting(group 4,5&6),while group 2 showed a highly significant difference Vs group 1 and a very highly significance difference Vs group 3 and the mean of the clinical dental cutting(group 4,5&6) Conclusion: The previous laboratory dental cutting was much closer to the clinical dental cutting (slightly slower) While the current laboratory dental cutting far away (too fast)from the clinical dental cutting .Furthermore the dental cutting on the new suggested training block comparable to the clinical dental cutting


Article
A comparative study between hand and rotary protaper instruments on natural extracted teeth

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Background: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and compare the changes in working length and preparation time after instrumentation with hand and rotary protaper endodontic instruments. Materials and Methods: mesial canals of thirty human mandibular first molars were used in this study. The mesial canals were prepared alternatively till size F2 using crown-down technique with hand protaper files (group Ι) and rotary protaper files (group ΙΙ). Following parameters were evaluated; changes in working length and preparation time. Results: The results showed that all canals got loss of working length after instrumentation with hand and rotary protaper files, but the difference was insignificant between them. The instrumentation time was shorter for rotary than for hand protaper instruments. Conclusions: The preparation time with rotary protaper was faster than with hand protaper, and there in no differences between them in working length changes.


Article
Effect of curing mode on immediate and post-irradiation depth of cure of a silorane-based and methacrylate- based posterior composites (in vitro comparative study)

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Background: Incomplete polymerization of composite restorations compromises the restoration both mechanically and biologically. Recently, composite curing lights have been developed that have higher intensities and shorter curing cycles which help speed the resin-based curing. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of conventional and high intensity light curing units on the depth of cure of three different types of composite resin. Materials and Method: Forty eight cylindrical specimens 4mm in diameter and 8mm in height were prepared from three types of composite resin (Filtek™ P60,Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek™ P90) using a two-piece aluminum mold. Half of the specimens were cured with a QTH for 40 seconds, while the other half of the specimens were cured with the FlashMax P3 high intensity light curing unit for 3 seconds. The cured specimens of each composite type were then subdivided into three subgroups of eight specimens each according to the aging period prior to curing depth measurement (immediate, after 24 hours, or after 7 days). The depth of cure was measured using the scraping method (scratch test). Results: The results of this study showed that Filtek™ P60 showed the highest mean depth of cure, followed by Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek™ P90 which showed the lowest curing depth regardless of the curing mode or aging period, and the difference was statistically highly significant (p< 0.01). The results of the study also showed that the specimens cured with the QTH had higher curing depth than those cured with the FlashMax P3 regardless of the composite type and aging period and the difference was also statistically highly significant (p< 0.01). Concerning the effect of aging, there was an increase in curing depth till 24 hours for Filtek™ P60 and Tetric EvoCeram, while for Filtek™ P90 the increase in curing depth continued till 7 days. Conclusions: The packable composite Filtek™ P60 showed the highest curing depth as compared with the nanofilled composite Tetric EvoCeram and the silorane-based composite Filtek™ P90. However, there was a continuous increase in curing depth of the silorane-based composite with time. All composite resins cured with the conventional QTH light curing unit presented higher curing depths than those cured with the FlashMax P3 high intensity light curing unit.


Article
Thermal expansion of prepared dental base-metal casting alloys

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the linear thermal expansion of prepared Ni-Cr and Co-Cr dental basemetal casting alloys which has been prepared locally in Iraq and compare with other conventional alloys. Materials and methods: Cylindrical shape wax specimen was prepared of (15mm) length and (5mm) diameter, which invested in phosphate-bonded investment material and casted by using induction-casting machine. The liner thermal expansion has been tested by using Iraqi-made dialometer in which the furnace was set to reach from room temperature to 950 C in a rate of 10 C per minute. Results and discussion: The prepared Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys were showed a higher linear thermal expansion than the conventional alloys, however, statistical analysis revealed non-significant differences regarding the Co-Cr alloys and highly significant differences regarding the Ni-Cr alloys


Article
Evaluation of mechanical and histological significance of Nigella Sativa oil extract on the osseointegration of Hydroxyapatite coated cp Ti-Implants

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Background: The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the additive beneficial role gained from dip coating of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cp Ti implants in Nigella Sativa (Black Seed) oil extract and its effect on the mechanical and histological properties of bone-implant interface. Materials and Methods: 48 cp Ti screws (3mm in diameter, 8mm in length) were implanted in tibia bones of 12 New Zeeland rabbits. 24 screws were electrophoretically coated with HA within 4 minutes (control group) and 24 were electrophoretically coated with HA for 4 minutes and dip coated in black seed oil extract (BSO) for 5 seconds (experimental group). The samples were distributed equally over two healing intervals 6 and 12 weeks, in every healing interval each tibia bone(right and left) of 6 rabbits received two samples, control and experimental. Results: After each healing interval two tests were performed: Mechanical (Removal Torque) and Histological tests. Mechanical test showed that the mean torque values for HA&BSO coated implants were significantly higher than those for implants coated with HA only. Also the histological analysis revealed improved quality of bone response to implants coated with HA&BSO. Conclusions: HA and BSO extract produced a couple of synthetic and natural biomaterials act in harmony and complementary to each other in enhancing healthy and strong bony integration of cp Ti implants


Article
Remaining dentine thickness in mandibular premolars instrumented with two methods

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Background: Remaining dentine thickness after root canal instrumentation may be the main iatrogenic factor that correlates the future root resistance against fracture. This study was conducted to measure the remaining dentine thickness (RDT) at the junction of coronal and middle third of human mandibular premolars’ root canals before and after instrumentation with step-back technique using Gates-Glidden in serial sequence and balanced force technique with crown-down preparation using the Teflon muffle mould system Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted, untreated human mandibular premolar roots were embedded in an auto polymerizing acrylic resin. The acrylic-root blocks were cut vertically and scanned using flatbed scanner. The scanned images were processed with Adobe Photoshop CS8 and saved in TIFF format. RDT was measured using Adobe Photoshop CS8 ruler at the junction of coronal and middle third of root canal both mesially and distally; then the sections were reassembled with a muffle .Ten roots were instrumented using step-back technique using Gates- Glidden in a serial sequence. Ten roots were instrumented using balanced force technique with crown down preparation. Finally, the sections were separated again, and RDT were measured. Results: Very highly significant difference was recorded between RDT before and after instrumentation regarding mesial side for both techniques (p = 0.000); while the distal side scored highly significant difference for both techniques (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found between the used techniques for the amount of removed dentine thickness P=0.168. Conclusion: Root canal instrumentation with both techniques removed similar amount of dentine thickness and didn’t compromise RDT at junction of coronal and middle third of mandibular premolars root canal. However both techniques removed significant thickness of dentine mesially and distally. Dentine thickness before instrumentation was found to be the most significant factor determining RDT after instrumentation.


Article
Digital lateral cephalometric assessment of maxillary sinus dimensions in different skeletal classes

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Background: Maxillary sinus is the largest of the four paranasl sinus, among the paranasal sinus its plays an important role in the formation of facial contours. Therefore, knowledge of the development and size of the maxillary sinus may be crucial for diagnosing and treating various cases of malocclusion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of malocclusion in three skeletal classes on maxillary sinus dimensions. Material and methods: Total of 120 lateral cephalograms were derived from subjects with skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions, classified on the basis of the A-N-B angle. Each malocclusion group consisted of 20 males and 20 females ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Two linear measurements and three area measurements were made to evaluate maxillary sinus size. The procedure was accomplished by mean of computer and Auto Cad program. Results: it had been found that maxillary sinus dimensions were significantly Larger in male than in females in different skeletal malocclusion classes, skeletal malocclusion classes has no effect on dimensions of maxillary sinus except in male class II skeletal malocclusion. Conclusion: Skeletal classes malocclusion has no effect on dimension of maxillary sinus except in male class II skeletal malocclusion, male showed significantly greater maxillary sinus length, maxillary sinus height, and maxillary sinus area than that of female in all skeletal classes.


Article
Oral manifestations, microbial study and salivary IgA study in lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy

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Background: Lymphoma is a general term that includes 40 different sub-types of the disease. These can be divided into two main types: Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lymphomas are a cancer of white cells produced by the bone marrow and matured in the lymphatic system. The cancer may originate in the lymph glands or organs such as the liver, spleen, bowel or bone marrow. The aims were to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in lymphoma patients, isolate and identify different microorganism (aerobic, anaerobic and fungi), from oral micro flora from lymphoma patients under chemotherapy and detect the level of salivary IgA in comparison with healthy control. Subjects, materials and methods: The study included 52 lymphoma patients (17 Hodgkin’s and 35 Non Hodgkin’s) of both sexes (27 male and 25 female) those patients were matched in age and sex with 15 healthy control subjects. Results: The most frequent oral manifestations in the lymphoma patients in this study was taste alteration (52.2%), burning mouth sensation (37.3%), dry mouth (37.3%), halitosis (16.4%) and (7.5%) white coated tongue respectively. Various species of bacteria were isolated; the main bacteria isolated were streptococcus viridians, Neisseria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, and Escherichia-coli and anaerobic bacteria such as Peptostreptococcus and Bacillus. Fungi such as Candida albicans were also identified. Level of Salivary IgA was significantly decreased in lymphoma patients under treatment in comparison to healthy control. Conclusions: The finding of this study shows obvious differences in the prevalence of micro-organisms between lymphoma patients and healthy control. The most frequent oral manifestations in lymphoma patients were taste alterations, xerostomia, and burning mouth sensation. A significant decreased in level of salivary IgA was noticed in all lymphoma patients. It is highly recommended that all patients to have thorough dental examination before starting treatment


Article
Histomorphometric analysis of bone architecture parameters in socket of rabbit treated with Nigella Sativa

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Background: Seeds of Nigella sativa are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments. The multiple uses of Nigella sativa in folk medicine encouraged many investigators to isolate the possible active components and to conduct in vivo and in vitro studies on laboratory animals and human beings in order to understand its therapeutic actions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Nigella Sativa when used as a powder and during oil application on healing process of extracted teeth sockets in different weeks. Materials and Methods: The sample of our study consists of Forty eight rabbits to extract their upper two central incisors under general anesthesia. The left side filled once with Nigella sativa powder and once with Nigella sativa oil material, and the right side left for normal healing as a control group. The two sockets were sutured. The results were studied in intervals period 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, histologically and radiographically. Results: Histomorphometric analysis for variables: trabecular width, trabecular number, trabecular separation, Marrow space star volume analysis, Osteoblast number, osteocyte number and blood vessels number for two sockets showed significant differences in NgS powder group in comparison to NgS oil group and both NgS groups in comparison to control. Bone marrow star volume showed a significant variation between NgS powder and NgS oil and in both NgS groups in comparison to control, also bone marrow star volume showed decrease in it’s value with increment in healing period in all groups, Cortical bone thickness records showed increment in NgS powder group in comparison to oil and in both groups in comparison to control with increment in periods of healing, Counting of osteoblast and osteocyte showed high number in both NgS (powder and oil) groups in comparison to control group. The increment in number detected in 2nd week and then decrease as increase in periods (4th and 6th weeks) and numerous blood vessels detected in 4th week’s duration in NgS powder groups in apical portion while it detected in 6th weeks in apical portion for oil group. Conclusion: Nigella sativa (powder or oil) seems to be bioactive materials that enhance differentiation and proliferation of progenitor cells to specialized bone formative cells, with acceleration of bone formation

Keywords


Article
Oro-facial manifestations, microbial study and salivary enzyme analysis in patients with â-Thalassemia Major

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Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia resulting from defects in hemoglobin production. Beta Thalassemia, caused by a decrease in the production of â-globin chains, affects multiple organs and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of oro-facial manifestations, isolating and identifying different microorganisms (aerobic, anaerobic and fungi) from oral micro flora and to detect the enzyme level in saliva of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in â-thalassemia patients and compare with healthy control. Materials & methods: The study samples consist of (56) â-thalassemia major patients, (25) healthy group of both sexes, with age range from (10-30) years. Results: The most frequent Oro-facial manifestation in patients with â-thalassemia major in our study was saddle nose, rodent face and maxillary protrusion respectively.the main bacterial isolates were á-hemolytic streptococci, Neisseria, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus albus. Anaerobic bacteria like Peptostreptococcus and fungi like Candida albicans were identified. A highly significant difference was found between thalassaemic patients and controls regarding AST&ALT. this study showed a non significant difference in the prevalence of micro-organisms between patients with â-thalassemia major and healthy control, except for Neisseria. A highly significant difference of AST and ALT enzymes in thalassemia patients founded as compared to healthy control. Conclusions: Frequent oral examination and application of oral preventive measures for thalassaemic patients is mandatory.


Article
Radiographic study of mandibular angular cortical thickness in relation to the presence and eruption status of mandibular third molar

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Background: Mandible is one of the largest and strongest facial bones but there are some areas which are physically weak and fractured easily, i.e., angle and condyle. Recent studies demonstrated the correlation of the risk of mandibular angle fractures to the presence of the mandibular third molars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mandibular angular cortical thickness in relation to the presence and eruption status of mandibular third molar to verify if the mandibular third molar represent a risk factor for angle fracture or not. Materials and methods: The angular cortical thickness was measured using tracing elements and panoramic radiograph of 160 Iraqi subjects aged from (20-28) years, they were divided equally into four groups according to the status of mandibular third molar which were: Subjects with agenesis of mandibular third molar, subjects with completely erupted mandibular third molar, subjects with complete bony impacted mandibular third molar and subjects with extracted mandibular third molar. Results: Subjects with agenesis registered the greatest value in the mean angular cortical thickness followed by subjects with extracted, completely erupted and complete bony impacted mandibular third molar respectively. Extraction of mandibular third molar improved the angular cortical thickness and this effect had a strong positive linear correlation with the extraction duration. Conclusion: The measurement of the angular cortical thickness was greatly affected by the presence and eruption status of mandibular third molar, such measurements registered its highest values in subjects with third molar agenesis and its lowest values in subjects with complete bony impacted third molar.


Article
Digital panoramic assessment of maxillary implant insertion areas among controlled type 2 diabetic patients

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Background: Restoring the edentulous maxilla with dental implants is a complex and challenging procedure especially for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Appropriate pre-placement planning, in which digital panoramic image plays a pivotal role for assessment of alveolar bone heights and localization of anatomic landmarks, allows the dentist to place these implants with relative ease and predictability. The Aim of the study was to assess pre operatively the vertical bone heights of edentulous maxilla of controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for implant length selection and planning. Materials and methods: Digital panoramic images were taken from 50 male with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy male subjects (age ranged from 42-81 years). Five sites in maxilla were measured on every image, and the collected data were processed and statistically analyzed by using Medcalc Software program (version 11.5). Results: There was a highly significant difference for vertical bone height measurements of edentulous maxilla between healthy subjects and controlled type 2 diabetics. there was no significant difference for vertical bone height measurements with ageing. The linear regression model showed that the duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus had more effects on alveolar bone resorption than age. Conclusion: Edentulous subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus had more alveolar bone resorption even they had a control state of the disease unlike the healthy non-diabetic one and the bone resorption progressed with increased duration of the disease.


Article
Rare morphologic variations of mandibular canal course: radiographic study

Authors: Sura A. Rashid سرى رشيد
Pages: 64-67
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Background: mandibular canal course variations are found very rarely, nevertheless, their recognition may play a very important role prior to any surgical procedure involving the lower jaw. This study aimed to identify the variations in the different parts of the radiographic course of mandibular canal using digital panoramic imaging. Materials and Methods: The courses of the mandibular canal in 319 panoramic images of Iraqi subjects were evaluated carefully and any rare radiographic finding was recorded when identified. Results: A total of (5.95 % of the radiographic images examined in the present study demonstrated mandibular canal variations. The most common variation observed in the present study was bifid mandibular canal (1.88 %), followed by indistinct mental foramen (1.57%), then indistinct mandibular canal walls (1.25%) and indistinct mandibular foramen (1.25%). Conclusion: The course and configuration of the mandibular canal should be carefully observed in different locations because it posses many variations. Recognition of these variations is important in preventing the intra and post operative complications in certain dental procedures


Article
Detection of salivary flow rate and minerals in smokers and non smokers with chronic periodontitis (Clinical and Biochemical study)

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Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth and it’s a common chronic adult condition. Smoking is considering a major risk factor for development and progression of periodontal disease, and it has an effect to the salivary minerals which cooperate with plaque and calculus initiation, maturation, and metabolism with periodontal disease formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on the salivary minerals in subjects with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects by biochemical analysis of these minerals. . Materials and methods: The study group included 75 males–25 males smokers with chronic periodontitis (G1), 25 males non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (G2) and 25 males non smokers with healthy periodontium (G3). All with an age rang 30-40 years. Clinical measurements include (PLI, BOP, PPD, CAL) were determined for each tooth except third molar. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. PH and salivary flow rate (SFR) were obtained and the levels of five elements–sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate in each specimen were analyzed. Results: A highly significant difference in PLI in (G1) group than in (G3) group and a non significant in (G1) group than (G2) group. A highly significant relation of gingival bleeding on probing in (G2) group in compared to (G1) group with very clearly marked decrease in the total sites that bleed in smokers than non-smokers. Significant differences in PPD and CAL were found between (G1) group and (G2) group. The results of this study for salivary minerals showed that there were high significant differences between (G1) group and (G2) group for Ca+2, Na+1 and K+1 ions and between (G1) group and (G3) group for Ca+2, Na+1, K+1 and Po4-3 ions while significant differences were found in (G1) group compared with the other groups for Mg+2 ion. Salivary flow rate was significantly higher in (G1) group compared with the other groups. A significant increase in PH level in (G1) group compared to (G3). In (G1) group, there was a significant positive correlation between the mean level of Ca+2 and PLI. There was also a significant negative correlation between the mean level of Po4-3 and CAL. Conclusions: The researcher could conclude that monitoring for changes in salivary composition might be a useful tool to detect the effect of smoking on periodontal health status.


Article
Azithomycin as an adjunctive to non-surgical treatment in comparison with doxycycline in chronic periodontitis patients: 2-months randomized clinical trial

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Background: Antibiotic therapy can be used in very specific periodontal treatment situations such as in refractory cases of periodontal disease which is found to be more prevalent in smokers. The aim of study was to asses the clinical effect of systemic use of Azithromycin and Doxycycline as adjunctive to non surgical scaling and root planning in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: The study participants were 21 adult male, divided to three groups. 1n: GI treated by non surgical root planning with systemic intake of Azithromycin of 500 mg once daily for three days only. In GII Doxycycline 100mg once daily was given for one week in addition to non surgical root planning while in the G III (control group) the patients were treated only by a routine scaling and root planning with out using any type of drug. .The periodontal parameters used are the following:- Plaque index system(PLI) Gingival index (GI),Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Bleeding on probing (BoP) Results: The study based on three periodontal parameters to asses the results of study, first of which is plaque index and there was a significant low in all groups from the base line until the 4th visit while the bleeding on probing showed a highly significant difference between the groups whom take antibiotics as an adjunctive to a non surgical treatment and the group with out antibiotics. While for probing pocket depth the difference was only between the groups whom take Azithromycin and control group this difference was start in the 2nd visit until the last visit Conclusion: Although both treatment strategies seemed to be a successful therapy, the adjunctive use of 500 mg azithromycin systemically enhanced the clinical results

Keywords

Azithromycin --- Doxycycline


Article
Amount of bone loss after maxillary dental implant loading in smoker and non-smoker patients

Authors: Taha Y. Hamad طه حمد
Pages: 76-81
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Background: Excessive crestal bone loss after dental implant occurs due to many factors among which, is smoking. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect and role of smoking in breakdown of bone around dental implant and the possibility to be a factor of its failure. Method: Forty implants had been inserted in anterior and bicuspid region of upper arch of 40 systemically healthy male subjects, 20 were smokers and the other 20 subjects were non smokers. After loading the prosthesis, all subjects were followed by clinical (checking for any mobility or gingival change) and radiographic examination for two successive 6 months periods (the overall follow up period was 1 year). Mesial and distal bone levels were measured by digitized x ray each six months in both smokers and non smokers. All measurements were recorded for each patient and a comparison of marginal bone level was done. Results: A marked excessive marginal bone loss was found at mesial side of smokers, mean (1.18± 0.033) mm after 6 months of loading and mean of (1.52 ± 0.052) mm after 1 year, while in non smoker group, the mean of mesial bone loss after 6 months was (0.85 ± 0.026) mm and (1.12 ± 0.031) mm after 1 year. The mean distal bone loss in smokers at the two periods was (1.23 ± 0.04) mm and (1.59 ± 0.046) mm, while in non smokers, the mean distal bone loss was (0.87 ± 0.023) mm and (1.1 ± 0.029) mm respectively. Differences in all measurements were significant P < 0.001. Conclusion: Smoking could be a factor results in future implant failure


Article
Effect of in-dental clinic bleaching agents on the releases of mercury from the specimen of amalgam restoration in relation to their times intervals

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Background: Measuring the effect of bleaching agents on mercury release from dental amalgam is important from both restorative and toxicological points view. The aims of the study was to evaluate the effects of two different types of bleaching agents for vital teeth by using with light source on the release of mercury from the specimen of amalgam restoration . Materials and methods: Fifty three specimen of amalgam restoration, were subject to treated with bleaching agents ( 35% hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide ) and then application of light and laser radiation to activate the bleaching agents. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer with Gold Vapor Generator was used to measure the release of mercury from the specimen of amalgam restoration. Results: Highly significant increase in the release of release of mercury from the specimen of amalgam restoration in relation to the times intervals. Conclusions: In this study showed that release of release of mercury from the specimen of amalgam restoration, after treated with both 35% carbamide peroxide and 35% hydrogen peroxide increase with increase the time and compared with control groups.


Article
Dental caries and salivary lipid soluble vitamins among group of women aged 30-39 years with breast cancer

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Background: Breast cancer is one of the serious diseases affect women in large percentage that may cause general systemic changes, these systemic changes affect on saliva composition especially lipid soluble vitamins (A ,D ,E ,K) which lead to an adverse effect on oral health status. This study were conducted to evaluate the concentration of lipid soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) in saliva and their relation to dental caries among breast cancer and compared to control group. Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 60 females aged 30_39 years attending Al_Yarmook Teaching Hospital, 30 females newly diagnosed with breast cancer at stages II and III before taking any treatment and surgery and 30 female without clinical signs of breast cancer (control group).The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was through the application of DMFS index according to criteria of Manji et al (1989). Salivary sample were collected under standardized condition, stimulated salivary samples were collected according to(Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, 1994) and saliva analyzed for estimation of lipid soluble vitamins (A ,D ,E ,K) by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) apparatus. Results: The percentage of dental caries occurrence was 100% among breast cancer group and control group. Aries experience (DMFS) was higher among breast cancer group (45.10±17.06) compared with control group (33.63±11.10) with no significant differences. Lipid soluble vitamins (A ,D ,E ,K ) were lower in breast cancer group compared to control group with highly significant differences. Salivary lipid soluble vitamins A and E showed a not significant correlation in negative direction with dental caries experience (DMFS), while salivary lipid soluble vitamins D and K showed a not significant correlation in positive direction. Conclusions: Dental caries revealed higher percentage of occurrence among breast cancer group


Article
The relation of salivary antioxidants and lipid peroxidation biomarker to periodontal diseases among overweight and obese adult aged 55-65 year-old at Textile factory in Mosul city

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas بيداء ياس
Pages: 90-95
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Background: Overweight and obesity might be a potential risk factor for periodontal diseases. The principle objective of this study was to identify the relationship of salivary antioxidants (vitamin E and uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde/MDA) with periodontal diseases among overweight and obese adult aged 55-65 yearold subject at Textile factory in Mosul city. Materials and methods: All subjects aged 55-65 year-old (thirty five subjects) at Textile factory in Mosul city took part in this study. Salivary flow rate was measured after collection of unstimulated saliva then salivary samples were analyzed for the measurement of salivary antioxidants (vitamin E and uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker (malondialdehyde/MDA). Periodontal diseases were evaluated by using the gingival index (GI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Body weight was determined by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was higher among obese and overweight than non-obese with highly significant difference (F=5.52, P<0.01). Similarly vitamin E and uric acid levels were elevated among obese and overweight compared with non-obese though statistical differences were not significant (P>0.05). In contrast salivary flow rate was lower among obese and overweight than non-obese with highly significant difference (F=8.11, P<0.01). Regarding periodontal diseases, obese subjects showed higher periodontal destruction in comparison with nonobese. Conclusions: Overweight and obese subjects could be considered as special group who need educational and preventive programs that include maintaining a normal body weight, eating a well-balanced diet and engaging in physical activity in addition to oral hygiene practices to improve their oral and general health.


Article
The effect of temperature variation of composite orthodontic adhesive on shear bond strength (In vitro comparative study)

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Background: The temperature of the adhesive may influence the chemical reactions and consequently interfere with bonding procedures, compromising the quality and durability of the bonding. This in vitro study was designed to assess and compare the effect of temperature variation in an orthodontic office on the shear bond strengths and the types of bond failure of two composite adhesive systems, a No-Mix and Light Cure adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Ninety sound human upper first premolars were collected and divided randomly into six equal groups, three groups for One-Step and three groups for Light Cure adhesive systems with 15 teeth each. After a careful and standardized bonding procedure, the samples were subjected to shear tests using a Tinius-Olsen Universal Testing machine. After debonding, the bracket bases and the corresponding teeth were examined under a stereomicroscope with a magnification of 20X to determine the predominant failure type. Results: The results of this study showed that for the One-Step system temperature variation has a non-significant difference, while for the Light Cure system the refrigerated adhesive has significant higher shear bond strength. There was a non-significant difference in the failure site for both of the adhesive systems used in the study. Conclusion: In short, temperature variation affected Light Cure adhesive system more than No-Mix adhesive system


Article
The prediction of the relation between anterior facial skeleton and sella turcica in Iraqi sample

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Background: The relation between the anterior facial skeleton and sella turcica may vary from individual to individual, and the establishment of normal standards in different skeletal patterns will aid in the process of eliminating any abnormality in such an important region. This study aimed to find the relation of the anterior facial skeleton to the sella turcica in different skeletal patterns and in both gender and also to find the most valid equation for describing these relationships to be applied practically in different skeletal patterns. Materials and method: The sample consisted of “138” digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs related mostly to patients attended to the college of dentistry /Baghdad University with an age range “18-30” years, they classified into three skeletal patterns . Six cephalometric parameters in addition to shape of Sella Turcica were measured and assessed for each individual radiograph using AutoCAD program 2008. Results : The linear measurements that assess the relation of sella turcica to anterior facial skeleton in all skeletal patterns showed a very highly significant gender differences; being larger in males than in females, while for the angular measurements, no gender difference were found. Among the three skeletal patterns only the “S-B Length” and the “ASB angle” showed a very highly significant difference. The Pearson’s correlation test in all skeletal patterns showed a very highly significant positive correlation among “ S-N, S-A & S-B Length ” and among “ NSA, NSB & ASB angles”, however highly predictable regression equations in the three skeletal patterns were found for the first time in Iraq between “ NSB & NSA angles ”. Conclusions: The introduction of valid predictable equations for the first time that can assess the relation between Sella Turcica and anterior facial skeleton in Iraqi sample


Article
Effect of german chamomile (matricaria recutita) extracts on Mutans Streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate: A comparative in vitro and in vivo study

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Abstract

Background: German chamomile has a very long history of traditional use, it is primary uses are as a sedative, anxiolytic and antispasmodic, and as a treatment for mild skin irritation and inflammation, is one of the herbs that has been known as an anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and wound healing promoter, this satudy was done to evaluate the antibacterial effect of chamomile on Growth, viability count, adherence and acidigenicity of mutans streptococci in vitro. And viability counts of Streptococci and mutans streptococci, the pH and salivary flow rate of saliva among a number of volunteers. Materials and Methods: After the preparation of alcoholic chamomile extract and the collection of the stimulated saliva from a ten healthy looking dental students aged (20-22 years) from which the Mutans Streptococci was isolated , purified, and diagnosed the four in vitro and one in vivo study was done to test the effect of chamomile extract on growth, adherence, and acidogenicity of Mutans Streptococci. Result: The results showed that, the concentration of chamomile extract from 2.5% have an inhibition effect on the mutans bacteria, and the effectiveness increased with the increasing of the concentration of the extracts till the 15% which have an effect equal to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: the alcoholic chamomile extract was effective in prevention of growth, adherence, and acid production of Mutans Streptococci


Article
Palatal dimensions in different occlusal relationships

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Background: This study aimed to compare the palatal dimensions in different occlusal relationships and to find out the genders difference in each relationship. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 60 sets of dental casts for 60 dental students and patients attending the Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. These casts divided into three groups according to the Angle's classification: Class I group: included casts of subjects had Class I normal occlusion and consisted of 10 males and 10 females. Class II Division 1 group: included casts of subjects had Class II Division 1 malocclusion and consisted of 10 males and 10 females. Class III group: included casts of subjects with Class III malocclusion and consisted of 10 males and 10 females. The palatal dimensions were measured using digital vernier and palatometer. Descriptive statistics were performed to each gender and to both genders in each class. Inferential statistics included independent sample t-test to find out the presence of genders difference and ANOVA then LSD tests to show the classes differences in each gender and in the total sample. Results and Conclusions: The results showed that Class I and II males had the largest palatal dimensions than females while Class III females had the largest palatal dimensions than males. Class I subjects had the largest palatal width and depth while Class II subjects had the largest palatal length. Class I males and Class III females had the largest palatal width than other classes. Class III females and Class II males had the largest palatal depth than other classes


Article
Evaluation of canine retraction rate and molar anchorage loss on implant and non-implant sides for Iraqi adult sample (A clinical and comparative study)

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Background: Various anchorage techniques designed for canine retraction. Intraoral conventional techniques not always enough, and now implants are widely used to increase the intra oral anchorage. The purposes of this study were to measure and compare the rates of canine retraction and molar anchorage loss with titanium mini-implant anchorage and conventional molar anchorage. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 20 Iraqi patients (10 female, 10 male; range, 18-25 years; mean age, 19.7 years) who were scheduled for extraction of upper first premolars, After leveling and aligning, titanium miniimplants 1.6 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length inserted in the left side of maxillary arches between the roots of the second premolars and the first molars while the non-implant side include banding of maxillary right first and second molars with heavy ligation of maxillary right second premolar, first molar and second molar. X-ray guide and a bite wing radiograph used to determine the implant position. The implants indirectly and immediately loaded and the molars were also loaded immediately with closed coil springs with a force of 150 g for canine retraction. Using the pre and post retraction study models, the amount of canine retraction was measured from canine cusp tip while molar anchorage loss measured from molar central fossa by using acrylic plug fabricated from acrylic with reference wires 1.0 mm SS embedded in the acrylic. Results: mean canine retraction amounts and rates were larger on the implant-anchorage side than those on the molar-anchorage side in both genders. While mean molar anchorage loss amounts were smaller on the implantanchorage side than that on the molar-anchorage side in both genders and there was highly significant difference for canine retraction rate and molar anchorage loss between both sides in both genders. Conclusion: the Canine retraction proceeds at a faster rate when titanium mini-implants are used for anchorage


Article
The skeletal features of Iraqi adult nasal obstruction sample (A posteroanterior cephalometric comparative study)

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Background: Chronic respiratory obstruction can be produced by prolonged inflammation of the nasal mucosa associated with allergies or chronic infection. It can also be produced by mechanical obstruction any where within the nasorespiratory system from the nares to the posterior nasal change. There may be a relation between the skeletal features of the facial skeleton and the respiratory pattern and this relation should be studied carefully. This study aimed to study and compare the relation between the nasal obstruction and the skeletal features of the facial skeleton in adults between the sample and control groups and to find the Pearson correlation coefficient between the variables related to the nasomaxillary complex for the sample and control groups. Materials and methods: The sample is composed of 50 Iraqi Arab adult patients out of 167 with age range from 18-35 years, having nasal obstruction had been examined in Tikrit general hospital and identified by the E.N.T. specialist. The control group will be 50 subjects out of 150 in the same age group and also had been examined and identified by the E.N.T specialist in Tikrit general hospital as having no nasal obstruction. Twelve linear measurements and a ratio were determined on each radiograph. For each variable, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, and the standard error were calculated. For statistical evaluation, an independent-samples t-test was performed. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to indicate the relationship between nasal and maxillary variables. Results: There was no significant difference between the sample and control groups for the skeletal features of the facial skeleton except the ramal height of the right and left sides and there was weak correlation between the nasal and maxillary variables for the sample and control groups. Conclusion: There is no effect of the nasal obstruction on the skeletal features of the facial skeleton in Iraqi adult sample.


Article
Oral health status and treatment needs in relation to nutritional status among 9-10 year-old school children in Nassiryia City/Iraq

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Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common and widely spread disease affecting humans at different ages. Nutrition was reported to be one of the factors affecting the severity of oral diseases. The aims of this study included the investigation of the prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis, dental plaque, dental calculus, in addition to dental treatment needs. Furthermore oral diseases were studies in relation to nutritional status. Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 1350 (696 males and 654 females) selected randomly from different school in Nassiryia city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were according to the criteria described by WHO (1987). Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment, Ramfjord index (1959) was applied for the assessment of calculus, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was followed for recording gingival health condition. Ramfjord index teeth (1959) were examined to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition. Nutritional status was assessed according to body mass index (BMI) indicator by using anthropometric measurement (height and weight) Results: Results showed that 8.96% of the total sample was caries-free. The dmfs value was higher among females compared to males with statistically highly significant difference (P<0.001). In permanent dentition, the DMFS value of the total children also was higher among females compared to males, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of the total sample 75.7% was found to be in need of one surface restoration, No statistically significant differences were recorded between the two genders concerning plaque, gingival and calculus indices (P>0.05). The prevalence of malnutrition described by the BMI indicator was 5.9%. For the total sample, no significant differences were recorded in mean dmfs/ DMFS and different grades of nutritional status indicator. Conclusion: A high prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis were recorded indicating the need of a public health programs.


Article
Accuracy and precision of a photographic system for the three-dimensional study of facial morphology

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Background: Facial analysis is vital for orthodontic treatment planning but traditional methods of facial analysis are incapable of fully capturing the three-dimensional complexity of the human face. The purpose of this study was to determine the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through low-cost digital three-dimensional photogrammetry system. Materials and methods: Eighteen standard craniofacial measurements were obtained from faces of thirty young adults using two methods: calipers and 3D photos (obtained with a Photomodeler system). After marking anthropometric landmarks on the faces of the sample, direct measurements were taken using calipers then five photographs were taken at different angles and 3D model constructed and the same measurement were taken using Photomodeler. Differences between two methods were calculated. To test the precision of the new photogrammetric system, measurements were repeated on the same photographs by the researcher and then by another examiner and also a new set of photographs were taken for each individual and measurements were done on them. Three different precision estimates were calculated to measure random error for the new method. Results: Systematic errors between the two methods were found for seven measurements but most mean differences were clinically insignificant (below 2 mm). In terms of measurement precision, no systematic biases were found between repeated measurements on the same photographs or on different photographs and our precision estimates showed a clinically acceptable level of repeatability for the Photomodeler system. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Photomodeler 3D photogrammetry system can provide accurate and reliable facial measurements. It is relatively fast and requires only inexpensive equipment


Article
Simulated canine retraction with different sizes of stainless steel archwires (An in-vitro study)

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Background: This study aimed to assess five different sizes of archwires regarding canine retraction and distopalatal rotation in an invitro model. Materials and method: A total of 50 acrylic canine teeth were fabricated as a replica to a natural tooth, to which 0.022×0.030 inch slot standard edgewise brackets were bonded. They were ligated to straight .018 inch, 0.016×0.022 inch, 0.017×0.022 inch, 0.018×0.022 inch, and 0.019×0.025 inch stainless steel archwires using loose steel ligature wire. The teeth were moved through softened wax (at 50°C) along the archwires using NiTi closed coil springs then the amount of tooth movement, and the degree of rotation were measured. Results: The descriptive statistics showed that the maximum distance of canine retraction and rotation was with 0.018 inch wire, while the minimum was with 0.019×0.025 archwire. For canine retraction only a non-significant differences between 0.016×0.022 and 0.017×0.022 archwires and between 0.018×0.022 and 0.019×0.025 archwires were found, while for canine rotation the non-significant differences were between 0.017×0.022 and 0.018×0.022 archwires and between 0.018×0.022 and 0.019×0.025 archwires as detected by ANOVA test and post hoc Scheffe test. Pearson correlation coefficient test revealed non-significant correlation between the distance moved by the canine and its degree of rotation. Conclusion: The greatest amount of canine retraction and rotation achieved with 0.018 inch stainless steel archwire, while the opposite occurred with 0.019×0.025 inch wire. 0.017×0.022 inch archwire combined properties acceptable both regarding canine retraction and rotation.


Article
Study of HLA Class I and Class II by (PCR-SSP) and the role of salivary TNF-α in Iraqi patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

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Background: Until today, the etiology of recurrent aphthous stomatitis remains unknown, although hints of its etiologic basis lay on genetic susceptibility, infectious agents and alterations in immune mechanics. Current study was established to shed light on the possible association of human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles with recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and to investigate the possible alterations in salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in patients and its relation with clinical types of disease. Subjects and Methods: The study included 55 subjects: 30 recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients and 25 apparently healthy subjects as control. Polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers assay was conducted to assess human leukocyte antigen-typing whereas salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha level was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The present study showed a significant association of HLA-Cw*12:02:01-and DQB1*02:01:01- alleles with recurrent aphthous stomatitis as compared with healthy control, and there was significant low frequency of DQB1*05:01:01- allele in patients when compared with healthy control. Furthermore, high frequency of DQB1*02:01:01- alleles was observed among patients with minor type of recurrent aphthous stomatitis when compared with healthy control. Another interesting finding in this study was the significant elevation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in patients than in healthy controls, as well as strong association of high salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha level among patients who expressed DQB1*02:01:0-allell was observed. Conclusion: Cw*12:02:01- and DQB1*02:01:01-alleles may played a role in the etiology of the disease, whereas DQB1*05:01:01-05 may confer protective effects against recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Moreover; salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha may play an important role in pathogenesis of disease, and may also have an important role in the search of new treatments for disease

Keywords

RAS --- HLA allele --- PCR --- Salivary TNF-á


Article
The effect of Tamarix ramosissima and Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts on the growth of Candida spp. isolated from the saliva of type II diabetes mellitus patients

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Background: Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives. These secondary metabolites could be utilized for benefit of mankind by studying their medicinal properties The study was performed for isolation and identification of the oral Candida species in patients with type II Diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects (control group) and testing the effect of Tamarix ramosissima (T. ramosissima)and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ci. Zeylanicum)extract on the isolated species. Materials and Methods: . Fasting stimulated saliva were collected by spitting method for each subject. Candida species were isolated, purified and identified according to morphological characteristic on chromogenic agar (CHROMagar Candida) and biochemical test on API Candida. Also the study included the effect of T. ramosissima and Ci.zeylanicum extracts on the isolated species using agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, alcoholic, ethylacetate and aqueous acetone extracts were prepared in different concentrations T. ramosissima and aqueous, alcoholic extract from Ci.zeylanicum. The activity of the extract was determined by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone. Results: The results showed that Candida species was recovered from the oral cavity of 76% of the diabetic group, in contrast to 8.58% of the control group. Candida albicans (C. albicans) was the most frequently isolated species in both groups it reach to 33 isolates (66%) (in diabetic group fallowed by C. krusei two isolates (4%), C. glabrata one isolate (2%), C.tropicalis one isolate (2%) and C. lusitaniae one isolate (2%) and three isolates (8.58%) of C. albicans in the control group. There was highly significant p<0.01 correlation between glycemic control and age, significant p<0.05 correlation between females and diabetes with oral carriage of Candida species, also results showed highly significant p<0.01 antifungal effect of Tamarix ramosissima aqueous acetone extract on all Candida species by using different concentrations there; were diameters of inhibition zones found to increase with increasing the concentration of the extracts. While aqueous, alcoholic and ethylacetate extract of Tamarix ramosissima did not show any effect on Candida species. Highly significance p<0.01 was shown in aqueous, alcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on all Candida species; the diameter of inhibition increase with increasing the concentration. Conclosion: Diabetic patients had a higher oral candidal carriage rate in comparison to non- diabetic . C. albicans was the predominant isolate, and a variety of other Candidal species. Oral candidal colonization was highly significantly associated with fasting blood sugar. Tamarix. ramosissima leaves (aqueous acetone) extract have antifungal effect against Candida while (ethylacetate, aqueous and alcoholic) extract don’t have antifungal effectagainst Candida isolates from the oral cavity of Diabetes mellitus type II. Cinnamomum. zeylanicum bark (aqueous and alcoholic) extract have antifungal effect against Candida isolates from oral cavity of Diabetes mellitus type II.

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