Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2012 volume:24 issue:2

Article
Effect of different metal surface treatments and thermocycling on shear bond strength of heat cure and light cure at Co/Cr and Ni/Cr interface

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Background Optimum bond strength at the metal – resin interface of prosthesis is essential for the success of that prosthesis. The junction between metal alloy and acrylic resin is an area of clinical concern .Failure of a R.P.D. may be linked to this interface. The main objective of this study were to determine the effect of different metal surface treatment and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of Co/Cr alloy and Ni/Cr alloy to heat cure acrylic resin and light cure acrylic resin. Materials and methods: 120 metal samples were prepared, 60 Co/Cr samples and 60 Ni/Cr of square flat plate (30 mm x 30mm x 2 mm) that incorporated a central area (8mmx 12mm) of a large retentive mesh to simulate denture framework. The samples were cleaned, finished and electropolished. Sixty samples of each type of metals were divided into two groups according to the type of acrylic resin received each one 30 samples (A and group C) for heat cure, B and group D for light cure) which were furtherly subdivided according to the type of surface treatment into 3 subgroups each one 10 samples(A1 ,B1 ,C1and D1 )for no surface treatment, no thermocycling as a control group (A2, B2 ,C2 and D2 )for Metal Prime II application with thermocycling (A3, B3 ,C3 and D3) for combination of Air Abrasion and Metal Primer II application with thermocycling. The acrylic block were then prepared as a rectangular block(12mm length ,8 mm width ,6 mm high )that was placed on a central area of metal plates, the acrylic was fabricated in the same conventional way of denture construction. All the sample were mounted on specially test fixture that would hold them rigid at a 90-degree angle from the horizontal plane of the crosshead of the Instron machine .A tangent shear force was created by applying vertical load to the specimen .All of the specimen were tested with Instron machine using stainless steel chisel shaped road at a constant crosshead speed of 5 mm min until failure of the bond occurred The specimen were stressed to failure .The force of bond failure was recorded in Newton, which was divide by the surface of the bonded area (96 mm2 )to obtain the shear bond strength calculated in Mpa. Result: The results showed that the subgroup that received no surface treatment and without thermocycling for both two type of resins heat cure and light cure (A1, B1, C1and D1) had the highest shear bond values, followed by subgroups that received Air Abrasion + Metal Primer II surface treatments and thermocycling (A3, B3, C3, D3).Subgroups that received Metal Primer II alone (A2, B2, C2 and D2) showed the least shear bond value than the other subgroups. Conclusion: All metal samples of Co/Cr and Ni/Cr with heat cure acrylic resin showed higher SBS mean values than that light cure resin whether with surface treatment and thermocycling or without thermocycling concluded higher binding of heat cure acrylic resin with the metal surface


Article
Comparison of certain mechanical properties including deflection fatigue resistance of Cobalt Chromium alloy & Nylon tooth colored clasping materials

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Background: This study was conducted to test & compare the mechanical properties including the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, ductility & deflection fatigue resistance of Cobalt Chromium alloy samples, Flexite Supreme samples & commercially available Nylon samples, thus evaluating efficiency & life time expectancy of these materials. Materials and methods: A reproduction mold was made from addition silicon reproduction material to produce wax patterns of standardized measures, these sacrificial patterns were used to produce fifty samples of each of the three materials (a total of 150 samples). These specimens were tested by tensile testing machine and deflection fatigue resistance machine. Results: The tested materials expressed differences in their mechanical properties that were highly significant in all comparisons. Conclusions: Cobalt Chromium alloy, aside from its poor aesthetic, performs better in shallow deflection and have a reasonable life expectancy. Flexile supreme is more aesthetically acceptable, with better performance and longer life expectancy. Commercial nylon is with poor quality rendering it unusable


Article
A comparison of the retention of complete denture bases having different types of posterior palatal seal with different palatal forms

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Background: The most common problem associated with the lack of retention of maxillary complete denture is faulty posterior palatal seal pps. The methods for achieving a pps include arbitrarily scraping the cast, selective pressure technique, and the physiologic impression technique. Material and Method: In this study forces required to dislodge a maxillary complete denture bases were compared for different types of posterior palatal seals (PPS) with different palatal forms by using a specially designed strain gauge force tranducer and strain measuring device. Nine male and female subjects are selected with age range 55-70 years. These patients with different palatal forms according to House's classification of palatal forms: Class I flat, Class II intermediate and Class III high. Using different impression technique the first ordinary impression with Zincoxide eugenol and scraping the cast for pps, the second physiological impression by using korecta wax No.4. Result: The results show very highly significant difference, between the different designs of pps and physiological impression for each group. Conclusion: The physiological impression of pps give better retention because no over compression of tissues (within the physiological limit) and concluded that the form of palate has direct influence on the retention of complete dentures and will aid in the selection of type of posterior palatal seal needed


Article
An evaluation of the use different techniques of the thermoplasticized obturators on the coronal seal

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Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate coronal leakage of root canals obturated by various techniques. Methodology: Straight single rooted teeth with mature apices (6 groups of 10 teeth each). Root canals were prepared according to the crown down technique using hand ProTaper system. Endofill root canal sealer and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was used. Root canals were obturated using cold lateral condensation Thermafil and Soft Core obturation after root canal filling the six groups was divided into two individual groups of 30 teeth. The first group of 30 teeth was kept for 1 week the second 3 week at 37 oC. Teeth were immersed in india ink. Each was split and sectioned longitudinally and the maximum extent of leakage was measured using a stereomicroscope Results: Leakage occurred whatever filling technique was used the number of teeth with gross leakage decreased with time up to 3 weeks. There were significant differences in coronal leakage between the various obturation techniques after 1 week, and after 3 weeks. No statistically significant differences were found between soft-Core and cold lateral condensation after 1 week and statistically significant differences were found after 3 weeks. There were statistically significant differences between Thermafil and lateral condensation after 1 week and no statistically significant differences after 3 weeks. Conclusion: Under the conditions of the present study none of the gutta-percha obturation techniques prevented coronal leakage. Coronal leakage increased during the first week for CLC, Thermafil and Soft-Core obturators, and decreased after 3 weeks. Coronal leakage in the Soft-Core obturators was higher than Thermafil and CLC after one week. Thermafil coronal leakage was lower than others after one week. Coronal leakage in the Soft-Core obturators higher than Thermafil and CLC after three weeks coronal leakage was equal in Thermafil and CLC after three weeks


Article
An evaluation of apical microleakage in roots filled with thermoplastic synthetic polymer based root canal filling material (RealSeal 1 bonded obturation)

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the apical microleakage of roots canal filled with cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha, cold lateral condensation of Resilon, Thermafil and RealSeal1 bonded obturation. Materials and methods: Sixty freshly extracted maxillary first molars with straight palatal roots .Using diamond disc bur with straight hand piece and water coolant the palatal roots of teeth were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at the furcation area. All roots were prepared with crown-down technique using hand ProTaper system (Sx-F4).The prepared roots randomly divided into 4 groups of fifteen roots each; the groups obturated with different obturation technique. In Group 1 roots obturated with( lateral condensation of gutta-percha), Group 2 was obturated with(lateral condensation of Resilon),group3 was obturated with (Thermafil) while in group4 obturated with( RealSeal 1 bonded obturation).All the samples sealed coronally and stored in normal saline at 37°C for one week ,then all the roots submerged Indian ink for one week. The roots were cleared and the degree of linear dye penetration was measured in millimeter by stereomicroscope under 40X magnification with calibrated scale ocular grid. Results: The results showed that the RealSeal1 bonded obturation leaked apically significantly higher than other test groups, while the group of lateral condensation of gutta-percha exhibited the least value of apical microleakage. Conclusion: The complete hermetic apical seal cannot be created neither with gutta-percha nor with Real Seal 1bonded obturation


Article
The effect of two types of disinfectant on shear bond strength, hardness, roughness of two types of soft liners

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Background: Poor oral hygiene results in accumulation of dental plaque and dental biofilms, especially in elderly with denture, regular cleaning of the dentures using chemical or physical methods can minimize the risk of (stomatitis) in denture users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of disinfectant on some mechanical properties of two types of soft liners. Materials and methods: 180 specimens from 2 types of soft liners (Mollosile, Viscogel) were prepared and divided into 2 major groups, mollosile group, viscogel group for each test and each major group is divided into 3 subgroups, each subgroup includes 10 specimens. Hardness and roughness test specimens were consist of two discs, acrylic disc with dimensions(4mm,15mm)thickness, diameter respectively and soft liner disc with dimensions (2mm,15mm) thickness, diameter respectively. For shear bond test, specimens were prepared from two blocks of acrylic measuring (75mm, 25mm, 5mm)length, width, depth respectively with stopper (3mm) and handle of (13mm) thickness and soft liner material in the space between the two acrylic blocks. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37Co then they were immersed into water(control group) , Solo, Chlorhexidine 0.2 % disinfectant (test groups) for 8 hours to simulate the weekly exposure time of soft liner with disinfectant. A profilometer device was used to measure the roughness property and Shore A for hardness property and Micro-computer controlled electronic universal testing machine for shear bond property. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant difference in roughness mean values for each soft liner after immersed in disinfectant solutions while there was no significant difference in mean values of (hardness, shear bond strength) for each soft liner after immersed into disinfectant solutions. Conclusion: Disinfectant solutions (SOLO, CHLORHEXIDINE) had no effect on hardness and shear bond strength of soft liners (MOLLOSILE, VISCOGEL) while they had effect on surface roughness by decreasing the surface roughness of these soft liners which is a favorable condition.


Article
Immunohistochemical detection to evaluate the biological role of Ti implants coated by a combination of fibronectin protein and hydroxyapitate (EPD) (in vivo study)

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Background: physicochemical and biochemical coating techniques that are investigated now a day to enhance bone regeneration at the interface of titanium implant materials. The combination, however, of both organic and inorganic constituents is expected to result into truly bone-resembling coatings and as such to a new generation of surface-modified titanium implants with improved functionality and biological efficacy. This research was conducted to study the expression of osteocalcin and growth hormone receptor as bone formation markers in coated and uncoated implant in interval periods (3days,1,2and 6 weeks)., Materials and methods: Commercially pure titanium (CpTi) implants coated with hydroxyapatite by EPD method and with fibronectin protein, were placed in the tibia of (16) New Zeland white rabbits , immunohistochemical tests for detection of expression of osteocalcin and growth hormone receptor were performed on all the implants of both control and experimental groups (3days,1,2 and 6 weeks) healing intervals. Mechanical test (torque removal test) was performed as an indicator for the presence of osseointegration and as a test for the mechanical property of bone-implant interface to be primarily propping the interface machanics. Results: The removal torque mean values in all studied groups uncoated and coated were increasing with advancing time (higher at 6 than 2 weeks periods) and coated implant showed high value in comparsion to control. Result shows that Immunohistochemical findings revealed high positive expression range from strong to moderate for osteocalcin and growth hormone receptor in coated implant in comparison to uncoated. These results indicating that a mixing of bioactive HA ceramic and FN increased the activity of coated layer which improved the bone formation and maturation in bone-implant interface and enhance mechanical interlocking with bone. Conclusions: The present study concludes that organic and inorganic surface modification for titanium implant surface by HA and FN enhances bone formation and increase osseointegration


Article
Evaluation of 900 mhz mobile phone effects on palate and tooth germ development in mouse embryo (histological & immunohistochemical study)

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Background Mobile telephones, sometimes called cellular phones (GSM, Global System for Mobile Communication) or handies, are now an integral part of modern telecommunications. In some parts of the world, they are the most reliable or only phones available. In others, mobile phones are very popular because they allow people to maintain continuous communication without hampering freedom of movement.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of 900 MHz mobile phone on palate and tooth germ development in mouse embryo for the period of (16th day, 18th day intrauterine life and one day postnatal life). Materials and Methods Thirty pregnant Bulb-c Albeno Swiss female mouse (2-3 months of age, 100-125 gm of weight), were used in the present experiment. Those mice were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of 6 pregnant mice were assigned as a control group. The second group consisted of 12 pregnant mice were exposed to mobile phone radiation for 60 minutes daily and the third group consisted of 12 pregnant mice were exposed to mobile phone radiation for 120 minutes daily starting from the zero day of gestation till the day of scarification. The embryos of mice; were obtained at different period of gestation (At 16th day I.U.L., 18th day I.U.L.,and One day old postnatal period). Results Histological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation for CD34 expression were done for all animals including control group showed that mobile phone (EMF radiation) with 900 MHz in short exposed period (one hour) can stimulate tooth germ cells as it was shown,an early appearance of tooth germ in cap stage at 16th day I.U.L and positive expression of CD34 marker on dental tissue. Conclusion In this study we investigated an important point that the effects of mobile phones concerned on mesenchymal germ cell rather than ectodermal germ cell which represented by positive reaction of CD34 on mesenchymal cell of dental sac ,bone and cartilage. Increment in time exposure to EMF radiation emitted from mobile phone for 2 hours duration showed retardation in tooth development with obvious reduction in size of the mice.


Article
Chronological aِge estimation in adolescent and young adult subjects in relation to mandibular third molar development using digital panoramic image

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Background: Predicting chronological age in adolescents and young adults can be crucial in Medico legal contexts and the third molar is the only developing tooth during this period that used to determine chronological age. The purpose of this study was to estimate the chronological age based on the stages of mandibular third-molar development following the eight stages (A–H) method of Demirjian et al Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 436 Iraqi adolescents and young adults subjects have been chosen with known chronologic age (range, 14–24 years) and sex (162 males and 274 female), digital panoramic radiograph had been taken for each examined subject, Demirjian’s grading has been used to assess third molar development Results: Statistically significant differences (P _ 0.05) in third-molar development between males and females were revealed regarding the development stages D,E and F. Third-molar genesis was attained earlier in males than in females. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for males (r 2 _ 0.91) and for females (r 2 _ 0.87). Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of mandibular third molar development stages using Demirjian method can be considered as good valuable chronological age indicators in adolescents and young adults


Article
Diagnosis of the angular hyperkeratotic lesions and the incidence of the etiologic factors

Authors: Jamal N. Ahmed جمال احمد
Pages: 51-55
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Background: Hyperkeratotic lesions located at the angle of the mouth are common among patients attending dental clinics. Most dentists are unaware of it since the patients are not seeking care. The purpose of the present study was to find out the incidence of the diagnosed lesions and their relation with the etiologic or initiating factors. Materials and methods: A total of (112) patient’s (62) males and (50) females having angular hyperkeratotic lesions were selected from patients attending the dental clinic in Baghdad dental school. The clinical diagnosis and the progression of the lesions were conducted by using 1% toluidine blue stain to confirm the premalignant potentials and to delineate the margins of the lesion for the biopsy. Microscopic examinations were done for the confirmation of the final diagnosis. The associating factors like smoking, alcohol, dental irritation, prosthesis, systemic diseases, and angular chelitis were recorded in the patient information sheet for the result analysis. Results: The results showed that the benign hyperkeratotic lesions were the higher (36.6%) in distribution, while the malignant neoplasms were the 2nd (25.89%) in frequency, followed by premalignant lesions (21.42%), lichen planus (12.5%), and benign growth (3.57%). Smoking habit was the most common associating factor (54.6%), followed by angular chelitis (48.2%), dental irritation (43.7%), systemic diseases (35.7%), dental prosthesis (28.5%) and alcohol consumption 0.05%. Conclusion: The hyperkeratotic lesions occurred in a wide range of ages. The benign lesions were the most common types. However a significant number of cases had premalignant and malignant changes. The presence of the associating factors acting alone or in combination were having a role in the existence of the lesions. The premalignant potentials increase with age and the chronicity of the associating factors such as smoking and angular chelitis were having a significant role in existence of the lesions. In addition, the results showed that the angular hyperkeratotic lesions existed in the majority of the patients were bilateral in behavior.


Article
Pre-implant computed tomography and insertion torque measurement in qualitative determination of trabecular bone density

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Background: Bone density is a very important factor in the successful plan of implant treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate the trabecular bone density of potential dental implant sites in different region of the jawbone by using Computerized Tomography (CT) , and the relationship between bone density and insertion torque. Materials and method: In this clinical study 64 patients were treated with 120 Xive FRIADENT DENTPLY system implants. The implant recipient sites were divided in two groups according to gender; 60 in males and 60 in females and each group was divided into subgroups according jaw (maxilla and mandible) and region (anterior and posterior). The bone density of each implant recipient site was recorded in Hounsfield units (HU) using CT. The maximum insertion torque (Ncm) values were recorded with torque controlling motor. Results: There was a significant correlation between bone density and insertion torque in males (r=0. 983, p <0.001) and females (r=0.955, p <0.001).The trabecular bone density values were (682±98 HU, 481±104 HU, 413±92 HU, and 263±67 HU) values in the anterior mandible, posterior mandible, anterior maxilla, and posterior maxilla, respectively. Trabecular bone density was higher in males in comparison to females and the bone quality was higher for the mandible than for the maxilla, and higher for the anterior region than for the posterior region of these bones. In females there is no significant difference in bone density (p<0.05) between the posterior mandible and anterior maxilla and between males and females at posterior maxilla (p<0.001). Conclusion: Trabecular bone density is a key determinant for clinical success; CT is a useful tool for assessing the bone density


Article
Evaluation of oral health status in a sample of autistic male children

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Background: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, presents in early childhood, characterized by severe impairments in socialization, communication and behavior. Autism is considered a multi-factorial disorder that is influenced by genetic, environmental, and immunological factors with oxidative stress as a mechanism linking these factors. Assessment of any oral manifestations has to be discovered, evaluated and measured in autistics to be used as a potential diagnostic. Materials and methods: Oral health status:(DMFT) for permanent teeth, (dmft)for deciduous teeth and gingival indices were estimated for 58 individuals aged (2-13) years, twenty nine of them were autistics and twenty nine were sex and age matched healthy controls. Results: The results of this study showed that Iraqi autistic children sample was more likely to be caries-free compared with healthy sample. Conclusion: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were more likely to be caries-free, had lower DMFT dmft and GI scores than did their unaffected peer and can be used in autism spectrum disorder prediction to a limited extent.


Article
Ovulation detection through salivary levels of sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans

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Background: One in ten couples of reproductive age encounter some level of infertility. Identification of the period of ovulation in humans is critical in the treatment of infertility. Success in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer has been associated with the exact time of ovulation. Saliva is a unique diagnostic fluid, the composition of which immediately reflects the sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic- pitutaryadrenal axis and immune system response to stress. The study aims at evaluating the changes in salivary sialic acid and Glycosaminoglycans in the regular menstrual cycle. Thus, the presence of these carbohydrates in the ovulatory saliva makes the possibility to develop a biomarker for the detection of ovulation by noninvasive methods. Subjects, materials and methods: Randomly, seventy five volunteer females were recruited and divided into 5 groups; each contains 15 subjects as follow: Nine years old females and postmenopausal females as control groups, pre-ovulatory period, ovulatory period and post-ovulatory period females as experimental groups. Each female, of the experimental groups, underwent sonographic examination to estimate her period regarding ovulation. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected using the spitting method. Colorimetric procedure was used for total sialic acid determination and for Glycosaminoglycans quantitative determination, the method of ELISA was used. Results: The concentration of sialic acid was significantly decreased in saliva of females in the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle; whereas, a significant increase in salivary sialic acid concentration was in the post-ovulatory phase. Glycosaminoglycan concentration showed a gradual increase from the pre-ovulatory phase then ovulatory to reach its maximum in the post-ovulatory phase with a significant difference between the pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory phases. A significant correlation was not found between sialic acid and Glycosaminoglycans in different study groups. Conclusions: On the basis of the results arrived at, the study concluded that there are remarkable cyclic variations in sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans during the menstrual cycle but in conclusion, glycosaminoglycans and sialic acid salivary levels cannot be used for the precise prediction of ovulation


Article
Temporomandibular disorders in association with stress among students of sixth grade preparatory and students of fifth year high schools

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Background: A close relationship had been reported between depression, anxiety and many disease symptoms or disorders. This is true for temporomandibular disorders which is a collective term embracing a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculatures, temporomandibular joint and associated structures, or both. This study designed to evaluate the association of stress with temporomandibular disorders among sixth grade preparatory students and students of fifth year of secondary school. Subjects, materials and methods: The sample's size of 404 students of sixth grade preparatory study (154males and 250 females) and 360 (168males and 192females) of fifth year of secondary schools. Firstly all the students subjected for stress questionnaire, secondly the stressful students subjected to different combination of clinical and questionnaire measures according to the research diagnostic criteria of temporomandibular disorders (axis I) which have standardized series of diagnostic tests based on clinical signs and symptoms. Data are analyzed by using Z-test and chi-square. Results: The results obtained from this study showed that no significant differences between classes in the percentage of stressful students with temporomandibular disorders according to the clinical examination but in both classes, females' students showed higher percentage of temporomandibular disorders than males of same class. Bruxism and nail biting were significantly higher among students of sixth grade. Conclusions: This study revealed that stress of studying at sixth grade has no effect on temporomandibular disorders prevalence.


Article
Histological evaluation of osseointegration around titanium implants in thyroidectomized rabbits (experimental study).

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Background: Thyroid hormones are essential for linear growth and peak bone mass acquisition. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces less than the normal amount of thyroid hormones. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism on osseointegration around the titanium implants screwed in rabbit's tibia. Materials and methods :Fifty four machined surface Iraqi implants were inserted in 27 male rabbits (2implants in each rabbit's tibia ).Eighteen of these rabbits were subjected to near total thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism three weeks before implantation surgery. While the remaining 9 rabbits were remain as a control group. Blood sample was taken from each animal at the beginning of this study in order to find the normal range of T3,T4,and TSH .And another blood sample was taken for experimental groups to find the levels of T3,T4,and TSH three weeks after thyroidectomy in order to assess the hypothyroidism status .After 2, 4, 6 weeks after implant surgery (6rabbits from experimental group and 3rabbits from the control group) were sacrificed. In the day of scarification, one of the screws was unscrewed with a torque meter, and the peak torque required to shear off the implant was recorded. Then the decalcified sections of the bone around the implants were studied histologically and histomorphometrically .The eye piece reticule was used for morphometrical studies, which were includes: number of osteocytes, number of osteoblasts, thickness and number of bone trabeculae, and thread width Results:The results showed that hypothyroid rabbits had delay in osseointegration, bone formation and maturation around implants in almost all rabbits in experimental groups. While the rabbits in the control groups showed improvement in osseointegration around titanium implant. Removal torque test illustrated higher torque test value in control animals than in experimental one. Moreover, there were increases in torque test values in both groups with time. Biochemical serum analysis revealed a decrease in T3, T4, and increase TSH levels in experimental animals. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there were low bone quality with a delay in bone healing around titanium implants in hypothyroidied rabbits compared with healthy one.


Article
Prevalence of pulp stone (Orthopantomographic-based)

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Background: Pulp stones (denticles) are discrete calcified aggregates that occur most frequently in the dental pulp. It was found in healthy, diseased and sometimes in erupted teeth. Its number appears to increase with increasing age. It is usually detected during radiographic examination as radiopaque masses of variable size and shape. The aims of this study were to calculate the prevalence of pulp stones in young Iraqi adults by using digital orthopantomgraph, and to report any associations between occurrence of pulp stones with, gender, tooth type, and dental arch. Subject, Material and Method: A total of 390 digital panoramic radiographs were collected from oral diagnosis department /College of Dentistry for Iraqi sample, University of Baghdad and Al-Karkh General Hospital. The sample composed of 169 male and 221 female with mean age (26.9 years). About 10510 teeth were evaluated; pulp stones scored as present or absent, number of stone and associations with, gender, tooth type and dental arch were recorded Result: From 390 (OPG) total of 3758 teeth were examined, 136 patients have pulp stone present in (276) teeth. According to gender, 75 female with 143 teeth (51.8%) and 61 male with 133 teeth (48.1), that is mean there was no significant difference of ( pulp stone occurrence) found between female and male. Their presence were seldom found in the premolars 18 teeth (7%) but was much higher in the molars 258 teeth (93%) and the difference is statistically significant. Pulp stone occurrence was significantly more common in the first molars than in the second molars and in the first premolars than in the second premolars in each dental arch. No difference between the two arches could be identified. Conclusion: Pulp stones are not only incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue but may also be an indicator of some serious underlying disease. On the other hand, they may provide useful information to predict about the susceptibility of patients for other dystrophic soft tissue calcifications such as urinary calculi and calcified atheromas


Article
Evaluation of the haemostatic action of povidone- iodine in dental extraction (Clinical and follow up prospective study)

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the haemostatic action of povidone-iodine by irrigation of the alveolar sockets after extraction against the use of normal saline alone. Materials and Methods: This clinical prospective study included 60 patients (35 males, 25 females), ranging in age from 20 to 60 years. All minor oral surgery patients at (Oral& Maxillofacial Surgery Department in College of Dentistry/ Babylon University) from March 2011 to January 2012. The patients were divided equally into treatment& control groups. Povidone-iodine (1%, w/v) was used for irrigation of extraction sockets in the treatment group and saline was used in the control group. Results: The 60 patients were divided equally into treatment& control groups. Povidone-iodine (1%, w/v) was used for irrigation of extraction sockets in the treatment group and saline was used in the control group. In the treatment group, 24 patients showed cessation of bleeding compared to only 7 in the control group. Povidone-iodine significantly (P < 0.01) controlled bleeding as compared to saline. Conclusion: Iodine is corrosive due to its oxidizing potential while povidone is a thickening and granulating agent; together they have a chemocauterizing effect that could be the reason for the cessation of bleeding


Article
A comparison between the antibacterial and antifungal effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (An in vitro study)

Authors: Firas H. Qanbar فراس قنبر
Pages: 88-90
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Background: The use of antimicrobial agent to control plaque and oral disease has been advocated for a number of years. Different compounds have been delivered through mouth rinses or tooth pastes or by topical application. The purpose of this research is to find out and to compare between the antibacterial and antifungal properties of Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2%. Materials and methods: Mutans streptococci & Candida albicans were isolated from 25 saliva samples from healthy volunteers (age range between 21-23 yrs). These isolates were purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristics and biochemical tests. Chlorhexidine 2mg/ml (0.2%) was used in the in vitro; susceptibility of Mutans streptococci and Candida albicans were tested by agar diffusion technique. Results: Agar diffusion technique showed that Chlorhexidine (0.2%) inhibited the growth of Mutans Streptococci, and Candida albicans, but the effect of Chlorhexidine (0.2%) on Candida albicans was more patent than on Mutans Streptococci in vitro. There was statistically highly significant difference (p<0.001) between the antifungal and antibacterial effects of Chlorhexidine on the sensitivity of the isolates, Conclusion: Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% was more potent as an antifungal than an antibacterial agent


Article
Effect of in-dental clinic bleaching agents on the releases of mineral ions from the enamel surfaces in relation to their times intervals

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Background: alterations of the enamel after topical application of bleaching agents, presenting as major consequences are: ions release, increased superficial roughness, stronger bacterial attachment and hardness alteration. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of two different types of bleaching agents for vital teeth by using with light source on the release of ions (Calcium and phosphate ions) from the enamel surface. Materials and methods: Fifty three sound enamel surface for calcium ions release and Fifty three sound enamel surfaces for phosphate ions, were subject to treated with bleaching agents (35% hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide) and then application of light and laser radiation to activate the bleaching agents. Spectrophotometer and Buck scientific atomic absorption spectrophotometer were used to measure the ions release from enamel surface. Results: highly significant increase in the release of ions (calcium ions), while significant increase in the release of ions (phosphate ions) in relation to the times intervals. Conclusions: In this study showed that release of calcium ions from enamel surface after treated with both 35% carbamide peroxide and 35% hydrogen peroxide increase with increase the time and compared with release of phosphate ions release and control groups.


Article
Physicochemical characteristic of unstimulated and stimulated saliva with different chewing gum stimulation

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Background: Gum chewing is a common habit in many countries. Both sucrose containing and sugar-free gum stimulate salivary flow, increase in saliva flow lead to more frequent replenishment and greater supply of antibacterial factors, saline, buffers, minerals and other beneficial constituents, increase pH and buffer capacity of whole saliva. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different chewing gums on the salivary constituents including some elements (Magnesium, Calcium, Copper and Zinc)(chemical),PH and flow rate(physical)characteristic. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples was collected from dental students/college of dentistry 23 age stimulated by three types of chewing gum (mastic, Arabic, sugar) and control group (unstimulated saliva), pH and saliva flow rate was recorded for four groups. Biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elements, (Magnesium, Calcium, Copper, and Zinc) and its relation with different chewing gum and control group. Student's t-test, ANOVA and LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Also mean and standard deviation was recorded. Results: Mean value of pH was found to be high in three types of chewing gum with highly significant difference comparing with control group. A significant difference in flow rate was found between control and sugared gum group. Mg and Ca ione was found to be highly significant between mastic gum group and other three groups , as well as highly significant difference was recorded among four groups of saliva in Cu ione, while no significant difference was showed between Zn ione and four groups. Conclusion: Chewing gum include natural (mastic and Arabic) and sugared was increases salivary pH. Use of chewing gum especially mastic and Arabic can enhance the remineralizing potential of the mouth, probably by stimulating salivary flow which may lead to rise salivary elements


Article
Dynamic lip to tooth relationship during speech, posed and spontaneous smile using digital videography

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Background: The human face is a living mirror held out to the world. Natural, marked, painted or adorned, it has power to attract, charm, captivate or brighten. Therefore the subject of the smile and facial animation, as they relate to communication and expression of emotion, should be of great interest to orthodontists so the aims of this study were to determine the difference of outer commissure width, inter-labial gap, smile index, modified smile index, visible maxillary interdental width, buccal corridor percentage and maximum incisor show among different smile styles (Monalisa, Cuspid and complex) during emotion, posed smile and speech. And to determine the differences of the same variables for each smile style among emotional smile, posed smile and speech. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 77 Iraqi adult subjects (18-30) years with skeletal class I occlusion, classified into three categories according to a certain neuromuscular mechanism of smile called smile style, the first group consisted of 34 (24 male, 10 female) subjects with Monalisa smile style, the second consisted of 34 (22 male, 12 female) subjects with Cuspid smile style, the last 9 subjects (5 male, 4 female) were the third group with Complex smile style. Each subject was recorded using digital videographic camera while watching a comical movie to elicit emotional smile, then they asked to say “Chelsea eats cheesecake” to record them during speech. The videographs were imported to the PMB-picture motion browser to capture emotional smile, posed smile and speech frames. Four linear measurements were measured for each frame using AutoCAD program 2011. Results: The results of this study showed that all the variables changed significantly when the subject change from speech to emotional smile frame in all smile styles. And these changes revealed almost the same behavior when the subject changed from speech to pose or to emotional smile frames. Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that emotional smile is largely different from posed smile in different aspects which has an effect on decisions related to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan


Article
Dental caries in relation to oral infections and feeding types among children aged 2-5 years

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Background: Dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease that still represents as a significant public health problems in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between dental caries and oral infections (tonsillitis and candidiasis) as well as the relation to feeding type. Material and methods: The study sample composed of 22 healthy children aged 2-5 years with full set of primary dentition and had dental caries. The control group composed of 22 caries free children matching the study group in age and gender. An information sheet from the parents was done to all children concerning general health, feeding habits and frequency of oral infections (tonsillitis and oral thrush) during the last year. Children were examined clinically using dmft index, oral microorganisms was sampled and cultured aerobically using blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar and sabauraud,s dextrose agar. Results: Children with dental caries were mostly bottle fed and showed higher frequency of continuous oral infections. Regarding dental caries there were highly significant relations between caries activity and method of feeding and types of microorganisms found in the oral cavity , also a highly significant relation was found between method of feeding and frequency of oral infections. Children with dental caries had more types of oral microorganisms compared to caries free children Candida, Strep.pyogenes, Strep. viridans, Strep.faecalis, Strep.pneumonia, Staph.aureus, E.coli, Enterobacter ,Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were found in high frequency among caries active children. Conclusion: Types of microorganisms found in the oral cavity was affected by dental caries which in turn affect frequency of infections. Breast feeding was predominant among caries free children and associated with lower rates of oral infections compared with bottle feeding so public should informed about its long term effect on the general health


Article
The staining effect of chlorhexidine mouthwash on non metallic brackets (An in vitro comparative study)

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Background: Since it is needed to have means other than mechanical plaque control to achieve good oral hygiene in orthodontic patients, and since an eliminating the metallic appearance of orthodontic appliance is always desired to achieve a maximum esthetic appliance, so this study was done to investigate and compare the staining effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% on the un bonded ceramic brackets, ceramic brackets bonded with no mix adhesive, ceramic brackets bonded with light cured adhesive, un bonded composite brackets, composite brackets bonded with no mix adhesive and composite brackets bonded with light cured adhesive. Materials and Methods: The effect of the chlorhexidine was studied through immersion the brackets and bonded brackets in the mouth wash for three different time intervals: 1, 2 and 3 hours, which represent the accumulated daily use of the mouthwash for 1, 2, and 3 months respectively and compared them with corresponding control groups which not immersed in chlorhexidine 0.2%. The sample consisted of two hundred eighty eight brackets. AShimadzu, UV 160A UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to perform a light absorption test for each subgroup with twelve brackets each. Results: ANOVA and LSD post Hoc tests were used to identify the significant effects of the mouthwash at a significance level P . 0.05, A. significant effects identified with ceramic brackets bonded with no mix adhesive, ceramic brackets bonded with light cured adhesive, un bonded composite brackets, composite brackets bonded with no mix adhesive and composite brackets bonded with light cured adhesive, while non significant effect of un bonded ceramic brackets. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the chlorhexidine mouthwash do not have a staining effect on the un bonded ceramic brackets while significant changes in staining effect when ceramic and composite brackets bonded to no mix adhesives and that effect decrease when bonded to light cured adhesives. The mouthwash has a staining effect on the un bonded composite brackets also.


Article
Tooth attrition patterns in a group of Iraqi adults sample with different classes of malocclusion (A comparative study)

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Abstract

Background: Tooth attrition is wearing away of tooth structure during mastication. This study investigated tooth wear patterns in adults with different classes of malocclusion and compared them with normal occlusion. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 363 subjects that were divided into 5 groups with an age range “18- 25” years: 85 normal occlusion, 128 class I with crowding, 90 class II division 1, 30 class II division 2 and 30 class III. Dental wear was assessed by using a modified version of the tooth wear index. Results: 1. The class I malocclusion group had statistically greater tooth wear in incisal surfaces of maxillary central and lateral incisors, and mandibular lateral incisors than did the normal occlusion. 2. The class II division 1 group had statistically greater tooth wear in the occlusal surfaces of maxillary second premolars, mandibular first and second premolars. Buccal surfaces of mandibular canines, mandibular second premolars and mandibular first molars than did the normal occlusion. 3. The class II division 2 malocclusion group had statistically greater tooth wear in labial surfaces of mandibular central and lateral incisors. Buccal surfaces of mandibular second premolars, mandibular first molars. Occlusal surfaces of maxillary first and second premolars and mandibular second premolars than did normal occlusion. 4. The class III malocclusion group had statistically greater tooth wear in the occlusal surfaces of maxillary first and second premolars than did normal occlusion. Conclusion: In conclusion subjects with normal occlusion and those with different classes of malocclusions have different tooth wear patterns


Article
Clinical significance of sella turcica morphologies and dimensions in relation to different skeletal patterns and skeletal maturity assessment

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Background: Sella turcica is a saddle-like structure based on the roof of the sphenoid bone and has an important role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aims of the study were to assess sella shape and size in an adolescent Iraqi sample in different skeletal classes and to verify the possibility of clinical application of sella turcica in skeletal maturity estimation. Materials and Methods: The study sample composed of (140) Iraqi adolescent subjects aged 10-16 years (91 females, 49 males); every subject had true lateral cephalometric radiograph. The sample was subjected to 2 classifications: the 1st included three skeletal classes according to ANB angle, and the 2nd included accelerative and decelerative groups according to maturity indicators of cervical vertebrae seen radiographically. In each classification, sella size was measured using three linear measurements (S.length, S.depth, and S. diameter). Results: Most of sella turcica measurements were not different statistically among the skeletal classes, and that specific sella turcica linear measurements can not be obtained for each specific skeletal class throughout the pubertal period. Normal sella was the predominant over the other morphological aberrations in both classification systems, while these morphologies occurred more frequently in class II and III. Sella depth and diameter were significantly higher in the decelerative than accelerative group, while non significant difference was found concerning sella shapes between the two groups. Conclusions: It was concluded that Sella depth and sella diameter measurements can be utilized clinically for pubertal growth phase determination, while sella morphology can not be diagnostic for the accelerative and decelerative pubertal growth phases


Article
Clinical performance comparison of a clear advantage series II durable retainer with different retainers' types

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Background: The orthodontic retainers are either fixed or removable. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the new Clear Advantage Series II durable thermovacuum formed invisible orthodontic retainer material and compare the clinical performance of such retainer with the most standard types of retainers (convention Clear Advantage Series I thermo-vacuum formed invisible retainer, Hawley, and the fixed lingual bonded retainers). The conducted study is the first attempt to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of different retainers' types. Subjects and methods: Twenty finished fixed orthodontic patients starting the retention phase were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five patients (3 females and 2 males), mean age ranged 18-30 years old. Members of the first group were given the new thermo-vacuum formed invisible Clear Advantage Series II durable retainer material (CII), While the second, third, and fourth groups were given standard thermo-vacuum formed invisible Clear Advantage Series I retainer material (CI), Hawley retainer (HR), and fixed lingual bonded retainers "cuspid to cuspid"(FR), respectively. Ten variables were applied on the twenty patients to evaluate the clinical performance of the four retainers' types, the ten variables were evaluated and judged by the operator with the patient as three nonparametric categorical descriptions: superior (+), acceptable (±), and inferior (-) properties. Results: It was found that patients were compliant with all types of retainers initially, and the compliance decreased at a much faster rate with both types of themo-vacuum formed retainers (CII and CI) than with HR and FR retainers, and patient's compliance is greater with HR and FR retainers than with CII and CI retainers. A comparison of the total variables of the clinical performance at total time intervals using chi-square showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the acceptable categorical description between CII and CI retainers and very high significant difference (P<0.001) between CII, HR, and FR retainers. Conclusion: it was found that the new thermo-vacuum formed Clear Advantage Series II durable retainer showed a combination of removable, comfortable, aesthetic, better speech, superior retention, relatively not producing bad taste and odor, hygienic, least soft tissue irritability, superior construction and chair-side time, and durable, it will be more favorable clinical performance appliance to both the patient and the orthodontist


Article
Stimulation of rabbit condyle growth by using pulsed therapeutic ultrasound (A radiographical and histological experimental study)

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Backgrounds: Many difficulties faced the orthodontic clinician during treatment of class II malocclusion cases in the preadolescence period in which treatment is done by growth modification of condyle , these difficulties are due to the poor cooperation of the patients with the myofunctional appliances. The present research was carried out to evaluate the effect of Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound application on mandibular condyle of rabbit radiographically and histologically to evaluate the use of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in condyle growth modification in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusions in the growth period. Materials and Methods: The sample was 15 New Zealand male rabbits in which Therapeutic Ultrasound was applied to the left condyle (treated group) for 28 days while the right condyle was without ultrasound application (controlled group), After animal sacrifying , the rabbit mandibles were dissected into two hemi mandible, left (treated) and right (control), radiographic image for each hemi mandible was done and three linear measurements were made, (Ramus height, condylar height and mandibular height). Then these hemi mandibles examined histologically including calculating chondrocyte number, osteocyte number, cartilage area calculation and subchondral bone area measurements. Results: the results showed: The increasing of all linear measurements as a result of enhancement of chondrocytes, osteocytes, increase of cartilage area and bone area in the treated group. There is significant correlation between all linear measurements and chondrocyte and cartilage area. Conclusion: low intensity pulsed ultrasound can accelerate condyle cartilage growth


Article
The relation between W angle and other methods used to assess the sagittal jaw relationship

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the mean value for the W angle in Iraqi adults with a Class I, II, and III skeletal relations and to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism, also to study the correlation between this angle with the other methods (ANB, Wits appraisal, BETA angle, YEN angle) used for evaluation of the antero-posterior (AP) jaw relationship. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty-two cephalometric radiographs of patients between the age of 18 and 25 years were selected. They were again subdivided into Classes I, II, and III groups on the basis of Beta angle, Wits appraisal, and ANB angle, traced using AUTO CAD 2007. The W angle was measured between the perpendicular from point M on S–G line and the M–G line. The mean and the standard deviation for the W angle were calculated. Independent sample t- test, the one-way analysis of variance, LSD and Pearson correlation were obtained. Results: The results showed that a patient with a W angle between 51 and 56 degrees can be considered to have a Class I skeletal pattern. With an angle less than 51 degrees, patients are considered to have a skeletal Class II relationship and with an angle greater than 56 degrees, patients have a skeletal Class III and there is significant difference in the mean value of W angle among the three skeletal patterns with a no gender difference. The W angle had a negative significant relation with ANB in all three classes and with WITS appraisal in class III group, while it had a positive significant relation with BETA and YEN angles in all the three skeletal relations


Article
A comparative study evaluating the microleakage of different types of restorative materials used in restoration of pulpotomized primary molars

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Background: Possibly the greatest deterrent to the development of an ideal restorative material is the leakage that occurs along the restoration, tooth interface. There is yet no truly adhesive dental material that exactly duplicates physical properties of the tooth structure. This in vitro study was carried out to compare the microleakage of two types of restorative materials used in pediatric dentistry Colored light curing compomer(Twinky star) and nano ceramic restorative material (Ceram.x)) with that of amalgam by measuring their ability to prevent dye penetration. Materials and Methods: Standardized Proximo-occlusal cavity preparations were prepared in 30 extracted sound primary first lower molars. Pulpotomy was performed, and pulpotomy paste filled the pulp chamber with hard setting cement over it all have same occlusal depth. The teeth were then randomly divided into three groups: Group A: filled with Amalgam. Group B: filled with compomer (Twinky star). Group C: filled with nano ceramic (Ceram.x). After that the teeth were stored in distilled water for 30 days at 37 °C in an incubator and during the period of storage the teeth were subjected to 300 thermal cycles (10 cycles each day), then sectioned to be examined under the stereo microscope. Results: Data was analyzed using ANOVA test with help of spss soft ware, even though nano ceramic (Ceram. X) showed higher resistance to dye penetration, when compared to compomer (Twinky star and amalgam), there were no significant differences between the three studied groups in their resistance to dye penetration. Conclusion: Depending on the ability to prevent marginal leakage, nano ceramic (ceram.x) and compomer (Twinky star) restorative materials can be used as an alternative to amalgam in restoring pulpotomized primary teeth


Article
Oral health status among a group of pregnancy and lactating women in relation to salivary constituents and physical properties (A comparative study)

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Background: The physiological and hormonal changes during lactating and pregnancy may affect dental and gingival health conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence and severity of both dental caries and periodontal diseases among these women in relation to different salivary variables and constituents Materials and Methods: A study group representing 30 lactating mothers whose infants were 4-6 months of age, and 30 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Their age was 20-21 years. The control group comprised 30 married non-pregnant nulliparous women. Diagnosis and were recording of dental caries according to the WHO (1987)criteria and GI, PlI according to the Löe and Sillness (1964), CI according to the Ramfjord, probing pocket depth according to the Carranza et al, 2002. Stimulated salivary sample was collected according to the Tenovuo &Lagerlof. The average salivary flow rate was measured from total volume, and the pH was determined using the pH meter. Salivary samples were chemically analyzed for the detection of electrolytes (Ca and PO4), and immunoglobulin (IgA), in addition to lysozyme enzyme. Results: The total mean value of dental caries were recorded to be the highest among pregnant group followed by lactating then control with statistically no significant difference (P> 0.05). Concerning the plaque index, gingival index and calculus indices, they were recorded to be highest among pregnant group followed by lactating then control with statistically no significant difference (P> 0.05). Regarding to pH, the control group showed the highest value while the pregnant group exhibited the lower one with highly significant differences was recording between groups P=0.000. The flow rate showed no significant difference between groups. No clinical loss of attachment was seen between the groups. Calcium ions showed a high concentration in saliva of the lactating group compared to the other two groups with highly significant differences P=0.01. Phosphorous ions showed a high concentration in saliva of the lactating group compared to the other two groups with statistically no significant difference (P> 0.05). Regarding salivary lysozyme the highest value was recorded among the pregnant group, while the lowest value was recorded in the control with statistically no significant difference (P >0.05). The same result was seen for salivary IgA but with a statistically significant difference (P <0.05). Conclusion: The severity of dental caries and gingival inflammation were the highest among pregnant group compared to the other two groups. This may related to the changes in the salivary pH and constituent during pregnancy

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