Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Loading...
Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2012 volume:24 issue:3

Article
The shaping effects of three rotary Nickel-Titanium systems in simulated curved canals

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study is to compare three rotary endodontic nickel-titanium systems (ProFile, GT and ProTaper) with stainless steel hand K-flexofile in simulated curved canals at different levels, this includes: Incidence of canal aberrations (apical zipping associated with elbow, ledge and perforation), Changes of working length, Preparation time for each system and Breakage and permanent deformation of instruments. Materials and method: Eighty simulated curved canals made of clear polyester resin were used to assess instrumentation. The acrylic blocks were divided into four groups, 20 simulated canals for each group were enlarged from #10 to # 25. In the first three groups all NiTi rotary instruments were set into a permanent rotation with a 16:1 reduction hand piece powered by a torque-limited electric motor set at 300 rpm. All the instruments were used in a crown down manner using a gentle in-and-out (pecking) motion. In the fourth group the simulated canals were instrumented with stainless steel K-flexo-files by using balanced force technique. Each simulated canal was filled with a drawing ink using to increase the color contrast for photographic documentation. Photographs of the unprepared canals were taken by the aid of stereomicroscope and digital camera at magnification of 40 times. When instrumentation of the canals was completed, the canals were injected again with the drawing ink and the image procedure is repeated. Preand postoperative digital photographs of the resin blocks were accomplished using Adobe Photoshop CS2 software program. At this stage the amount of resin removed i.e. the difference between the canal configuration before and after instrumentation was determined for both the inner and the outer side of the curvature at five reference points. Assessments were made under the stereomicroscope according to the presence of different types of canal aberrations (apical zip associated with elbow, ledge and perforation). The changes of working length were determined by subtracting the length of master apical file from the original length (16mm). The time taken to prepare each canal was recorded in minutes with the aid of a stop timer. Throughout the study a record was kept of the numbers and sizes of instruments that fractured or became permanently deformed during use. Results: there were significant differences among the groups, even though more zips and ledge were created with K-flexofile followed by ProTaper. NiTi instruments caused a significantly greater loss of working length than K-flexofile; while there was no significant difference among NiTi groups. The shortest mean of preparation time was recorded when ProTaper were used; while the longest time was documented for GT. No permanent deformation occurred with NiTi groups. None of the stainless steel K-flexofile was separated. Conclusion: K-flexofiles created significantly more aberration than NiTi systems. ProTaper caused more morphological changes compared with ProFile and GT systems. Small mean changes in working length occurring with rotary NiTi instruments. The preparation time of ProTaper was faster than with other groups. NiTi instruments may be more susceptible to separation than stainless-steel instruments. Most failures of the hand stainless-steel files were deformations rather than fractures. Fracture rate was approximately 30% for ProTaper, 16.6% for GT and 8.3% for Profiles.


Article
Effect of glass fiber reinforcement surface treatment on the soft liner retention and longevity

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Denture liners have been used in dentistry for many years. Soft denture liner is one of the denture liners which used to enhance the fit of poor fitting dentures and prevent trauma to sensitive mucosa. One of the disadvantages of the soft denture liner is the frequent debonding from the denture during clinical use thus reducing the longevity of such prosthesis. Glass fibers integrated at or on the fitting surface of the denture used to improve the bonding of the silicone soft liner to the acrylic surface. Materials and methods: the shear bond strength calculated to evaluate the effect of the glass fiber surface treatment on the bonding between the acrylic surface and the silicon soft liner. 120 samples were prepared and divided into 3 major groups: Group I for the conventional heat cure acrylic, Group II for the pour acrylic and Group III for the light cure acrylic. Each one of these major groups divided into 2 subgroups, the first one for the Mollosil silicon soft liner and the second one is for the Molloplast-B silicon soft liner. Each one of these sub groups consist of 2 types of the acrylic surface: smooth (control) and glass fiber net surface treatment. Results: this study revealed that some types of the surface treatment exhibited a highly significant improvement in the bonding between the acrylic surface and the soft liner. Conclusion: glass fiber surface treatment could improve the bonding between the acrylic surface and the soft liner


Article
The effect of autoclave processing on some properties of heat cured denture base material

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Although most of the physical and mechanical properties of denture base resin polymerized by the conventional heat polymerization have been studied, the effect of autoclave processing in these properties has not been fully determined. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of two different cycles of autoclave processing on the transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness and the porosity of acrylic denture base material. Materials and methods: Vertex was the heat- cured acrylic denture base material included in the study. A total of 120 specimens were prepared, the specimens were grouped into: Control groups (Group A) in which acrylic resins processed by conventional water- bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 hours then boil for 30 minutes) and experimental groups in which acrylic resins processed by autoclave at 121°C,210KPa.The experimental groups were divided into Group B(Fast) for15min. , and Group C (Slow) for 30min... To study the effect of the autoclave processing (Tuttnauer 2540EA), four tests were conducted transverse strength (Instron universal testing machine), impact strength (charpy tester), surface hardness (shore D), and porosity test. The results were analyzed to ANOVA and LSD test. Results: There were no significant differences between the results of the processing techniques regarding transverse, impact, and hardness tests. While, there were a highly significant difference in porosity test results. Conclusions: The autoclave processing technique might also be a good alternative to the conventional water bath processing technique. Regarding to autoclave processing technique, the slow (long) curing cycle provide better denture bases material including the tested physical and mechanical properties as compared with the fast (short) curing cycle.

Keywords

Autoclave --- Transverse --- Impact --- Hardness --- Porosity


Article
Tooth movement in maxillary complete dentures fabricated with fluid resin polymer using different investment materials

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This study investigates the effect of different investments on tooth movement of new fluid resin and compares the results with that of heat-cured resin. Besides, comparison between the right and left changes in vertical distances of maxillary complete dentures that had been made. Materials and methods: A maxillary complete denture with acrylic teeth was waxed to full contour on the master cast and replicated to make 40 wax dentures. Metallic reference points were placed for linear and vertical measurements. Ten dentures were allocated for each of 4 groups; group I was processed using conventional heatcured resin (RegularTM), group II was processed with cold-cured fluid resin (CastavariaTM) in a reversible hydrocolloid mold, group III and IV processed with the same fluid resin in addition silicone duplicating mold, and in a dental stone type III mold, respectively. Measurements had been made at the wax stage immediately before flasking, 24 hours after deflasking, and after decasting, finishing and storage in water at 37¢ªC for 1 week, the measurement had been made with a micrometer microscope accurate to 0.005 mm. Results: the results showed a significant tooth displacement in the different investments and in different types of acrylic resin used in this study. The right and left vertical measurements did not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions: Maxillary dentures processed from fluid resin in silicone molds, produce the least linear dimensional changes comparable to those constructed from heat-cured resins. The decrease in vertical dimension of occlusion still exists as a disadvantage of the new fluid resin systems


Article
An evaluation of water absorption of Giomer in comparison to other resin-based restorative materials

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Polymeric composites have been widely used as dental restorative materials. A fundamental knowledge and understanding of the behavior of these materials in the oral cavity is essential to improve their properties and performance. The goal of this study was to measure water sorption of four composite resins containing different filler and resin matrix contents. Materials and method: Resin composite specimens giomer (Beautifil II) Filtek™ P90, Filtek™ Z350 XT, and Tetric NCeram were prepared in a cylindrical mould of 3mm thickness and 6mm diameter (n=10) and light cured . All specimens placed in silica-gel desiccators at 37˚C for seven days, a constant weight was obtained. All samples were immersed in deionized distilled water at 37˚C and weighed at suitable time interval once a week for 30 days. Water sorption was calculated based on ISO 4049. Data were subjected to student t- test. Results: Silorane and Giomer composites showed the lowest values of water sorption, while Z350 and Tetric N-Ceram displayed the highest values at a period of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Each resin- matrix composite varied in water sorption which may affect clinical service. The attained water sorption values are mainly influenced by the generic type of material and variations occurring between materials of the same type may result from differences in resin matrix compositions


Article
The effect of plasma treatment on the bonding of soft denture liners to heat cured acrylic resin denture base material and on some surface properties of acrylic resin polymer

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Acrylic resin polymers used in dentistry, are usually with problems in bonding, especially failure of the bond with soft denture lining materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of plasma treatment on tensile bond strength, wettability and on physical surface changes for acrylic resin polymer. Materials and methods: Heat cured acrylic resin specimens with dimensions 8×10×30 mm were prepared for tensile bond strength test, in which each two acrylic specimens were joined by a 3-mm thick soft liner (Vertex Soft, Molloplast-B). Another heat curd acrylic resin specimens were prepared with dimensions 2×8×30 mm for wettability test and physical surface analysis. For each test done in this study, the specimens were grouped as control, oxygen plasma treated and argon plasma treated acrylic specimens. Results: Plasma treatment increased the tensile bond strength for both Vertex and Molloplast-B soft lining materials, also induced a decrease in water contact angle values (i.e., increase in wettability) for oxygen and argon plasma treated groups compared with control group, with highly significant difference (P <0.01) among groups. AFM images showed a collection of new distinct nanograins and numerous grooves (pitlike-structures) after oxygen and argon plasma treatment with argon plasma treatment showed more new nanograins, deepest grooves and highest protuberances which increased the surface-roughness (i.e. nano-roughness) when compared with control and oxygen plasma treated groups. Conclusion: Plasma treatment was an effective method for increasing tensile bond strength, wettebility, and induced physical topographical surface changes that increased the surface roughness(mainly after argon plasma treatment) for plasma treated heat cured acrylic resin specimens


Article
Influence of SOLO disinfectant on some properties of different denture lining materials

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Denture lining materials are widely used in prosthodontic treatment and management of traumatized oral mucosa. A contaminated prosthesis can provide a source of cross-contamination between patients and dental personnel as well as a cause for denture stomatitis. Therefore, denture disinfection has been recommended as an essential procedure for maintenance of a healthy oral mucosa. This study investigated the effect of SOLO disinfectant solution on some properties of different denture lining materials. Materials and methods: Three different solutions were used in this study; SOLO disinfectant solution, sodium hypochlorite solution, and water on three types of acrylic denture lining materials; hot cure, cold cure, and soft acrylic resin. Twenty seven disk-shaped samples were used to evaluate the color stability and forty five rectangular samples were used for testing the surface micro hardness and surface roughness of the different denture lining materials. Data measurements of the color stability, surface hardness, and surface roughness were analyzed and compared statistically. Results: The color stability for the tested denture lining materials was insignificantly affected (p>0.05) by the immersion in the SOLO disinfectant solution. There was a highly significant difference (p< 0.01) in the surface hardness of the hot cure while it was insignificant (p>0.05) for cold cure denture lining materials when immersed in the SOLO disinfectant solution. For surface roughness there was no significant difference (p>0.05) by immersion in SOLO disinfectant solution for the different denture lining materials. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study SOLO disinfectant solution produced no adverse effect on the color stability, surface hardness, and surface roughness of the hot cure, cold cure, and soft acrylic denture lining materials

Keywords

acrylic --- immersion --- SOLO --- color --- hardness --- roughness


Article
Evaluation of shear bond strength of silicon-based soft liner to the acrylic resin denture base using different polymerization technique with different storage periods in distilled water

Authors: Thikra M. Hachim ذكرى هاشم
Pages: 42-46
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This study was to investigate the effect of different polymerization techniques of denture base (conventional heat cure acrylic and visible light cure acrylic) and storage duration on shear bond strength of siliconbased soft lining material. Materials and methods: The soft liner investigated was a silicon-based autocured (Ufi Gel P). The soft liners were processed according to manufacturers instruction. The resilient liner specimens for shear bond strength testing were 25 ´ 25 ´ 3 mm and were processed between two acrylic blocks (size of each block (75x25x5mm). A total of 40 specimens were fabricated, 20 specimens for each type of denture base specimens were stored for 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months in distilled water at 37 degree oC (n=5). Bond strength was measured by instron testing machine at cross head speed 5mm/min until fracture. ANOVA with multiple comparisons LSD test and student t-test were used to analyze the data (the mean difference is significant at the 0.05) Results: The result indicated that type of denture based affect the bond strength of soft lining material and the shear bond strength of lining material decrease with storage duration (for both groups). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in Vitro study: Ufi Gel P exhibited as significant higher bond strength to heat cured acrylic denture base when compared to visible light cure acrylic resin. Water storage for 1 month and 3 month result in significant decrease in shear bond strength of Ufi Gel P soft liner to a heat cured and Visible light cured denture base.


Article
The influence of different pH of saliva and thermal cycling on the adaptation of different denture base materials

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The difference in the adaptation of denture bases processed from heat cure acrylic, light cure acrylic and nylon materials and the effect of artificial accelerated aging (thermal cycling and pH) on the adaptation was studied. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty stone cast were prepared and assigned into 3 main groups according to the denture base material that processed on them(heat cure, light cure, nylon), each denture base and its cast was sectioned at posterior palatal border and the gap between the denture base and the cast was measured using digital microscope. Half of each group exposed to thermal cycling (2000 cycle) between (5 C-55 C ) 30 second in each bath then the adaptation was evaluated again. All denture bases were stored in artificial saliva of different pH (5.7, 7,8.3) at 37 C for 30 days, then the adaptation was measured again. Results and discussions: The results showed that the adaptation of heat cure acrylic was better than light cure and nylon before and after aging process. The nylon showed the poorest adaptation. Thermal cycling decreases the adaptation of all denture bases. Variation of pH effected the adaptation of heat cure and light cure denture bases and did not affect the adaptation of nylon


Article
Differential infiltration of CD4, CD8 and macrophage in oral squamous cell carcinoma (Immnoistochemical study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is by far the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. It is an aggressive and lethal malignancy. The oral squamous cell carcinoma microenvironments contain many immune cells and their secretory products. Cell-mediated immunity and the innate immune system may interact with cancer cells and plays an important role in immune responses against cancer, CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors cells in antitumor immunity, while CD4 T cell have cardinal role in orchestrating antibody production and the activation of CD8 T cells and macrophages to exhibit antitumor functions. This suggests that immune system-related mechanisms have an effect on the development and spread of malignant diseases in humans Materials and methods: Thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded blocks of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. H&E stain was done for each block for reassessment of histological examination. The expression of CD4, CD8 and macrophages were detected by immunehistochemistry. Results: Immunehistochemical mean expression level of CD4, CD8 and macrophage in OSCC was (54.67) %, (51.08) % and (55.93) % respectively. Non significant correlation was obtained among the three studied infiltrates with clinicopathological findings of OSCC and with each other. Conclusion: Immunohistochemical expression of CD4, CD8 and macrophage infiltrates were observed in all studying samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, statistically non significant correlation was found between the mean expression level of these infiltrates with all clinicopathological findings of OSCC and with each other. Increasing expression level of CD4, CD8 and macrophage infiltration in all studied cases of OSCC suggest their important role in oral carcinogenesis, however further studies with larger samples needed to identify their exact correlation with clinicopathological features of tumor


Article
Detection of acid fast bacilli in the saliva of patients having pulmonary tuberculosis

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis is a serious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is readily detected by demonstration of the bacteria in a clinical specimen. The purpose of this study was to determine the density of acid fast bacilli in the mixed and parotid saliva samples and to compare them with the sputum, in addition, to find out the efficacy of the saliva samples in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Subject and Methods: A sample of 25 patients of both sexes, Age ranged from 17-70 participated in this study, Unstimulated mixed saliva and the parotid saliva was collected for direct .smear of acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Nelson acid fast stain. Five samples were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and storen brink media to determine the presence of the bacilli in the samples. Results: Concerning the mycobacterium tuberculosis, about 60% of unstimulated mixed saliva revealed positive acid fast bacilli, while all samples of parotid saliva showed negative acid fast bacilli. There was no significant relationship between the duration of signs and symptoms of disease and the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the collected specimens. The density of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mixed saliva mainly was scanty which mean it was not more than 2-9 bacilli in at least 100 fields. This confirms the fact that the body fluids commonly contain only small number of mycobacterium tuberculosis. The five samples of saliva which were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and stonebrink media showed positive cultures. Conclusion: Mixed saliva was less efficient than sputum by direct smear of sputum


Article
Trace elements and oxidative stress markers in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Amalgam is the most frequently used restorative material for dental treatment. It is mainly used in posterior teeth, usually on occlusal surfaces as an economical, long lasting and durable filling material and represent the main source of exposure to mercury and other toxic metals (copper, tin, silver, etc.). This study designed to measure oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and anti-oxidants (uric acid and glutathione) concentrations in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings. And measure trace elements (copper, zinc) concentrations in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings. Subjects,materials and methods: Fifty subjects were participated in this study, they were between the age of (20-50) years with amalgam fillings (cases group) and fifty one subjects with no amalgam fillings (control group), they were gender and age matched to that of subjects with amalgam fillings. Informed consent and ethical approval was obtained. Each subject fill a case sheet questionnaire then examined by using sterile dental mirror and sterile dental probe to determine any oral manifestations and to calculate the number of amalgam filled teeth and the number of filled surfaces. Results: The results obtained from this study showed that Oxidative stress marker (MDA) were increased while antioxidants (glutathione, uric acid) were decreased in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings. Trace elements (copper, zinc) were higher in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings; salivary copper was significantly higher in subjects with > 10 amalgam filled teeth. Salivary total glutathione was significantly correlated (negative correlation) with the number of filled teeth. Salivary copper was significantly correlated (positive correlation) with the number of filled teeth and filled surfaces. Conclusion: This study revealed that amalgam fillings associated with increase in oxidative stress marker(MDA) and decrease in antioxidants (glutathione, uric acid).Trace elements (copper, zinc) increased in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings.


Article
A cytopathological study of the effect of smoking on the oral epithelial cells in relation to oral health status by the micronucleus assay

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Micronucleus is a cytoplasmic fragment of DNA reported as a biomarker of cancer. It is a cytoplasmic chromatin mass formed in the basal cells layer of the epithelium. These fragments can form their own membrane. The aims of the study was to detect the micronuclei expression in the oral epithelial cells in cytopathological smears of the non-smokers’ and the smokers’ males, correlate the micronuclei expression in the oral epithelial cells with the oral health status variables, and evaluate the efficacy of the micronuclei assay to detect the subjects at high risk of oral mutations. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 75 males of (35- 40) years of age divided into 25 heavy smokers, 25 light smokers, and 25 non-smokers. A cytobrush was used to obtain the smears. The oral health status was evaluated by using the plaque, gingival, calculus indices in addition to the amalgam and composite restorations. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the micronuclei expression among the three groups. There was a strong correlation between the oral health status variables and the micronuclei expression in the non- smokers' group, for the Plaque index with (P-value =0.0005) and for the calculus index (P-value = 0.04). The smokers' group had a strong correlation with the amalgam restorations with (P-value =0.0005). Conclusion: The micronucleus assay detected by Pap stain is a useful biomarker to detect the people at high risk of oral mutations due to the harmful effect of the smoking, the calculus and plaque indices, in addition to the amalgam restorations


Article
Evaluation of the effect of platelet-rich plasma on intrabony defect repair in glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis in rabbits (Histological and biochemical study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background Osteoporosis has an impact on bone healing process, platelets rich plasma (PRP) ameliorated the deleterious effect of osteoporosis on bone healing process. Autologous (PRP) could be used in many clinical fields of oral and maxillofacial bone, implant reconstructive surgery and periodontology. This study was carried out to evaluate histologically the regeneration capacity of autologous (PRP) on defect in the mandible bone of osteoporotic rabbits. Materials and Methods Forty-eight female rabbits were used in this study, divided into four groups (12 rabbits for each group), each rabbit was received intraboney defect in the mandible. Two groups were save as control groups one of them left for normal healing (group A), while other group were receiving PRP treatment (group B). The remaining two groups were given 10 mg/B.W hydrocortisone i.m daily for 8 weeks to induce OP-like condition which save as experimental groups. One of them left for normal healing (group C), while other were receiving PRP treatment (group D).After 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperatively (4 rabbits from each groups), blood sample was taken from each animal for serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphorous analysis. Then the animals were sacrificed and the decalcified sections of the bone were studied histomorphologically. These histometric analyses including counting of bone cells: osteoblast, osteocyte, and osteoclast. Bone trabecular, separation, width, and number; cortical width, blood vessels number, and bone marrow space and volume assed. Results Histological examinations showed that with the use of autologous platelets rich plasma in an osteoporotic and normal rabbit, an obvious enhancement of new bone formation and neovascularization significantly more than that of groups without (PRP) application. The results of osteoporotic group treated with (PRP) nearly reached the levels of normal group without PRP in all the three periods postoperatively.Biochemical serum analysis revealed an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium concentrations in osteoporotic animals than control one, while serum phosphorous level increased in control animals than osteoporotic ones. Conclusions This study illustrated that the (PRP) has an osteopromotive activity that accelerated bone-healing process in madibular bone defect in an osteoporotic rabbits as well as in normal rabbits


Article
A specific focus imaging for dental implant planning (CT-Based)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Today the availability of real 3D planning software which furthers more allows a reliable transfer to the surgical field through drilling template placement, imaging modalities available preoperative planning purpose with specific focus in the use of software for planning of oral implant surgery. This study was established to shed light on the role of 3D dental planning CT in assessment the bone Quantity (height and width) and quality for dental implant and its relation to opposing tooth. Materials, subjects and method: Oral implant planning was performed for twenty patients with fifteen suspected oral implant area in AL-Karkh general hospital by incorporating the restorative planning during the preoperative assessment of the implant site by using a radiographic template with a radiopaque indicator (inside the patient mouth while the patient mouth was closed during the diagnosis) in conjunction with a CT-based imaging system. Preoperative and postoperative CT images were compared (planned and actual implant positions), and the accuracy of this type of image-guided therapy was assessed. Result: From the collected data (preoperative CT-image) in this study it was shown that, the ability of 3D dental planning CT to supply the surgeon with a high resolution image of anatomical limitations, bone density and true length and width. There were no major surgical complications, 20 implants were available for comparison so the required accuracy of dental implant planning was superior with CT-based surgical guidance template image there was a statistically significant correlation in the accuracy of any implants placed with the same guide Conclusion: CT-based oral implant planning with surgical guidance, when properly utilized, will help of removing the limitations associated with two-dimensional imaging modalities for planning implants, and will empower clinicians with more diagnostic information, it allowed for a physical transfer of the implant planning to the patient’s mouth safely and predictably


Article
Effects of low-energy laser in the treatment of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome of the temporo-mandibular joint

Authors: Ali H. Abbas علي عباس
Pages: 82-86
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of low-energy 904nm gallium-arsenide laser therapy in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome of the temporo-mandibular joint. Materials and methods: Twenty six patients included in this study who complain from myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome of the temporo-mandibular joints. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 13 patients who received non steroidal anti inflammatory drug and muscle relaxant for three weeks, and group 2 consisted of 13 patients who received low-energy laser for three weeks. Results: The study reveals significant early improvement in laser group in reducing pain severity and muscle tenderness from first week up to the end of the observation period. Conclusion: Low-energy laser had an effect at the trigger points and significantly reducing the pain and muscle tenderness


Article
Assessment of salivary elements (Zinc, Copper and Magnesium) among groups of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis and its correlation to periodontal health status

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are common in the society and some researchers suggestedan association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal diseases. The aims of study were to determine the periodontal health status in patient with RA and chronic periodontitis and compare it with those having chronic periodontitis without RA anddetermine the level of salivary elements Copper(Cu),Zinc( Zn) and Magnesium( Mg) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients have no rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compare with the control group.And correlate between these salivary elements with the periodontal parameters Plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocketdepth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: In this study, the samples were recruited from patientsreferred todepartment of Rheumatology at Baghdad hospital. Seventy five female patients participated in this study, twenty five of them rheumatoid arthritis patient andhad chronic periodontitis; twenty five were with chronicperiodontitis and have no arthritis; Twenty five patients wereperiodontally and systemically healthy (control group). Patients were with age range 40-50 yearswith no other systemic diseases. The smokers and patients taking medication affecting periodontium status were excluded from the study.Also the patients had normal weight and length. Periodontal parameters were measuredin all groups at four surfaces.Salivary elements (Zn, Cu and Mg) also measured in this study. Results: Patients with RA had higher prevalence of sites presenting dental plaque, a higher rate of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing,greater probing depth, and greater attachment loss compared with control and high level of Copper and low level of Zinc and Magnesium. Conclusion: The results suggest higher potentiality for moderate to severe periodontitis involvement among RA patients, with higher levels of Copper (Cu), and low level of Zinc (Zn) and Magnesium (Mg).


Article
Inorganic ions level in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth. Inorganic ions have been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease in saliva. The aims of the study were the detection of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions levels in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subjects and correlate the mean salivary levels of these ions with clinical periodontal parameters [plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)]. Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of thirty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (18 males and 12 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (15 males and 15 females) with age ranged from 30 to 50 years. Both groups were without any systemic disease. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all subjects and the levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in each specimen were analyzed. For each group a statistical analysis was done to estimate the levels of these ions in saliva and to correlate the mean of salivary inorganic levels with clinical periodontal parameters. Results: The present study showed that there was highly significant difference in the levels of salivary inorganic ions (Ca=2, Mg+2, K+1, Na+1) between chronic periodontitis patients and control group with increase in Ca+2, K+1, Na+1 ions levels in saliva of chronic periodontitis and decrease in level of Mg+2 ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis than in control group. There was no correlation between the mean of PLI and Ca+2, Mg+2, K+1 and Na+1 ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis and there was no correlation between the mean of GI and Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+1 ions and a negative significant correlation with K+1 ions. Concerning PPD and CAL there was no correlation between them and the mean salivary inorganic levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusions: Estimation of these electrolytes or inorganic ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis may be used as potential diagnostic markers of active disease status in periodontal tissues and to predict the effective methods of prevention and treatment


Article
The efficiency and stability of maxillary expansion with Quadhelix; a longitudinal study

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Transverse maxillary deficiencies constitute a routine clinical problem in orthodontics, Quadhelixis one of the slow maxillary expanders which used to solve these problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical responses of Quadhelixas slow maxillary expander; a treatment performed for early permanent dentition in Class I malocclusion. Subjects and methods: A study sample of 30 patients (13 males and 17 females) were selected on the criteria of having Class I permanent dentition with transverse maxillary deficiency, and mild or no crowding mandibular dental arch, treated with Quadhelix expander without extraction, with active mechanotherapy for teeth alignment (as needed). The mean age of the sample was 12 years and 2 months for girls and 12 years and 11 months for boys at treatment initiation. Cast and cephalometric measurements outcomes were evaluated at pretreatment phase A0, postactiveexpansion phase A1, post-retentive phaseA2 (one year after A1), and at the end of long term follow-up A3(three years after A1). The results were compared to a control group of 30 subjects (15 males and 15 females) of Class I with normal occlusions of the same age group. Simple training to withdraw bad oral habitswas carried out all over the study. Results: Casts and cephalometric x-rays measurements were quantified and compared among phase A0, A1, A2, and A3. Using Student’s t-test, the study group demonstrated a significant increase in the arch width values during the activeexpanding phase (P, .001) and less significant increaseduring the long-term follow-up (P, .01). Stable arch length and no increase in the lower facial height were beneficial results. Conclusions: The long-term clinical response demonstrated the efficiency and stability of this type of treatment in achieving maxillary arch width with no threatening of mandibular downward rotation. The follow-up evaluation confirmed the validity of overtreatment.


Article
Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on surface roughness of a silorane-based and methacrylate-based composite resin (In vitro comparative study)

Authors: Baydaa Hussein بيداء حسين
Pages: 106-112
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: When using a fluoridated agent for caries-preventive intervention, the clinician should be careful not to allow the agent to come into contact with the composite restorations since topically applied fluorides were found to induce adverse effects on the morphologic characteristics and composition of composite restorations. A new remineralizing agent "MI Paste" and its fluoridated form "MI Paste Plus" based on Recaldent technology (CPP-ACP) were developed. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effect of these new remineralizing agents on surface roughness of two types of composite resin materials. Materials and Method: Cylindrical specimens 12mm in diameter and 2mm in height were prepared from two types of composite resin materials: Filtek™ P90 (a silorane-based composite material) and Filtek™ Z350 XT (a methacrylatebased nanofill composite material). Each specimen was cured against a celluloid strip in a specially designed cylindrical mold using a QTH light curing unit for 40 seconds. Forty specimens were prepared for each composite type and subdivided into four subgroups of ten specimens each: Subgroup 1: without treatment, dry-stored in an incubator at 37ïC for one week (control subgroup), Subgroup 2: without treatment, stored in deionized water in an incubator at 37ïC for one week, Subgroup 3: treated with MI Paste once daily for one week, and Subgroup 4: treated with MI Paste Plus once daily for one week. Surface roughness of the specimens was obtained with a surface profile testing machine, which used the roughness average (Ra) to assess surface changes. Several measurements were taken for each specimen and the mean value of these measurements on one specimen was regarded as the Ra of that specimen. The mean Ra value of each subgroup was then calculated. Results: The results of this study showed statistically non-significant differences among the different subgroups of Filtek™ P90 composite resin material. Concerning Filtek™ Z350 XT composite resin material, the results showed a statistically highly significant difference in surface roughness between the subgroup stored in deionized water and the control one, with statistically non-significant difference between the subgroups treated with MI Paste and MI Paste Plus and the control subgroup. Comparison of significance between the corresponding subgroups of both composite types revealed statistically non-significant differences except for subgroup 2 which showed a statistically significant higher surface roughness in Filtek™ Z350 XT than Filtek™ P90. Conclusions: The daily application of the MI Paste and MI Paste Plus for one week had non significant effect on surface roughness of the silorane-based composite resin material Filtek™ P90. On the other hand, the application of these agents caused surface smoothening of the nanofilled methacrylate-based composite resin material Filtek™ Z350 XT.


Article
Effect of repeated pregnancies on periodontal health status

Authors: Baydaa A. Yas بيداء ياس
Pages: 113-115
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to gum and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of repeated pregnancies on the periodontal health status. Materials and methods: This study evaluated the oral hygiene and periodontal status (plaque index, calculus index, gingival index and probing pocket depth) of 224 pregnant women in Baghdad governorate (112 primigravidae and 112 multigravidae), in relation to socio-demographic and clinical variables. The age range was 20-25 years. Results: No significant differences were found in oral hygiene and gingival health condition between primigravidae and multigravidae women. Also probing pocket depth whether present or absent revealed equal percentage in both. The majority of the pregnant women was of urban residence and had lower educational level. Higher percentage of them visits the dental clinic for relieving pain only. Conclusion: Multiple pregnancies had unpronounced influence on the periodontal health status. Future studies should include the clinical attachment level measurement


Article
Effect of thymus vulgaris extract on streptococci and mutans streptococci, in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vivo study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme) is an aromatic plant which has been used since ancient times for its culinary and medicinal effects almost everywhere in the world. In Medicine, it is used as antispasmolytic, antibacterial, antifungal, expectorant, and antiseptic. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tonsillitis, gum diseases, and fungal infections. The aim of this study was to test the effects of Thymus Vulgaris extract on the viable count of Salivary Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci and on salivary flow rate and pH in comparison to Chlorhexidine Gluconate 0.2% and de-ionized water in vivo. Materials and method: Thymus vulgaris extract was prepared and different concentrations of Thyme extract were prepared and estimated in gm /100 ml of De-ionized water. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% used as a control positive; while deionized water was used as a control negative. Stimulated saliva was collected from 15 volunteers, divided into three groups each group rinsed with one of the tested agents (Chlorhexidine, Thyme extract and De-ionized water) for one minute. The counts of bacteria were recorded at different time point (before rinsing, one minute after rinsing, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and one hour). Colonies were counted using colony counter. Salivary pH and volume of saliva were measured also. Results: Thymus Vulgaris extract had a significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci in the following time points (15 minutes and 30 minute) and a highly significant reduction in the counts of salivary streptococci and Mutans Streptococci (P<0.001) had been found after one hour, but Chlorhexidine is still more effective than other agents in reduction of salivary counts of these two types of bacteria. Salivary flow rates and pH was measured for the three agents before and after rinsing for five time intervals. Immediately after rinsing, salivary flow rates and pH increased for the three mouth rinses. The increase in Salivary flow rates and pH continued after half an hour and then started to decrease after one hour for Chlorhexidine and Thymus vulgaris extract. Chlorhexidine had the highest increase in salivary flow rates and pH followed by Thymus Vulgaris then De-ionized water. Conclusion: Thymus Vulgaris extract was effective against both Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci and Chlorhexidine is still more effective than other agents


Article
Pain intensity and control with fixed orthodontic appliance therapy (A clinical comparative study on Iraqi sample)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to investigate the level and intensity of patients` pain and discomfort, and to compare between the use of Bite Wafer and Paracetamol in reducing pain and discomfort associated with initial orthodontic tooth movement in both adolescents and adults. Sample: 110 subjects with two age groups, 52 adolescents with age range from 12 to less than 18 years and 58 adults with age range 18-24 years, successfully completing the study. For each subject fixed orthodontic appliance (Roth 0.022) was bonded and round 0.014 NiTi arch wire was ligated with elastic ligature. The subjects in the Bite Wafer group were instructed to chew on it whenever they feel pain for the next 7 days, and document the time and effectiveness of it in the questionnaire. The Paracetamol group subjects instructed to use Paracetamol 500mg to relive pain and record times and effectiveness of its use in questionnaire. Results: The peak of pain was occurred in the first day and declined gradually till totally disappeared at the sixth day after initial arch wire placement. A marked reduction of pain intensity was noticed in both adolescents and adults groups, using Bite Wafer, from the first to the sixth day which is much higher than Paracetamol group especially in adolescents. No gender differences (P>0.05) was noticed in this study. Conclusion: Although both Bite Wafer and Paracetamol reduced pain gradually, Bite Wafer reduced pain more obviously and safely in comparison to Paracetamol especially in adolescents

Keywords

pain --- Wafer --- orthodontic


Article
Salivary vitamins and total proteins, in relation to cariesexperience and gingival health, according to nutritional status of a group of five-year old children

Authors: Nada J. Radhi ندى راضي
Pages: 129-136
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Malnutrition influences the development of the teeth and the formation, function and secretion of the salivary glands, which in turn influence susceptibility to dental caries and gingival disease. The aims of this study were to assess the salivary antioxidants (vitamin A, C and E) levels as well as total protein and their relation to caries severity and gingival health status among mal- and well-nourished children. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 children and they divided according to nutritional status (30 malnourished and 30 well nourished). The 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts was used for assessment of nutritional status (height for age). The age was five years old. Caries severity (d1-4s) was assessed according to Muhlemann (1976). Dental plaque recorded following the criteria described by Sillness and Löe (1964). The gingival index (GI) was used according to Löe and Sillness criteria (1963). Stimulated whole saliva samples were collected and chemically analyzed by using colorimetric method to determine the salivary antioxidants (vitamin A, C and E) and total protein. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Results recorded a higher mean value of dmfs among malnourished in comparison to well nourished with statistically highly significant difference (P< 0.001). According to grades of lesion severity, d4 was significantly the higher among malnourished children (P< 0.001). Strong highly significant correlations were noticed between ds, dmfs and PI among malnourished and well nourished children. Significantly lower values of vitamins and total protein were noticed among malnourished children compared to well nourished (P< 0.001). Negative highly significant correlations were found with all vitamins among malnourished children regarding caries-experience and GI. Conclusion: Childhood chronic malnutrition (stunting) is associated with salivary hypofunction. This may act as a risk factor for dental caries and gingival disease in the target group.

Keywords

vitamin A --- C --- E --- total protein --- dental caries --- gingival disease


Article
Orthodontic bracket failure rate; A comparative clinical study between light cured and chemically cured (no mix) bonding systems

Authors: Natheer A. Rasheed نذير رشيد
Pages: 137-139
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the difference in brackets failure rate between light cured and chemical cured (no mix) composites used in brackets bonding procedures. Materials and methods :A total of 729 Roth 0.22 stainless steel brackets were bonded to 40 patients requiring orthodontic treatment in the form of 3 groups ;light cured 237 ,no mix 240 ,control(split mouth design)249. Results: The results showed non significant difference in brackets failure rate between the groups and the majority of the failed brackets were in the posterior region. Conclusion: Clinically, the light cured bonding system has a comparable strength to no mix


Article
Correlation between caries related bacteria in plaque and saliva in different age group children

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Dental plaque contains bacteria that are both acidogenic and acidoduric. Different types of streptococci were identified in saliva. Although many bacterial subspecies have been shown to be associated with caries, streptococcus mutans is still believed to be the most important bacterium in the initiation of this disease while lactobacillus is correlated with the active caries episode. This study was conducted in order to estimate the correlation between caries related bacteria in plaque and saliva in different age group children. Materials and methods: Fifty three children aged 3-10 years old were chosen for this study. Recording of dental caries was carried out by the dmfs index for primary teeth and DMFS index for the permanent teeth according to the criteria suggested by the WHO. One ml of unstimulated (resting) whole saliva was collected from the children using spitting method then diluted and applied on the surface of agar media specific for streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli growth. Dental plaque sample was taken from the buccal surface of the maxillary second primary molar by a clean toothpick and store in Epindorf tube which contain 1 ml. normal saline then inoculated in the same growth media that were used with the salivary samples. Colonies of the bacteria were counted with the aid of dissection microscope (15 X) on the basis of their characteristic morphology. Results: Strong positive significant correlation was found between dmfs and ds components of the primary teeth, Positive results was found when correlating dmfs or ds with streptococcus mutans in dental plague while a negative correlation was found with lactobacilli. Negative correlation was found when correlating dmfs with streptococcus mutans in saliva while the relation is positive with lactobacilli. In dental plaque and in saliva there was a strong positive highly significant correlation between the DMF and the DS. Correlation coefficient between DMFS with the bacterial counts of the caries related microorganisms (streptococci and lactobacilli) in the dental plaque and in saliva revealed weak, negative not significant correlations. Conclusion: The relation is not significant between the caries related microorganisms with each other in different media; either the dental plaque or saliva


Article
Quantitative analysis of IgG antinuclear antibody in chronic periodontitis patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is a bacterial infection of tooth-supporting tissues; the immunopathologic mechanisms include inflammatory cells and chemical mediators, which persist inflammation and develop a local autoimmune. The presence of autoantibodies against extracellular matrix components, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-DNA was detected. This study aimed to provide evidence of altered humoral immune response in chronic periodontitis, as well as to determine the presence of auto-antibodies in this disease. Subjects and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 35 patients with chronic periodontitis (20 with sever periodontitis and 15 with moderate periodontitis) and from 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals served as controls. Clinical periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. The levels of serum IgG-antinuclear antibody were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, whereas serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM and IgA) were estimated by single radial immune diffusion method. Results: Serum levels of IgG-antinuclear antibody and IgG were significantly higher in sever chronic periodontitis than in moderate chronic periodontitis and healthy controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the serum levels of IgM and IgA showed no significant differences among three studied groups (p>0.05). Concerning the correlation between serum IgG-antinuclear antibody and clinical periodontal parameters, the level of this autoantibody did not show any correlation with clinical parameters of periodontitis (p>0.05). Conclusion: The production of antibodies against self structures could be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of chronic periodontitis


Article
Comparison between severe haemophilic A and healthy children in Streptococcus mutans, oral Lactobacilli and Candida albicans counts

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Haemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The purpose of this research is to compare between the viable count of Streptococcus mutans, oral Lactobacilli and Candida albicans from saliva of children suffering from haemophilia A aged (6-12) years and the viable count of the same microorganisms isolated from saliva of healthy subject (healthy supject group) aged (6-12) years. Materials and methods: - Saliva samples were collected from 30 children with severe Haemophilia A (patients group and 30 healthy children (healthy subject group). Microbial counts of Streptococcus mutans, oral Lactobacilli and Candida albicans were recorded for each group by using colony counter and expressed as colony forming unit multiplied by the dilution factor per millimeter saliva (CFU/ml). Results: - The present study observed that the viable count of Streptococcus mutans and oral Lactobacilli in patient group was higher than the count of the healthy subject group while no significant differences were observed between the viable count of Candida albicans in patients group and healthy subject group. Conclusion: - education, prevention and effort among parents and dental professionals can aid in improving the oral health of Haemophilia children


Article
Effect of Nigella Sativa L. extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis in Vitro

Authors: Najah A. Mohammed نجاح محمد
Pages: 154-157
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed, have been used in traditional medicine. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis are normal flora bacteria found in human oral cavity, which cause dental caries and bad breathe oder. This project considered as an explorer study for the inhibitory effect of Nigella Sativa L. seeds extract against S. mutans and S. mitis. Material and methods: Two different extracts of Nigella sativa L. has been evaluated in vitro against Streptococcus mutans & Streptococcus mitis, the antibacterial activity was determined by the agar well diffusion method. Results: The results showed the zone of inhibition was found 12.7mm and 10.4mm at a ethanol extract against Strept. mutans & Strept. mitis respectively,while the inhibition zone of ether extract was found 6.3mm and 5.1mm against Strept. mutans & Strept. mitis respectively. Conclusion: Methanol extract was more effective in comparison with the ether extracts. The highest inhibition zone was observed with ethanol fraction and it inhibited the growth of two careiogenic bacteria


Article
Evaluation of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontitis and gingivitis and its correlation with some risk factors

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: It was shown that two protozoans, Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax may be responsible for oral parasitic infection. This study was designed to detect these parasites in oral cavity of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis with some risk factors and compare it with healthy oral persons. Material and Method: A total of 60 patients with periodontitis and gingivitis and 25 healthy person (control group) enrolled in the present study. Two samples were collected from each patient, dental plaque and saliva samples. These samples were stained with Giemsa stain and examined under light microscope, some factors were taken such as PH saliva, age, sex, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, heart disease and any history of antibiotic consumption during the last six months. Results: This result shown Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in dental plaque samples was higher than in saliva samples in patients with periodontitis (70%, 60%), (33%,20%) respectively. While in gingivitis it was shown that these two parasites higher in saliva than the dental plaque (60%,46.6%),(46.6%,30.9%)respectively. these two parasites are present in healthy individuals less than in patients with periodontitis and gingivitis . The presence of these protozoans was related to the type of periodontal disease(p=0.0257),sex(p=0.043),age(p=0.0058),PH of saliva(p=0.043) and risk factors (p=0.0168). Conclusion: This study showed Entamoeba gingivalis more common in patients with periodontal disease whereas Trichomonas tenax is that considered a protozoan in oral cavity. There was relationship between the presence of these parasites and the type of periodontal disease and the risk factors

Table of content: volume: issue: