Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2012 volume:24 issue:4

Article
Effect of modified zirconium oxide nano-fillers addition on some properties of heat cure acrylic denture base material

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Background: Polymer nano composite attracted great attention especially because of their unexpected hybrid properties that are synergistically derived from the two components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of modified nano-zirconium oxide on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material. Materials and methods: Zirconium oxide nano fillers modified by a silane coupling agent Tri (methoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate before dispersed and sonicated in monomer (MMA)in different percentage 2%,3%and 5%by weight. Three hundreds and twenty specimens were prepared for these studies were divided into five main groups according to the test used. The tests were abrasive wear, water sorption and solubility, porosity, tensile and fatigue strength test. For each test four sub groups (one control and three for different weight percentage of nano-ZrO2). Scanning electron microscope techniques used to analyze the fracture surface of fatigue test and estimate the dispersion and distribution of the nano-ZrO2 particles. Results: Highly significant increase in abrasive wear resistance with 3wt% and 5wt% of nano fillers with all groups of denture cleansers. highly significant decrease in water sorption and solubility. Significant decrease in porosity in 3wt% and 5wt%. Highly significant increase in both tensile and fatigue strength in all groups but slightly decreased in 5wt% as compared with 3wt% but still high significant as compared with control group. Conclusion: incorporating the modified nano-ZrO2 into acrylic resin results in improvement in abrasive wear resistance, tensile and fatigue strength in addition decrease in water sorption, solubility and porosity of heat cure denture base resin.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of intermediate agents on the shear bond strength of repaired aged silorane resin composite

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bonding effect of different intermediate agents on the bond strength of silorane resin composite (Filtek™ P90,3M ESPE) that repaired by either silorane (Filtek™ P90) or methacrylate based resin composite (Filtek™ Z250,3M ESPE) Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens of resin composite prepared by filling silorane (Filtek™ P90) into a retentive cavity (6mm in diameter and 2mm in depth) of acrylic mold. The composite were polymerized, water stored at 37°C for one week. Their surface were finished with medium (violet) super-snap disks then rinsed in ultrasonic cleaner. Repair was performed with either silorane (Filtek™ P90) or methacrylate based composite (Filtek™ Z250) by using several intermediate agents which include (P90 System Adhesive, Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose and Clearfil repair kit).The shear bond strength (crosshead speed 0.5 mm/min) was measured after an additional water storage of 24 hour. Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed that intermediate agents enhanced the bond strength significantly (p<0.001).The highest shear bond strength were determined for Clearfil repair kit and P90 System Adhesive which were significantly higher than the control (p<0.001). Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose enhanced the bond strength significantly than the control but it was significantly lower than the other adhesive systems (p<0.001). Conclusions: The Clearfil™ Repair kit and P90 System Adhesive were the most effective intermediate agents for repair of silorane restoration with both silorane and methacrylate repair materials.Use of Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose resulted in bond strength which is considered clinically inadequate


Article
The influence of CAD/CAM ceramic and heat processed composite inlays on the fracture resistance of premolars (An in-vitro study)

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Background: The aim of this in-vitro study was to identify the influence of intracoronal indirect adhesive techniques (heat processed composite (SR Adoro) andcomputer-aided design / computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic (e Max CAD) inlays)on the fracture resistance of maxillary first premolars and to identify the modes of fracture of all experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Forty sound freshly extracted upper first premolar teeth were selected then mounted in acrylic blocks, the teeth were divided into four groupsas follow:Group (A): tenintact teeth (control group).Group (B): ten teeth prepared with standardized MOD inlay cavity but not restored. Group(C): ten teeth prepared with standardized MOD inlay cavity and restored with indirect heat processed composite (SR Adoro).Group (D): ten teeth prepared with standardized MOD inlay cavity and restored with CAD /CAM ceramic material (e max CAD).Fracture strength of the experimented teeth was measured by using universal testing machine (an axial compression test).Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and least significant difference tests. Results:Group (D) restored with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays showed more resistance to fracture than teeth restored with SR Adoro composite inlays group (C), but the values are statistically not significant, using One way ANOVA test a highly significant differences (P < 0.01) were found among all groups. Conclusions:All CAD/CAM ceramic inlays and 80% of heat processed compositeinlays survived maximum biting force for posterior single tooth, so these two types of inlays provide good reinforcement in an extensive MOD cavities in premolars,The fracture Mode of SR Adoro composite inlays seems to be 80% restorable while CAD/CAM ceramic inlays 90% of it are restorable type of fracture


Article
The influence of flowable composite liner on microleakage of class II packable composite resin restoration with different application techniques (Comparative study)

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Background: This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the influence of flowable composite and different application techniques of class II packable composite restoration on dentinal leakage. Materials and methods: Thirty human freshly-extracted Maxillary premolars were selected for this study. Conventional Class II MOD cavities were prepared in the sample teeth which were then divided into five groups .Each group consist of ten boxes either MO or DO according to the restorative procedure used except group A which consist of twenty boxes(ten teeth with MOD amalgam restoration). Group A: ten teeth where restored by amalgam- (SDI Australia) high strength admix amalgam type.Group B: ten teeth in which the mesio-occlusal (MO) sides were restored by {adhesive + flowable composite + one bulk packable composite (Filtek P60)}. Group C: ten teeth in which the disto-occlusal (DO) sides were restored by {adhesive +one bulk packable composite, (Filtek P60)}.Group D: ten teeth in which the mesio-occlusal (MO) sides were restored by {adhesive + flowable composite + successive build up technique for packable composite, (Filtek P60)}. Group E: ten teeth in which the disto-occlusal (DO) sides were restored by {adhesive+ successive build up technique for packable composite, (Filtek P60)}. After thermocycling and immersion in 2% methylene blue, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally mesio-occluso-distal and dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicrscope, microleakage was recorded in mm. Results and Conclusions: ANOVA test and least significant difference (LSD) test were used to analyze the results, and the results showed that the use of flowable composite resin as a liner with packable composite resin decreases the amount of dentinal microleakage, and the restorative technique of packable composite whether it is bulk build up technique, or incremental successive build up technique has no difference on the improvement of microleakge value, and the packable resin composite restoration whatever applied with different application techniques or restored with or without flowable composite it still had or scored higher microleakage than amalgam restoration


Article
The effect of blood contamination on compressive strength of two materials used in treatment of furcation perforation (A comparative study)

Authors: Linz A. Shalan لنز شالان
Pages: 25-28
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Background: blood contamination of the materials used for treatment of furcation perforation can affect on their physical properties (such as compressive strength). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of blood contamination on compressive strength for Mineral Trioxide Aggregate MTA and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement RMGIC during furcation perforation management. Materials and methods: Forty plastic molds (4 mm diameter and 2mm thickness) were constructed to form samples. Ten samples were made for each group: MTA-without blood contamination GI, MTA- with blood contamination GII, RMGI- without blood contamination GIII and RMGI- with blood contamination GIV, and kept in plastic tubes with moist cotton pellet at 37 oC for 4 days then all samples were subjected to compressive strength test by Instron testing machine. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and t- test. Results: statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a highly significant differences in compressive strength between GI and GII ( P< 0.01)and significant differences between GIII and GIV, GIII and GI, GIV and GII (P < 0.05), With lowest mean of compressive strength value was recorded to MTA- with blood contamination GII (31.32 ± 0.022 Mpa) and highest mean for RMGI- without blood contamination GIII ( 168.725± 0.063Mpa). Conclusion: compressive strength value for both MTA and RMGI cement reduced when exposed to blood during treatment of furcation perforation, RMGI cement has higher value of compressive strength than MTA and it could be suitable choice in treatment of Furcal perforation in presence of bleeding and placing of coronal restoration after 4 days.


Article
An evaluation of the effects of different polishing materials and glazing techniques on the fracture toughness of dental porcelain

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Background: As there is an increase in the importance of measuring the fracture toughness of dental porcelain, different methods and materials were supposed. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture toughness of feldspathic porcelain with different polishing materials and glazing techniques. Materials and methods: Forty-nine metal-ceramic discs (width =10 mm, height =5 mm) were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 7); group one was left intact and considered as a control group, other groups’ surfaces were treated with autoglaze only, applied glaze only, polished with ceramic rubber wheel only, polished with Dentaurum universal polishing paste only, polished with paste then autoglazed, and polished with paste followed by applied glaze respectively. Porcelain fracture toughness (KIc) for each specimen was measured by a Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester then the mean KIc for each group was determined. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD). Results: Mean porcelain fracture toughness of all groups were 1.320, 0.665, 1.469, 1.319, 1.480, 1.108, 1.548 MN/m-3/2 respectively. Very high significant differences were found between the groups (P<0.001). The highest mean of KIc value was recorded in group VII which represented the toughest group while the lowest mean value was represented by group II. Conclusions: Surface treatment of feldspathic porcelain restorations with polishing paste and applied glaze showed highly significant increase in fracture toughness. Polishing unglazed porcelain using ceramic rubber wheel and Dentaurum universal polishing paste showed no significant differences compared with specimens treated with applied glaze only.


Article
The influence of instrument application frequency on the apical extrusion of debris using rotary ProTaper, hand ProTaper and hybrid technique (An in vitro study)

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Background: Various kinds of hand-held or rotary instruments and techniques are used for mechanical preparation of the canal during root canal treatments. These instruments and techniques may push debris out of the canals which may induce inflammation within the periapical area; therefore, instrumentation technique that causes less extrusion of debris is more desirable. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of instrument application frequency on the amount of apically extruded debris. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted human teeth were used in this study; all teeth were shortened to a length of 15 mm. Each experimented root was mounted on a centrifuge tube that forced through a precut hole in a rubber stopper of a glass vial. The roots were divided randomly into 3 groups, each group contained 40 roots. Group R: prepared by rotary ProTaper, Group H: prepared by hand ProTaper, Group S: prepared by Hybrid technique. Each group was further subdivided in to five subgroups (A, B, C, D, and E). Debris extruded from apical foramen was collected in a centrifuge tube containing 0.5 milliliter of distilled water. Each empty centrifuge tube was weighed before preparation by 0.0001g. sensitive weighing machine. Then at the end of canal preparation, these centrifuge tubes were completely dried using an incubator at 68 C° for two days and weighed again. The difference between the weights of tubes in two stages represented the weight of debris extruded from apical foramen during instrumentation. Results: No significant difference recorded for the mean weight of apically extruded debris regarding the instrument application frequency within the same instrumentation technique; but there was a high significant difference for the subgroups (A, B, C, and D) and a significant difference for subgroup E, regarding the effect of instrumentation techniques on amount of apical extrusion of debris among tested groups. Conclusion: The hand ProTaper extruded smaller amounts of apical debris than the rotary ProTaper and larger amounts than Hybrid technique


Article
Histopathological evaluation of bone healing using Nanobone in experimentally induced frontal bone defects of rabbits

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Background: The bone substitute biomaterials are used in reconstruction of bone defects and one of them is Nanobone. It consists of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a highly porous matrix of silica gel. It promotes the healing of bone defects and increases the amount of new bone formed. It is degraded and resorbed by osteoclasts after a period of time. The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of Nanobone on bone healing in experimentally frontal bony defects of rabbits. Materials & Methods: Thirty five indigenous rabbits were used in this study. Granules of Nanobone were implanted in surgically induced defects of 5mm size in one side in the frontal bone of rabbits, while the other side defects were left free to heal spontaneously as controls. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks and demineralized. The amount of new bone formed around implanted granules and the inflammation present were analyzed by means of light microscopy in both Nanobone granules-filled defects and controls. Results: At 2 weeks, there was no new bone formed in both defects with few amount of inflammation which considers normal at this time. At 6, 9 and 12 weeks , the amount of new bone formed in Nanobone filled defects was much more than that formed in controls (statistically significant correlation, P<0.05), no inflammation seen in boths. At 24 weeks, the Nanobone granules were degraded and completely replaced by new bone while in controls there was few spaces not filled with bone (statistically highly significant correlation, P<0.01), no inflammation seen also. Conclusions: Results of present study revealed that Nanobone material promotes healing of bony defects in comparison to controls and is degraded and replaced by new bone after a period of time


Article
Detection of ERBB2 (Her2/neu) and P16 (INK4A) genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

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Background Head and neck cancers account for approximately 5% of all carcinomas in industrialized countries, with a worldwide incidence of 500,000 new cases annually. Nearly all head and neck cancers (90%) are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and >50% of tumors arise in the oral cavity. It is important to know what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. A member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, HER2/neu, has received much attention because of its therapeutic implications. The p16 gene produces P16 protein, which in turn inhibits phosphorylation of Rb, thus inhibiting the Rbinduced release of transcription factor EF1 and cell cycle progression. Genetic aberration analyzed by fluorescence (FISH) to measure the gene copy number. The aims of the present study are to detect HER2/neu amplification and P16 deletion in oral squamous cell carcinoma and correlate them with various clinicopathological parameters (age, sex, clinical presentation, tumor site, tumor stage, tumor grade). Materials and Methods Thirty formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of oral squamous cell carcinoma which were collected from laboratories archives included in this study. H&E stain was done for each block for reassessment of histological examination. DNA probes were used to detect copy numbers of the HER2/neu and P16 genes using fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH). Results FISH evaluation showed that HER2/neu gene amplification was found in 12 cases (40%), while 18 cases (60%) showed no amplification. Among the cases in which amplification was not found, 8 cases (44.45%) showed polysomy of chromosome 17.P16 gene deletion was found in 20 cases (66.7%) while 10 cases (33.3%) showed no deletion. Conclusions: HER2/neu amplification and P16 deletion were observed in studied oral squamous cell carcinoma samples using FISH, however, statistically non significant correlation with all clinicopathological findings (age, sex, clinical presentation, tumor site, tumor stage, tumor grade) and also between both genes were found in the present study. It is premature to conclude that HER-2/neu and P16 alterations may have prognostic significance, but it is also too early to dismiss that possibility without a larger, perhaps multicenter study


Article
Radiographic findings of oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure of Iraqi patients under hemodialysis therapy

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Background: Chronic renal failure can give rise to a wide spectrum of oral manifestations, affecting the hard or soft tissues of the mouth. The majority of affected individuals have disease that does not complicate oral health care. The main aim of this study is to assess the response to therapy and to determine the radiographic manifestations in teeth and jaws of individuals with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis and to find possible preventive and therapeutic strategies. Materials and methods: Thirty male patients with chronic renal failure who were continuously receiving therapy with ongoing hemodialysis were included in this study and were divided into two subgroups according to the period of therapy (those who had renal dialysis for less than a year, and 1 to 2 years). All patients were requested for panoramic (OPG) radiographs with standardized parameters according to user manual of the machine then quantify the frequency of abnormal dental and periodontal radiographic findings in both arches i.e. the alveolar bone resorption, presence of hypercementosis of the roots, lamina dura reduction or loss and dental condition, then the data were analyzed statistically by comparison with control normal subjects. Results: It has been established that the duration with the increase the abnormality in dental and periodontal radiographic findings as alveolar bone resorption, presence of hypercementosis of the roots, lamina dura reduction or loss, as well as other dental diseases. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic view used in this study considers as a good monitor for jaw and dental changes associated with patients affected with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis, and the results showed strong correlation between duration of hemodialysis and all studied variables. Clinicians should use oral health assessment tools to determine individual treatment and approaches to promote the oral health of patients undergoing hemodialysis and improve their quality of life


Article
Histopathological evaluation of aragonitic calcium carbonate as a bone graft substitute in rabbit's mandible (An experimental study)

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Background: Augmentation of the craniomaxillofacial region is required for many aesthetic and reconstructive procedures. Many bone grafts substitutes have been developed .These products differ in their osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties .The use of bone graft substitutes offers the ability to lessen the possible morbidity of the harvest site inautograft. Aragonitic calcium carbonate has proved to have biocompatible properties as bone graft substitute. This study aimed to evaluate the histopathological effects of aragonitic calcium carbonate in experimentally induced bone defect in rabbit's mandible. Material & method: Twenty five adult male healthy rabbits were used in current study. Two holes were prepared in the rabbit's mandible, first hole remain empty as control, the second filled with aragonitic calcium carbonate. Samples were taken after 2, 6,8,12 and 24 weeks. Histopathological evaluation include; examination of new bone formation and inflammatory response, in both control and experimental groups. Results: At 2 weeks, there was no new bone formation in both defects with moderate amount of inflammation .At 6,12 and 24 weeks the amount of new bone formation in implant group was more than that formed in control group ( statistically highly significant correlation, p<0.01). At 8 weeks, less bone amount in implant group .There were marked degradation of implant particles at 6 weeks. Conclusions: ACC is suitable bone graft substitute and induce new bone formation by acting as bioactive, osteoconductive bone graft when come in contact with bone.


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of TGF-β in relation to invasion potential evaluated by MMP-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of stratified squamous epithelium; it is by far the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity representing approximately 94% of oral cancer. It is capable of local destruction and invasion with distant metastasis. This study evaluates the Immunohistochemical expression of TGF-â and MMP-2 as markers of invasion and metastasis of OSCC and their correlation with the tumor grade and stage and with each other. Materials and methods: Thirty blocks of OSCC were included in this study. An immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti matrix metalloproteinase-2 and anti-transforming growth factor-â monoclonal antibodies. Results: Positive immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2 and TGF- â was found in (100%) and (93.3%) of the cases respectively. No statistically significant correlation was found regarding either markers with respect to the tumor grade and stage .On the other hand a statistically significant correlation was found between the expressions of both markers (p = 0.036). Conclusions: TGF-â and MMP-2 immunoexpression showed no significant influence on tumor invasion and metastasis in relation to the tumor grade and stage. While the significant correlation seen regarding the expression of both markers with each other, suggests their cooperative role in oral squamous cell carcinoma


Article
A cross-sectional tri-level study of the obesity effects on the salivary uric acid and total protein of gingivitis Iraqi subjects

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Background: Obesity is the fastest growing health-related problem in the world. It plays an affecting role in the biochemistry of many serious systemic diseases like diabetes and CVD. Periodontitis appeared to have a reciprocal relationship with both, obesity on one hand side and the serious systemic diseases on other hand. The aim of study: is to investigate the inter linking between obesity and gingivitis by screening the salivary uric acid and total protein. Material and method: Control healthy periodontal and systemically-normal weight,27 male, ( CG), gingivitis–normal weight, systemically healthy(GN) 16 male, Gingivitis-overweight-systemically healthy(GOV) 14 male).and Gingivitisobese- systemically healthy(GO)12 male, aged 30-40 y, no smokers, Their weight measured according to BMI. Clinical data were recorded according to PL.I, GI, BOP, at the same hour of unstimulated saliva collection. Results: Obese subjects showed increased PL.I, G.I, BOP scores and high significant increase of salivary total protein. BOP; showed significant increase in bleeding sites as the Body Mass Index goes up. Uric acid showed, always, negative correlation with the totality of gingival inflammation parameters, they were significant only with normal weight subjects. Conclusion: Total protein. Appeared significantly positive correlated to gingivitis more than to the obesity. While Uric acid correlated insignificantly negative with the gingivitis but not to the increased body weight.The increased body weight also positively correlated to the gingival inflammation, these results could say that gingivitis modifies the salivary chemicals while the obesity enhances gingivitis


Article
Use of cervicopectoral flap as an access for radical neck dissection and reconstruction of facial defects

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Background: The problem of reconstruction after surgical extirpation of head and neck cancer remain a corner stone that produce unique challenges to surgeon; surface defects are often contiguous with oral cavity requiring both lining and covering. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 20 patients (13♂:7♀), age rang (28-80years), whom suffered from malignant tumors in different sits in oro-facial region and salivary gland, to evaluate the C.P.F. as an access for cervical lymphadenectomy during treatment of head/neck malignant tumor and its use as immediate reconstruction for closing the defect resulted from tumor resection at the same procedure. Results and Conclusions: The C.P.F. was successfully covered the moderate and large size defect resulted from tumor ablation in the neck region with successful esthetic and function results


Article
Bone graft from iliac bone for maxillofacial reconstruction: An operative approach with decrease morbidity

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Background: In Maxillofacial surgeries, iliac bone graft has traditionally been harvested to provide osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenic components to initiate bony formation. There are multiple types of procedures for harvesting iliac bone graft, either by surgical exposure procedure for procurement bone graft bicortical, unicortical, tricortical or by using Fritsch bone harvesting (trephine) system or by Spine-Tech grinding harvester technique. This study compares procedures for harvesting iliac bone graft by using sub-crestal window technique procedure and trap-door iliac crest bone graft procedure for different purposes like alveolar cleft, bone resection due to tumor, reconstruction of avulsed facial bone due to trauma by bullet injury or RTA, confirming that donor site morbidity of the sub-crestal window technique is more significant than trap-door technique. Patients and methods: In this study (40 patients / 22♂:18♀) underwent harvesting of iliac bone graft with age range (3.5-65 years) in Al-Kadhmyea Teaching Hospital (2009-2012) for different purposes like alveolar cleft, reconstruction of mandible after tumor resection and reconstruction of maxillofacial defects due to massive blast or bullet injury. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that major complications from ICBG harvest are uncommon, but minor complications are common. The findings suggest that donor site morbidity of the sub-crestal window technique is significantly less than trapdoor technique. Making the sub-crestal window technique is the method of choice for harvesting large amounts of bone graft


Article
Evaluation of serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies level in rheumatoid patients with and without periodontitis

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are widely prevalent diseases and are characterized by tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation. Recently, there is growing evidence that the two diseases share many pathological features. An association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis has been considered many years ago. The current study was established to evaluate the serum ACCP levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients with and without periodontitis, in addition to study the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontal parameters. Subjects and methods: A total of 95 subjects were enrolled in this study, age ranged (35 – 55) years divided into 3 groups: Group I consist of 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients with periodontitis, while group II consist of 35 rheumatoid arthritis patients without periodontitis and group ÉÉÉ which consist of 15 apparently- healthy controls. . Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Blood samples were collected from each subject to determine serum concentrations of ACCP by means of enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Results: present study revealed that serum ACCP levels were significantly higher in rheumatoid patients with periodontitis (P<0.001) than that in other two groups. Regarding the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontal parameters, the current study showed positive correlation between serum ACCP and each of plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth. Conclusion: The current results provide strong evidence of association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis, and suggested that periodontitis may play an important role in activation and triggering immune response

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are widely prevalent diseases and are characterized by tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation. Recently --- there is growing evidence that the two diseases share many pathological features. An association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis has been considered many years ago. The current study was established to evaluate the serum ACCP levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients with and without periodontitis --- in addition to study the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontal parameters. Subjects and methods: A total of 95 subjects were enrolled in this study --- age ranged (35 – 55) years divided into 3 groups: Group I consist of 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients with periodontitis --- while group II consist of 35 rheumatoid arthritis patients without periodontitis and group ÉÉÉ which consist of 15 apparently- healthy controls. . Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PI) --- gingival index (GI) --- probing pocket depth (PPD) --- clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Blood samples were collected from each subject to determine serum concentrations of ACCP by means of enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Results: present study revealed that serum ACCP levels were significantly higher in rheumatoid patients with periodontitis (P<0.001) than that in other two groups. Regarding the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontal parameters --- the current study showed positive correlation between serum ACCP and each of plaque index --- gingival index and probing pocket depth. Conclusion: The current results provide strong evidence of association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis --- and suggested that periodontitis may play an important role in activation and triggering immune response


Article
The effect of sulcular injection of meloxicom on biochemical parameter of rabbit

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Background: Meloxicam is an NSAID of the oxicam class that acts by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis and inducible COX-2, thereby exerting anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to evaluate the level of alkaline phosphetase and high sensitivity C - reactive protein as response to sulcular injection of meloxicom using a rabbit model. Material and method: Forty five male rabbits of the same species were divided into three groups. Group 1 which included 20 rabbits that injected with meloxicon in a dose equal to the human therapeutic dose /kg .Group 2 which included 15 rabbits that injected with normal saline. Group 3 which included 10 rabbits used as control group. Five ml of blood was collected from the rabbits ear vien for biochemical analysis at deferent time interval. Biochemical analysis included alkaline phosphetase (ALP) which analyzed by using Biolabo kit and High sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs- CRP) was measured using ELISA technique. Results: The result showed that the level of ALP after 1 day of sulcular injection in group 1 was 101.25 then it was decrease to 97.50 after 14 days while mean of ALP in group 2 was 70.33 After 1 day of injection and reach to 74.67 After 14 days and this almost near to the mean value of control group Statistic description of hs-CRP for group 1 was decreased. The mean value from 11.617 after 1 day to 3.639 after 14 days. For group 2 also there was decreased in the mean from 11.556 after 1 day to 3.536 after 14 days, while for the control group the mean value was 3.170 . Conclusions: The sulcular injection of NSAIDs seems to be of particular interest. This may help to further reduce adverse systemic effects of NSAIDs in treatment of periodontal disease safely.


Article
Microbiological study of orofacial infections of odontogenic origin in Iraqi patients and their sensitivities to cefotaxime

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Background: This study was carried out to evaluate microbial flora of odontogenic infection in Iraqi patients and to gain further information on the types of micro-organisms in odontogenic infection, and to determine the value of Cefotaxime as an alternative drug in the treatment of odontogenic infection. Materials and methods: The bacteriology of 20 dento-alveolar abscesses was studied using optimal techniques to collect, transport and processing specimen. All specimens yielded bacterial growth when cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Anaerobes were isolated in all patients. Results and Conclusions: Among the aerobic bacteria, streptococci dominated and among the anaerobes the Gram negative rode, bactericides ruminicola and fusobacterium nucleatum were most frequently isolated followed by Gram positive cocci. All anaerobic isolate were resist to cefotaxime. The results generally showed that Cefotaxime most effective drug against Gram negative rods and less active against Gram positive cocci and this being related to the laboratory results of culture and sensitivity


Article
Immunological response of gingival tissue injected by green tea

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Background: Green tea has many beneficial effects on the body. The recent era is all about herbal treatment of various diseases and green tea is one of the best tonics for healthy well beings. This study examined the immunological response of sulcular injection of green tea on gingival health using a rabbit model. Methods: Twenty male rabbit weighted 1-1.5 kg of the same species. Blood samples were taken for each normal rabbits before sulcular injection with 5% green tea solution, blood drown after three days of the injection for immunological assessment by measuring of IL-1β, TNF-α and INF-γ. Results: Study showed there was a highly significant decrease in mean concentration of IL-1β, TNF-α after injection with 5% green tea solution(P< 0.01), while a significant elevation was observed in mean concentration of INF-γ after injected with the same solution(P<0.05). Conclusion: Green tea sulcular injection had beneficial effect on the periodontal health condition, thus green tea can be used safely and successfully in oral field.


Article
Uses of periodontal status for assessment of alveolar bone loss by clinical and radiographic analysis in smokers and non smokers

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Background: The measurement was done by liner measurement from CEJ to AC by choosing the virnia. The radiographic land marks the CEJ and AC mere identified. CEJ can be defined as the bounder between the enamel and the cementum of root. The study were carried on in Oral Surgery and Radiology department in dentistry school of Alyarmouk University College Material and Methods: Forty patients with in20-24 years of age were selected for this study that attended to Surgery and Radiology department in dentistry school of Alyarmouk University College Results: The plaque index: in group 1 (the smokers) in both plaque index 1.023 + 0.308 GI = 1.004 +0.091. Compared with group 2 (nonsmokers) = 1.264 +2.407 in PI and GI = 1.023 +1.445. Conclusions: Dental Plaque, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing and Probing Pocket Depth was highly elevated in smokers group compared with non- smokers group


Article
Salivary and seral sex steroid hormones variation among group of peoples with gingivitis

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Background: This study aimed to determine the level of sex steroid hormones (estradiol, testosterone) in the sera and saliva of the patients and controls, also to establish the type of correlation between the change in the biochemical inflammation markers (ALP, C-RP, IL-6, ALb) and levels of sex hormones (estradiol, testosterone) in gingivitis patients and control. Sample and Methods: The work included ninety samples (serum and saliva) of 45 volunteers (22males & 23females), twenty one patients with gingivitis and twenty four healthy subjects as control group. Results: the results showed a highly significant increase (p<0.001) in IL-6 for male in serum and saliva samples while significant increase (p<0.05) for females And a highly significant increase (p<0.001) in ALP activity in serum and saliva while significant increase (p<0.05) in specific activity of ALP for serum and saliva in both (male and female), and a non-significant decrease ALB Level (p>0.05) in serum and saliva in patients with gingivitis. The levels of serum and saliva testosterone were significantly decrease (p<0.05) in gingivitis than healthy group. While estradiol level was highly significant increase (p<0.001) in saliva and serum gingivitis patients in compared to the healthy group. The results of studying the correlation between the above parameters indicated there were a highly significant positive correlation obtained is between sera E2 with (ALP, IL-6,) and between sera testosterone with (ALP, IL-6), and between saliva testosterone with albumin .while negative correlation between sera E2 with ALB, and between saliva E2 with all three inflammation marker (i.e. ALP, albumin and IL-6), also negative association was found between sera testosterone with ALB and between salivary testosterone with (ALP and IL-6). Conclusion: the results generated from this study could lead to improvement in gum care program for peoples and revealed an association between gingivitis progression with hormonal changes production as result to increase the inflammation marker (ie IL-6, ALP). Also saliva analysis is better for determination the free bioavailable steroid hormones than sera analysis


Article
Periodontal condition among cardiovascular diseased patients at Al-Karama teaching hospital

Authors: Sabah H. Alwan صباح علوان
Pages: 109-111
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Abstract

Background: The present study is a clinical approach concerning the relation between cardiovascular illness and periodontal diseases. Patient and Methods: 104 patients (male & female) were selected at the coronary care unit department and general medical wards at medical department in Al-Karama teaching hospital, were submitted to clinical and investigational examination. Results: Out of 104 patients 75 were positive for periodontitis and 27 were not affected. Conclusion: There is strong relationship between atherosclerosis (including cardiovascular diseases) and periodontitis. People are not healthy without good oral hygiene


Article
Management of lingual thyroid gland (A case report)

Authors: Zuhair I. Al-Shaikh زهير الشيخ
Pages: 112-113
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Abstract

Background: Lingual thyroid gland is a rare clinical entity that is caused by the failure of the thyroid gland to descend to a normal cervical location during embryogenesis. The occurrence of an ectopic thyroid gland located at the base of the tongue may cause problems for the patient, with symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, upper airway obstruction or even hemorrhage at any time from infancy through adulthood. Case report: We report on a case of lingual thyroid gland in a 22-year-old female patient. The embryology and diagnosis of ectopic thyroid are discussed and its management is outlined. Features of the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation are described with attention to the clinical findings, laboratory tests, thyroid scan and computed tomography imaging studies employed in the confirmation of diagnosis and planning of appropriate treatment. The history of the condition is reviewed and a treatment strategy is outlined. Surgical excision of the gland is reserved for cases of gland enlargement that result in compromised airways (dysphagia or dysphonia) or recurrent hemorrhage.


Article
Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the microhardness and microscopic features of the sound enamel and initial caries-like lesion of permanent teeth, compared to fluoridated agents

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Abstract

Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate derived from the milk protein casein. The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of CPP-ACP on the microhardness of the sound and artificially caries-like lesion of outer enamel surface in comparison to sodium fluoride 0.05%, stannous fluoride 0.4%, and de-ionized water. Materials and methods: Sixty five maxillary first premolars, two teeth were used for sound and caries- like lesion enamel ground section preparation, while other teeth were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Group A was consisted of 42 teeth were randomly assigned to five study groups and one control group. After production of initial caries-like lesion of outer enamel surface, the teeth were treated by the selected agents for four minutes separately (CPP-ACP, CPP-ACP+NaF, CPP-ACP+SnF2, NaF 0.05%, and SnF2 0.4%). While Group B consisted of 21 teeth were randomly divided to three study groups, teeth treated with (CPP-ACP, CPP- ACP+NaF, CPP- ACP+SnF2) before demineralization by pH cycling procedure. Results: In both groups showed that agents of study groups were statistically highly significant in elevation of the microhardness values, CPP-ACP+NaF caused highest change in the microhardness (207.21%) for Group A and (19.22%) for Group B, while the lowest change with SnF2 0.4% (74.32%) for Group A and CPP-ACP (8.2%) for Group B. Conclusions: CPP-ACP agents were effective in remineralization of the outer enamel caries-like lesions and the higher remineralizing potential when applied with fluoridated agents; which was reflected by increase in enamel microhardness values.


Article
Prevalence of molar-incisor-hypomineralization among children attending pedodontic clinic of college of dentistry at Baghdad University

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Abstract

Background: Molar Incisor Hypomineralization is a developmentally derived dental defect that involves hypomineralization of one to four permanent first molars frequently associated with similarly affected permanent incisors. The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence and severity of MIH among Iraqi children attending the teaching hospital of the College of Dentistry, Baghdad University. Materials and method: Two hundred and twenty seven children of ages ranging from 4-15 years participated and were examined for enamel hypomineralization defects. Enamel Defect Index (EDI) as well as evaluation criteria for MIH diagnosis were used in order to detect the defects. When MIH was detected, further examinations were carried out to evaluate the severity of the defect. Other types of hypoplasia such as localized or generalized hypoplasia were also recorded and undergone the same examination. Results: It was found that of the two hundred and twenty seven children examined; one or more hypoplasias were detected in 21 children (compromising 9.25% of the sample). Fifteen children of these 21 children had hypoplasia of MIH type (6.61% of the total sample and 71.43% of the affected ones). Females were more affected with enamel defects than males although both showed similar susceptibility to have MIH type of defects. Most of the children who had MIH were in the sixth year of age (n=6) and at this age the number of teeth affected was 36 (34.6%). The incisors were found to be affected in a severe (29, 47.54%), mild (21, 34.43%) and the least moderate degrees (11, 18.03%) while the molars were more mildly affected (23, 48.94%). Conclusion: Molar incisor hypomineralization is prevalent in Iraqi children. It was not gender dependant and was mostly detected in six year old children. The severity of the defects differed in different age groups and on different teeth.


Article
The effect of black seed oil extracts on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vitro)

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Background: The black seed or Nigella sativa has been used for centuries to promote health and fight disease. This plant has a great focus for research due to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor, and hypotensive effects. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the black seed oil extract on sensitivity of mutans streptococci and the adherence to tooth surface in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate in vitro. Materials and methods: Four different concentrations of black seed oil extract (1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were prepared using ethanol as a solvent for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the black seed oil extract against mutans streptococci isolated from saliva of volunteers and compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate using agar diffusion test, followed by determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the black seed oil extract. Three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) were used in the adherence study whereby a stainless steel wires were threaded from one end in the roots of previously cleaned, polished and sterilized first premolars, which were then immersed in 10 ml of the agent for 2 minutes, followed by washing with sterilized deionized water. The teeth were then immersed in 10ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth and inoculated with 2% of bacterial isolates and incubated aerobically at 370C for seven days. A positive score was given to the microbial growth on wire, teeth and bottle indicating a non-effective treatment and vice versa. Results The study showed inhibition zones for black seed oil extract which were found to be increased as the concentration of the extract increased. The MBC of the black seed oil extract against mutans streptococci was 10%. The results also showed that the oil extract was effective in inhibiting the adherence of mutans streptococci to tooth surface at a concentration of 10%. Conclusion: The black seed oil extract has a bactericidal effect against mutans streptococci at a concentration of 10%, and can inhibit the adherence of these microorganisms to tooth surface


Article
The effect of light intensity and curing time of light emitting diode on shear bond strength using different types of bracket's materials

Authors: Noor M.H. Garma نور كرمة
Pages: 132-138
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Abstract

Background: This study was intended to evaluate the effect of two LED devices which has different light intensity and curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) using stainless steel and two other esthetic brackets. Materials and method: Sixty first premolar teeth were selected. Three types of orthodontic brackets were used in this study: stainless-steel brackets, the other two types are esthetic ceramic brackets. Two high intensity LED units were used, the first one was of a lower intensity (HANGZHOU SIFANG, China), the output power 1200 mW/cm2, the second source had the higher intensity (FlashMax P3, Denmark) which has power intensity of 4000 mW/cm2. The teeth were divided into two groups (Aand B) of 30 teeth each. Group A was used for testing HANGZHOU SIFANG device in standard cure time (20s) , while the group B was used for testing Flash Max P3 device in fast curing mode(6s). A and B groups were further subdivided according to bracket type into three subgroups of 10 teeth each. SBS of all subgroups were tested by using an Instron universal testing machine, ARI was assessed at (20X) magnification. Results: The clinically acceptable SBS were excelled in both the standard and fast curing mode groups for all bracket types, significant differences were found only when comparing the Pure with the other two types of brackets in the same group. Comparing each bracket type between group A and group B reveals a significant difference only at stainless-steel type brackets. Conclusions: the new high intensity curing devise gave comparable SBS to the LED units previously available with shorter time.


Article
Evaluation of the efficacy of different storage media and different extra oral dry times on the viability of periodontal ligament cells of the avulsed teeth (In vitro study)

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Abstract

Background: Tooth avulsion, one of the most severe forms of dental trauma, is characterized by complete displacement of the tooth from its alveolar socket. It accounts for 0.5% to 16% of traumatic injuries in the permanent dentition. Avulsion of permanent teeth occurs most often in children 7 to 9 years old, an age when the relatively resilient alveolar bone provides only minimal resistance to extrusive forces. The best way to preserve a tooth that has been avulsed is to put it back into its socket as quickly as possible. Several storage media had been suggested to preserve the viability of the periodontal ligament cells. It was suggested to place the tooth under the patient's tongue in cases in which immediate replantation was not possible. Eagle's culture medium had also been used for storing teeth. Also it was suggested to store the avulsed tooth in milk, Hank's balanced salt solution or saline. Chicken egg white may also prove to be a suitable storage medium for the avulsed teeth. Materials and methods: Eighty freshly extracted lower first premolars of special criteria were used in this study. The teeth were divided into control groups in which the teeth were left to dry after extraction for 0 minute, 30 minutes, 4 hours and 8 hours before being treated with the enzymes and experimental groups in which the teeth were left to dry after extraction for 30 minutes, 4 hours and 8 hours before being immersed in a different experimental storage media and then treated with the enzymes to isolate the fibroblast cells of the periodontal ligament. Results: Results of this study showed that zero minute dry time was the best time for the control group in maintaining viable fibroblast cells followed by 30 minutes, 4 hours and 8 hours dry times. For the experimental groups, 30 minutes dry time was the best time followed by 4 hours and 8 hours dry times. Results of this study also showed that Hank's balanced salt solution was the best storage media that maintain viable fibroblast cells of the periodontal ligament of the extracted teeth with a significant difference compared to the control group and with no significant difference compared to the other experimental storage media. Results also showed that the albumin of the chicken egg, honey and the glycerol were also good storage media with no significant difference than the control group. Conclusion: Hank's balanced salt solution was the best storage media in maintaining viable cells viability. Thirty minutes dry time was the best time in maintaining viable periodontal ligament cells followed by 4 hours and 8 hours dry time after teeth avulsion


Article
Oral health status and treatment needs among 3-12 years old children with cleft lip and/or palate in Iraq

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Background: This study aims to illustrate the oral health status of children with cleft lip and/or palate. Materials and methods: 233 cleft lip and/or palate Iraqi patients had participated in this study. 108(57 boys, 51 girls) within the age (3-12) years were selected from the total sample and submitted to a questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries, plaque index and gingival index, the pocket depth were recorded. Results: The mean dmfs=14.606±1.477, dmft=5.862± 0.461, the mean DMFS=2.202±0.383, DMFT=1.339± 0.195 with statistically non significant difference among different types of cleft. The highest percentage were in need to one surface filling (79.6%), followed by two surface filling (65.7%). The mean PI=1.663±0.051, with statistically not significant difference among different types of cleft. The mean GI=1.211±0.038, with statistically not significant difference among different types of cleft. Regarding pocket depth significant differences were in the distal site of the canine, mesial, palatal and labial sites of the lateral incisor, and all the sites of the central incisor, and highly significant difference in the distal site of the lateral incisor. Conclusion: The cleft lip and/or palate patient have major oral health problems regarding the dental caries, dental plaque, gingival condition, pocket depth and dental treatment needs


Article
Isolation and identification of oral candida spp. from leukemic children under chemotherapy and treatment with extraction of different plants in vitro

Authors: Heba F. Hassan هبة حسن
Pages: 152-156
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Background: Oral candidiasis represents a serious problem for children with cancer during chemotherapy. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of oral candida spp. Materials and method: Sixty five oral swabs were taken from children suffering from leukemia. Results and Conclusion: The results of isolation in this research showed prevalence of candida.albicans at 64.62 % and C.glabrata 20%. In vitro antifungal activity of aqueous of (Quercus infectoria , Cinnamon , punica Granatum) at concentration 100-500mg/ml against ( C. albicans, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis and C .famata ) showed the Quercus infectoria was more active against ( C. albicans, C.glabrata, C.tropicalis and C .famata ) compared with others plants extracts which used in this study.

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