Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2012 volume:24 issue:special issue 1

Article
Evidence for feasibility of aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) solution as a root canal irrigant

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Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity and cleaning efficiency of the aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) solution. Materials and methods: The antibacterial action of alum solution (1 mg /mL, at pH 3.6) against bacterial isolates found in infected root canals, including facultative anaerobic microorganisms (Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp.), and aerobic species (Pseudomonus aerogenosa ) ,using agar well diffusion test. The investigation of the debridement and smear layer removing efficiency, on the cervical, middle and apical thirds of root canals of freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth were done by a scanning electron microscopy study. Results: Alum solution were able to demonstrate antibacterial activity against all the bacteria tested, and produced inhibitions zones of 27, 25, 24 and 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonus aerogenosa ,Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella sp. respectively. Alum solution was effective in removing the debris and smear layer. Removal of the smear layer and other debris was more effective in the coronal and middle third than in the apical third. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that alum solution has potential for use as an endodontic irrigant, during chemomechanical root canal preparation


Article
Microleakage of class II packable resin composite lined with flowable composite and resin modified glass ionomer cement: An in vitro study

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Background: Packable composites most commonly used as posterior restorative materials, however, disadvantages like polymerization shrinkage limited their use, so the aim of this an in vitro study was to investigate the microleakage of posterior packable composite(Filtek™ P-60) using different liner materials; flowable resin composite(Filtek™ Flow) and resin modified glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond TM 7150) using open sandwich technique at the proximal box of class II preparation located above the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ)in enamel. Materials and Methods: Twenty four recently extracted human upper premolars were prepared with standardized Class- II cavities as follows; Occlusal Outline Form: 2mm in bucco-lingual width and 1.5 mm in depth measured from occlusal fissure to pulpal floor. Proximal Boxes: The depth of the proximal box from the proximal cavo-surface margin to the axial wall was 2mm, so as the bucco-lingual width (2mm). The proximal box margin located 1 mm coronal to the CEJ (in enamel). The teeth were assigned into 3 groups (n=8): Group-I (control): acid etching (H3PO4) + bonding agent (Adoper Single Bond 2 Adhesive) + posterior packable composite (Filtek™ P-60), Group-II (RMGIC): acid etching + resin modified glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond TM 7150) + posterior packable composite; Group-III (Flowable): acid etching + bonding agent + flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) + posterior packable composite. The teeth were immersed in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h., then thermocycled (1000X, 5°-55°C, 30 sec. dwell time) and immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h., after that the teeth were sectioned longitudinally in mesiodistal direction and dye penetration in millimeters were measured in each cavity by using stereomicroscope. Data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD tests at 0.05 significance level. Results: The microleakage of posterior packable composite (group-I) significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the two liners used (group-II and group-III), but there is no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) in enamel microleakage in respect to dye penetration were detected between the two liners used (group-II and group-III), with the association flowable composite Filtek flow (group-III) showing the best results. Conclusion: The use of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and resin modified glass ionomer(Vitrebond TM 7150) in the open sandwich technique decrease the microleakage of posterior packable composite(Filtek™ P-60) with margin located in enamel surface and better results with flowable composite


Article
A comparison between the arbitrary and kinematic intercondylar distances of full mouth rehabilitation patients (An in-vivo study)

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Background: The intercondylar distance can change the radius of movement and affect the arcs traveled by the cusps during lateral mandibular excursions in the horizontal plane. The aim of this study was to record and compare the intercondylar distances of male and female patients requiring full mouth rehabilitation by using arbitrary and kinematic face-bows. Materials and methods: Interfacial widths of fifty asymptomatic male and female full mouth rehabilitation patients were recovered from arbitrary and kinematic face-bows. Intercondylar distances were recorded and statistically compared. Results: Results indicated that arbitrary and kinematic intercondylar distances of male patients were significantly greater than females indicating asymmetry in locating the condylar axes of rotation in both sexes. Conclusion: The majority of intercondylar distances of patients were more than 110 mm indicating that an articulator with an adjustable intercondylar distance would be more anatomically correct for the treatment of full mouth rehabilitation cases


Article
A clinical comparison between maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth using local anesthesia and normal saline by the periodontal ligament injection (An in vivo study)

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Background: Local anesthesia is the primary method used in dentistry to control patients’ pain. However, even in the presence of adequate soft tissue anesthesia, there may be incomplete pulpal anesthesia. This is particularly true in the mandible where obtaining profound pulpal anesthesia may be difficult. The periodontal ligament injection has received much attention in the dental literatures. lntraligamentary anesthesia has been advocated as a primary and a supplemental injection technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, with electrical pulp tester, the anesthetic efficacy of the periodontal ligament injection using 2% Lidocaine with 1:80000 epinephrine and normal saline in forty volunteers. The success rate was defined as no patient’s response to the maximum output of an electrical pulp tester. Also pain rating during initial needle penetration and injection of solution were compared. Material and method: Forty adult volunteers participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups (10 subjects each): Group Ia: each subject received a periodontal ligament injection in mandibular first premolar and first molar right or left side with Lidocaine injection and pulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Group 1b: each subject received a periodontal ligament injection in mandibular first premolar and first molar right or left side with normal saline injection and pulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Group IIa: each subject received a periodontal ligament injection in maxillary first premolar and first molar right or left side with Lidocaine injection and pulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Group IIb: each subject received a periodontal ligament injection in maxillary first premolar and first molar right or left side with normal saline injection and pulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Results: The results showed that the duration of profound pulpal anesthesia, using 2% Lidocaine with 1:80000 epinephrine, was 10 minutes and injection of anesthetic solution and normal saline in clinically healthy teeth were only mildly discomforting. The periodontal ligament injection using normal saline was not effective in producing anesthesia. A conclusion was drawn from the study that the periodontal ligament injection can be used effectively, as a primary injection technique, to anesthetize mandibular posterior teeth especially the first molars

Keywords

Pain --- PDL --- local anesthesia


Article
Comparative study of wettability of different lining, tissue conditioning and denture base materials (in-vitro study)

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Background: Wettability of denture base and denture relining materials is one of the most important properties for denture retention, because it provides a condition in which saliva will spread over the surfaces with ease. Contact angle has been highlighted as the most important parameter concerning wettability of materials. This angle is characteristic of the substances due to the surface tension of the liquid and the surface energy of the solid Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty specimens were prepared in six major groups (light cure acrylic, hot cure acrylic, flexible acrylic, soft liner, hard liner and tissue conditioner) with dimension of (25mm X 25mm X4mm) each group consists from 20 specimens. The wettability was measured using digital microscope and the retention force was measured using specially designed equipment. Results: The results obtained in the present study showed that there is a highly significant difference on the contact angle between different materials, different type of fluids (distilled water and synthetic saliva). The contact angle value of light cure acrylic is smaller than heat-cure acrylic, tissue conditioner, hard liner, flexible acrylic and soft liner respectively; it was greater for synthetic saliva than those for distilled water, Conclusion: In conclusion, Light cure acrylic had the best wettability followed by hot cure acrylic and tissue conditioner respectively. There is an effect of the viscosity on the contact angle, and the contact angle has an effect on the retention force. When the contact angle value was small the surface retention was higher than when these angles were large


Article
Evaluation of different techniques used in non surgical endodontic retreatment for teeth with different obturation techniques (An in-vitro study)

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Background: Retreatment procedures in endodontic practice require complete removal of the original root filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy & time required for rotary Nickel titanium NiTi instruments (Pro-Taper) with and without solvent in the removal of obturation materials during root canal retreatment in comparison with hand instruments using Hedstrom files with solvent in relation to different obturation techniques. Materials and method: Ninety extracted human roots were instrumented by ProTaper rotary files to (F3) ISO # 30 and the samples were randomly divided into three groups of 30 roots for each group A: obturated by cold lateral condensation technique, group B: obturated by Injectable thermoplasticized technique, group C: obturated by carrier based gutta-percha technique (Soft Core) obturator. Each main group of roots was randomly subdivided into three subgroups, 10 roots each. Removal of gutta-percha was performed the following techniques; (1) Pro-Taper without solvent, (2) Pro-Taper with solvent and (3) Hedstrom files with solvent. The roots were split longitudinally. The area of remaining filling was evaluated by using stereomicroscope at three levels in the canal and time of retreatment was determined in each group. Results: One-way ANOVA test indicated that the rotary NiTi instruments Pro-Taper with and without solvent left significantly less remaining filling materials (P < 0.001) compared to Hedstrom files with solvent while there was no significant difference at (p<0.05), between Pro-Taper with solvent and without solvent. In groups obturated by cold lateral condensation and injectable thermoplasticized techniques left significantly less remaining filling materials at (p<0.05), than group obturated by soft core obturators. The retreatment time was significantly less at (P < 0.001) when the rotary NiTi Pro-Taper instrument was used compared to hand. Conclusion: ProTaper rotary instrument with and without solvent was found to be effective and faster than hand instruments and Cold lateral condensation technique and inject able thermo plasticized technique better removed in retreatment than Soft Core obturator technique


Article
The effect of addition of calcium hypochlorite disinfectant on some physical and mechanical properties of dental stone

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Background: The potentially damaging effects of the immersion technique, the difficulty in covering the entire surface of the cast with the spray disinfecting solution, and the inability to assume that every impression presented to the laboratory has been disinfected has led to the need for incorporating a disinfectant directly into the calcium sulfate hemihydrate. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the addition of Calcium Hypochorite disinfectant on some physical and mechanical properties of the dental stone. Materials and methods: Calcium Hypochlorite disinfectant in aqueous solution in different concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% was added to type III dental stone. Setting time, setting expansion, reproduction of details, compatibility with impression materials and consistency are physical properties which were evaluated. The compressive strength and surface hardness as mechanical properties were also determined. Results: The results of this study showed that the addition of 1 % of calcium hypochlorite improved some of the physical and mechanical properties of dental stone (Setting Expansion, Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness) while its adversely affected the other properties (Setting Time) Conclusions: The 1 % of calcium hypochlorite disinfectant solution could be used to disinfect dental cast with the least effect when compared with the other concentrations of calcium hypochlorite


Article
Comparison the tensile strength of heat cure and visible light cure acrylic resin denture base

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Background: Visible light cured acrylic resin denture materials are one of the developed polymeric acrylic denture base and are manufactured in the form of sheets and rapes, and also in powder and liquid system, they can be adapted for various dental uses and provides rapid service at low cost. This study aimed to compare the tensile strength of heat cured acrylic resin and visible light cured acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Twenty samples of acrylic denture base materials were prepared, ten samples of heat cured acrylic denture base materials and ten samples of visible light cured acrylic denture base material. After curing of both groups, the materials were subjected to tensile strength test with the use of Instron universal testing machine. Results: The results of the present study showed a high significant difference comparing between the two groups; heat cured acrylic denture base material showed a high significant tensile strength than the visible light cured acrylic denture base material. Conclusion: heat cured acrylic denture base resin showed superiority in the tensile strength values than the visible light cured acrylic denture base material


Article
Evaluation of the effect of Nigella sativa oil and powder on healing process, histologically and radiographically (An experimental study on rabbit)

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Back ground: Today’s world is increasingly seeking ways to replace the synthetic drugs with the therapeutic power of natural products to decrease the percentage of many side effect which result from conventional treatment; one of these products was Nigella sativa (NgS) which was used so extensively that it became known as the seed of blessing “Habbatul Barakah” due to its powerful healing qualities for many ailments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa (powder and oil) on the healing process of extracted teeth sockets. Materials and Methods: The sample of our study consist of Forty eight rabbits to extract there upper two central incisors under general anesthesia. The left side filled once with Nigella sativa powder and once with Nigella sativa oil material, and the right side left for normal healing as a control group. The two sockets were sutured. The results were studied radiographically and histologically after 1,2,4,6 weeks postoperatively. The radiographic examination was performed by using parallel technique in a digital radiographic examination and histological examination was performed under light microscope for the section stained with heamatoxiline and eosin. Results: Radiographically we found that NgS powder showed more radiopacity with complete disappearance of lamina dura in 6 weeks duration compared with NgS oil and control groups, while histologically we found that the Nigella sativa (NgS) groups (powder and oil) illustrate an early apposition of osteoid tissue in 1st week duration with numerous osteoblast and osteocyte in comparision to control group.In six weeks duration well developed bone filled all the portions of the socket in treated socket with NS powder with obvious complete epithelization of socket surface Conclusion: Nigella sativa (powder or oil) seems to be bioactive materials that enhance differentiation and proliferation of progenitor cells to specialized bone formative cells, with no signs of inflammation


Article
Evaluation of topical versus systemic medications in the treatment of neuropathic orofacial pain A prospective study

Authors: Ihsan A. Kumail احسان كميل
Pages: 53-59
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Background: Neuropathic orofacial pain is a multifactorial condition and mainly treated by systemic anticonvulsant and antidepressant medications which result in unpleasant side effects and may contradict or interact with other medications especially in elderly. This study demonstrates preparation of alternative topical treatment and evaluation of its efficacy versus systemic treatment in respect to period taken for pain reduction and side effects. Sample and Method: A prospective study was conducted on systemically healthy 41 patients treated for neuropathic orofacial pain attended the Oral Medicine Clinic/ Dentistry College/ Mustansiria University and private clinic. Patients were divided into 2 groups of almost similar ages, genders and pain severities. Microemulsive gel was prepared to carry specific concentrations of active agents by transdermal permeative vehicle to the affected sites. The first group received topical medications only (n = 21), while the second group was treated with systemic medications only (n = 20). The intensity of pain was recorded for each on a Visual Analog Scale (from 0= no pain to 10= intolerable pain) at diagnosis, and at 4 successive weeks after initiation of treatment. Reduction in pain severity was considered only if it equals 30% or more. The two methods of treatment were evaluated according to the period required for 30% pain reduction and side effect(s) caused by each type of treatment. Results: After initiation of treatment, 81% of patients (no= 17) on topical treatment showed 30% reduction in neuropathic orofacial pain levels (which is considered a good response) within 2 weeks, the rest 4 patients (19%) reached 30% pain reduction within the third week. In systemic group, 50% of patients (no= 10) showed 30% pain reduction within 2 weeks, 4 patients (20%) showed 30% reduction in the third week and 6 patients (30%) of the same group did not experienced 30% pain reduction until the fourth week. Ten patients of systemic group experienced side effects, while patients on topical treatment did not complain of any side effect along term of treatment. Conclusion: Topical medication as a single treatment is more efficient in reduction of neuropathic orofacial pain within shorter period and no side effects than systemic medications. Younger patients (≤ 40 years) responded to treatment better than elderly in both groups


Article
Assessment of cadmium levels in Blood, hair, saliva and teeth in a sample of Iraqi workers and detection of dental findings

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Background: Cadmium considered one of the heavy metals, by time can be accumulate in plants, animals and humans. This study aimed to using some biomarkers (blood, hair, saliva and teeth), that can be easily obtained and processed for measuring the cadmium concentration in human body and assessment of DMF/t which may result from accumulation of cadmium. Subjects, Materials and methods: This study had been done between April – October of 2010 at Al-kufa Cement Factory in Najaf , the numbers of exposed subjects were 55 and control subjects were 44, blood, hair ,saliva and teeth were taken as biomarkers then DMF/t were calculated. After processing of these biomarkers (blood, hair, saliva and teeth) cadmium analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer device (AAS). Results: The study reported that blood ,hair ,saliva and teeth are good biomarker for measuring the concentration of cadmium in addition to effect of some factors like smoking habit , residency, age and in accumulation of that heavy metal in addition to increasing of the numbers of decayed and missing teeth with increasing of cadmium but without increasing in numbers of the filling teeth. Also there was significant difference in cadmium concentration between exposed and control people Conclusions: This study reported that there was significant increased in cadmium concentration among exposed subject if compared with control subject. Also indicated that factors like smoking habit, residency and age could led to increasing the cadmium concentration. In addition to increased the numbers of decay and missing teeth when the cadmium concentration was increased in these biomarkers

Keywords

Cadimum --- saliva --- blood --- hair teeth


Article
Changes in oral flora of newly edentulous patients, before and after complete dentures insertion

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Background Investigation of the oral flora of edentulous subjects is becoming increasingly important because of recent wide spread use of implants in the treatment of edentulism. Materials and methods Twenty eight newly edentulous patients with age ranged between (40-80) years were included in this study. Saliva samples were collected at two intervals; before taking the primary impression, and after one month of functional use of the complete dentures, and assessed microbiologically. Results; indicated that the total numbers of microorganisms were decreased within the post insertion period with non significant variation in their types, newly edentulous mouth harbored Neisseria species which disappeared after denture insertion, while E coli, Klebsiella, and Moraxella (Branhamella) were observed after one month of denture wearing. Other microorganisms include Streptococci and Candida was reduced. On the other hand, Staph. aurous, Diphtheroids, Veillonella and Acinetobactor were considered as a part of the normal flora of edentulous patient that unchanged by denture wearing. Conclusion; Although denture can serve as a colonization site for the various microorganisms with short period of denture use and good oral hygiene the microorganisms did not increased in the oral cavity


Article
Topical treatment of herpes simplex lesion by lavender cream

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Background: Herpes simplex virus is a common human pathogen that establishes life-long latent infections. The development of new antiviral drugs, especially herbal preparations remain desirable. Lavender has been shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral actions. This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of topical Lavender cream, acyclovir cream, with placebo for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis patients. Patients and Methods: Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study for herpes simplex labialis treatment, a total of 75 enrolled patients divided to three groups and given study medications; group I: Lavender cream, group II: Acyclovir cream, group III: placebo, applied topically to the lesion three times daily for 5 days. Patient’s responses to treatment were followed by clinical evaluation of healing time, size of the lesion and pain sensation, and safety of using the topical treatment. Patients assessed themselves the day of the scab fell off. They also graded, on a daily basis, their perception of relief from pain and the overall benefit from treatment. Also evaluating levels of the Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgE, IgM, IgA, and IgD) in the serum of herpes simplex labialis patients. Results: Herpes simplex patients showed a significant reduction in the healing time, size of lesions, and significant pain relief from the first topical dose as a result of treatment with lavender cream associated with immunity state improvement. Conclusions: Lavender cream is a new candidate as a safe and effective topical treatment for herpes simplex labialis lesions.


Article
The prevalence of overhanging margins in posterior filling restorations and periodontal consequences

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Background: The overhanging margins are responsible for much iatrogenic periodontal disease. May investigators found that high proportions of restorations have reported over hanging margins. Materials and methods: The prevalence of overhanging margins and associated periodontal status in patients who attended periodontal department, college were assessed. Results: The chance of a site bleeding on probing depended not only on the probing depth but directly on the presence or absence of an over. Conclusion: This study clearly identified a high prevalence of overhanging margins on amalgam's restorations, especially at mesial distal sites, and prompt removal of overhanging margins of restoration of required in order to minimize the risk of periodontal health


Article
Biochemical analysis and periodontal health status in type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Comparative study)

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with one common manifestation: hyperglycemia. This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health status and cera reactive protein (C.R.P) in saliva in type1 and type 2 diabetic patients and compared with healthy subjects. Material and method: Total samples composed of eighty participants, the samples were divided to study group (60 diabetic patients) which include type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and control group (20 healthy subjects).They were non-smokers male patients of age range 25-55 years old. Periodontal health status was estimated by measuring plaque index (PL.I), Gingival index (G.I), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Clinical attachment level CAL).Five mls of un stimulated whole saliva was collected for estimation of C.R.P. Result: The result showed that the mean C.R.P in saliva was higher in study group compared to control group.No significant difference in PL.I and significant difference in G.I, BOP, PPD and CAL between type 1 and type 2 of diabetes .There was weak correlation between clinical periodontal parameters and biochemical parameters. Conclusion: salivary C.R.P may be involved in the interaction of periodontitis in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients


Article
The correlation between hemoglobin level and generalized moderate chronic periodontitis

Authors: Suzan Ali سوزان علي
Pages: 85-88
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Background: As the periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products, systemic challenge with these agents also induces a major vascular response. Certain inflammatory cytokines produced during periodontal inflammation, can depress erythropoietin production leading to the development of anemia. (1) This study aimed to investigate the association between hemoglobin level and generalized moderate chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 60 systemically healthy male of an age ranged (30-60 years old) 30 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontitis (CAL =3-4 mm at ≥ 30% of sites) and 30 of them with healthy periodontium as control group. Full mouth examinations (excluding third molars) were conducted for all patients. Four sites were examined for each tooth (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal). Plaque index (PI) (2) ,Gingival Index(GI) (3) , bleeding on probing index (BOP) (4), Probing Pocket depths (PPD), and Clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded using a marked periodontal probe (Williams probe) and measurement of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the blood by colorimetric cyanomethemoglobin method(22) Results: Mean of hemoglobin level was (12.527) for the study group whiles its (14.72) for the control group, highly significant differences were apparent between the two groups regarding the hemoglobin level (P- value P<0.01). About the Correlation between the hemoglobin level and the periodontal parameters, the PLI, CAL scores were positively but non-significantly associated with the hemoglobin level. (P> 0.05).Correlation coefficient (r) between PLI and hemoglobin level was (0.30). For the CAL The correlation coefficient (r) was (0.159).Strong and significant correlation were found between BOP and the hemoglobin level (r = 0.343, P value = 0.049). Conclusion: There is an association between hemoglobin levels and periodontal status


Article
Oral hygiene and gingival condition among epileptic patients 5-15 year-old (A comparative study)

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Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by behavior that results from abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and severity of the oral hygiene and gingival health condition concerning epileptic patients in some hospitals in Baghdad city, in comparison to controls, matching with numbers age and gender. Materials and method: Oral examinations involved epileptic patients with an age rang (5-15) year old, matched with same number of controls from kindergarten and schools in Baghdad city. Plaque index, calculus index and gingival index were used in this study and Ramfjord teeth were chosen for recording these indices. Results: Epileptic patients demonstrated a statistically significantly higher mean value of plaque index and gingival index compared to control group, while no statistical significant difference was found in mean value of calculus index between both groups. Conclusion: The condition of oral health status of the epileptic group is worse than matched group


Article
The reliability of bisecting interpupillary perpendicular line, facial and dental laterality and coincidence in adult normal occlusion Iraqi sample (A photographic, cross sectional study)

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Background: One of the primary reasons for patient’s to seek orthodontic treatment is esthetic or cosmetic reasons. The purpose of this study is to evaluate facial asymmetry which present in essentially all normal individuals and result from a small size difference between the two sides, evaluate the correlation between maxillary and mandibular dental midlines with facial midline and to determine if there is gender differences in Iraqi adults. Material & method: The sample consist of 108 Iraqi adults (63 females, 45 males) aged 18-25 years with class I pattern. Clinical examination and digital photograph with cheek retractor were performed for each individual. The facial midline was determined by the perpendicular bisecting of interpupillary distance. Three linear soft tissue measurements to evaluate facial asymmetry and two linear measurements to evaluate the correlation between facial and dental midlines were measured for each photograph using AutoCAD program 2007. Result: A correlation analysis was performed to determine the correlation between facial and dental midlines. The following results were obtained: 1-The left side of the face is wider than the right side in 63.8% of sample, 0% equal sides and 36.1% wider right side. 2-Chin shifts to the left in 43.5% of the whole sample, 20.3% coincide with Fml and 37% shift to the right. 3-There is no significant relationship between facial and dental midline (maxillary and mandibular). 5-There is direct relationship between maxillary and mandibular dental midline. 6-There was no gender differences in both facial and dental asymmetry


Article
Dental arches dimensions, forms and the relation to facial types in a sample of Iraqi adults with skeletal and dental class I normal occlusion

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Background: The face is a three dimensional object, facial structures are arranged to give the face its normal form. The teeth are arranged in an arch that’s based on the jaw which is a part of the facial structure. The dental arch has certain forms depending on several factors including the skeletal form of the jaw and it is calculated in terms of different ratios of several arch dimensions. The aim of this study is to establish normative values for the Maxillary and Mandibular Dental arches dimensions represented by dental arch width, length and to find out the most frequent dental arch form and facial type and the role of gender differences and to find out if there is a the relationship between the facial type and dental arches form and which is the most frequent facial type and dental arch form. Materials and methods: The sample was selected from Baghdad University, college of Dentistry. A total of 72 Iraqi adult Dental students fit the criteria of this research with an age range between 18 and 25 years. The sample composed of one hundred forty four Dental casts, seventy two frontal photographs, seventy two profile photographs and One hundred forty four Dental casts’ photographs six linear measurements for Maxillary dental cast and six linear measurements for Mandibular Dental cast and two liner measurements for frontal and profile facial photographs. Orthodontics is one of the fields that took advantage of high speed personal computers such as Pentiums by utilizing specialized orthodontic programs (software) which have automated some of the more laborious tasks in diagnosis and treatment planning, storage and sorting of information. So the use of computers is obligatory in our modern life that’s why it was used in almost everything in this study from obtaining the record and analyzing them for typing and directing this thesis. Specialized computer software for orthodontic record analysis (AUTO CAD 2007) were used, which simplified the analyzing process and reduced the time and effort spent on taking measurements directly from the records to facilitate work and to gain more accurate results. Results: It had been found that all of the maxillary dental arch dimensions are greater than mandibular dental arch dimensions in the total sample and both genders and all of the measured dental arch dimensions have a significantly greater mean value in males than in females also in general facial measurements were higher in females than males with a high significant difference except in the nasion gnathion distance in which it was not significant differences between both genders. The most frequent facial type in males and females is the Mesoprosopic one, followed by the Euryprosopic while the least frequent is the Leptoprosopic face type while the mid arch form is the most frequent arch form and it is usually associated with Mesoprosopic face type in both genders followed by the wide dental arch form and the narrow dental arch form. Conclusions: It was concluded that the relation between facial type and dental arch form is a perfect positive correlation and as the facial type graduated from Leptoprosopic to Mesoprosopic to Euryprosopic then the Maxillary Dental arch form increases from narrow to mid to wide


Article
The relationship between the dental caries and the blood glucose level among type II non insulin dependent diabetic patients

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the general population that effects the oral cavity so the probability of detecting an increased of dental caries in diabetic patients is more controversial. The aims of this study to compare the dental caries among the diabetic and non diabetic patients and its relation with the blood glucose level, medical history and oral health behaviors among type II non-insulin dependent diabetic mellitus patients. Materials and methods: The samples were composed of 180 subjects of diabetic patients and 180 subjects of non diabetes. Both gender and age range 40 -70 years for both groups. The data were gathered by questionnaire, clinical examination and laboratory investigations included frequency of oral hygiene practices, caries experience using the DMFT Index, blood glucose including the fasting blood glucose level, and random blood glucose level. Independent t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficient, as well as Z-proportion tests were used for statistical comparisons. Results: It indicated that there was no significant difference in DMFT between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups. In addition to blood glucose level was higher in diabetes than non diabetes with increased dental caries with the increase of blood glucose level either random or fasting blood glucose level. Conclusion: This study indicated that the presence of dental caries is not significantly elevated in most diabetics but the blood glucose level and the age effect on the dental caries as well as diabetic subjects should improve their oral hygiene practices


Article
Dental knowledge and behavior among technical medical institute students in Baghdad governorate

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Background: Oral health knowledge is important for promotion and maintenance of oral health. This study aims to find out the difference in oral health knowledge and behavior of medical and dental students in technical medical institute in Baghdad governorate. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried on 202 Iraqi students in technical medical institute of Bab Al-Muadam quadrant in Baghdad governorate (92 dental students and 110 medical students). Students were invited to complete a set of questionnaires on dental knowledge and behaviors that are related to oral hygiene and dental visits. Results: Highly significant differences were shown between medical and dental students related to dental knowledge, dental students were found to have more dental knowledge than medical students. Concerning the typical method for caries prevention, 90.2% of dental students compared to 35.5% of medical one were aware that brushing regularly, minimizing sweets, visiting the dentist and the use of fluoride are all effective means of avoiding caries. For oral hygiene behavior, dental students were practicing twice daily tooth brushing, flossing and rinsing in a proportion greater than medical students. Irregular visits to the dentist were found to be common among both medical and dental students and toothache was the major factor for dental visits in both groups. The lecturers were found to be the most effective source of dental information for dental students, while the most effective source of information for medical students was the family. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that knowledge and behavior toward oral health and dental care especially for the medical students need to be improved and there is a need for inclusion of oral health education in the medical curriculum.

Keywords

Knowledge --- behavior --- dental visits


Article
A new calibration procedure for expectation of arch length

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Abstract

Background: The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between arch length and different arch widths, and the possibility of using different arch widths as predictors for expectation of arch length in upper and lower dental arches and in both genders. The current study is a first attempt to select the patients on the basis of gender in regard to different dental arch widths and length. Subjects and method: The sampling procedure comprised 120 pairs of upper and lower dental casts of untreated Iraqi adult subjects (60 male and 60 females) aged 17 -27 years old. The dental study casts of both upper and lower dental arches were scanned and digitized by special procedure, six inter-arch widths and the arch length were traced on images of upper and lower dental arches by the digitization procedure. Results: Student′s t-test showed no marked gender differences for all measurements in both upper and lower dental arches, regarding the inter-relation between upper and lower dental arches, there were significant correlation coefficients at 0.01 level for the different arch widths and length, the predictability of the relationship between the arch length and the inter-central incisor width in the upper arch was found to be very strong, while in the lower arch the predictability of the relationship between the arch length and the inter-central incisor width was also found to be very strong, but it was just found to be strong between the lower arch length and the lower inter-first premolar width. Conclusions: The manner of strong correlation between different arch widths and length may be due to that the dental arch variables are acting together as a single biological unit, rather than a collection of discrete entities. From the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, it can be concluded that the upper inter-central incisor width plays an important role in the prediction of the upper dental arch length, while in the lower arch, the lower inter-central incisor and inter-first premolar widths play the same important role in the prediction of the lower dental arch length


Article
Oral health status among children Downs syndrome in Sumawa city, Iraq

Authors: Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Pages: 127-130
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Abstract

Background: Down syndrome is a congenital autosomal anomaly characterized by generalized growth and mental deficiency.This study was conducted to determine the oral health status of children with Down syndrome attending special institute for mental retardation in Sumawa city at south region of Iraq in comparison with non syndromic children. Materials and methods: In the present study (35) children with Down syndrome (25 boys, 10 girls) were examined in Alrajaa institute of Sumawa city in the south region of Iraq for mentally retarded children. The same number of children, matching the age and the gender of syndromic children, were chosen from school students in the same geographical area. Caries severity, plaque, gingival and calculus indices were used for recording oral health status. Results: This study revealed higher dmfs mean value among syndromic children at age (10-12) years old and higher decayed surfaces of primary teeth at same age group with statistical significant differences. This study also showed higher mean values of plaque and gingival index among children with Down syndrome than normal children with highly significant differences. Conclusion:It can be concluded from this study that children with Down syndrome have poorer oral health than controls. They would benefit from frequent oral health assessment


Article
Effects of Pimpinella Anisum extract on salivary counts of Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci in comparison to Chlorhexidine in vivo

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Abstract

Background: Pimpinella Anisum is one of the commonly utilized traditional medicines due to its pharmaceutical properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial effects. It is used to relieve coughs, sore throats and contraction of epilepsy also used in refreshing mouth and against bad breath. Aim of the study: To test the effects of Pimpinella Anisum extracts on the viability counts of salivary Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine in vivo. Materials and methods: Pimpinella Anisum was extracted using ethanol; Different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in gm/100 ml of deionized water. Chlorhexidine used as control positive and deionized water as control neutral. The volunteers were dental student divided into three groups each group rinse with one of the test agent (Pimpinella Anisum extract, chlorhexidine and deionized water) for 1min. Counts of bacteria recorded at five time interval (before rinsing, 1min., 15min., 30min. and 1hr). Mutans Streptococci were isolated from stimulated saliva of the students, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristics and biochemical tests. Results: Highly significant differences between the extract and both chlorhexidine and deionized water regarding the count of bacteria. There were no significant differences between extract and chlorhexidine regarding pH, while significant differences were found between the extract and deionized water at all time points except after 30 minutes it was highly significant difference. Conclusion: Pimpinella Anisum ethanol extract was effective against Mutans Streptococci


Article
The characteristics of profile facial types and its relation with mandibular rotation in a sample of Iraqi adults with different skeletal relations

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Abstract

Background: Facial type plays an important role in the information of an orthodontic treatment plan and prognosis that is whether an individual has long, short or average face and it is not possible to apply the same norms and treatment objective to cases with different facial patterns. This study aims to determine the characteristics of Bimler's facial types (dolichoprosopic, mesoprosopic, leptoprosopic) and their relationship with mandibular rotation in Iraqi adults with different skeletal relations. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 230 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of age range between 18-30years (104 males and 126 females), the sample was classified according to ANB angle into three skeletal classes (class I, class II and class III) and each class was classified depended on PP-MP angle into three faces. Thirteen cephalometric measurements (five angular, seven linear and one ratio) were measured for each individual radiograph using AutoCAD program 2006. Results: The mean values of all measurements for males were significantly higher than females, except for the GA, UGA and LGA, The mean values of GA, LGA, AFH and LAFH were high in leptoprosopic face, while their values decreased in dolichoprosopic face and the reversed were found with JR, PFH, RL and MAXL, moreover all these measurements revealed a highly significant difference between the three facial types. Conclusions: The mandibular rotation was not changed in all skeletal classes that belong to the same facial type as it did not affected by the anteroposterior relation within the same profile


Article
Dental calculus in relation to idiopathic calcium renal stone

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Abstract

Background: Dental calculus is a form of calcification process that occur in the oral cavity and due to its similar structural composition with calcium renal stone, so dental calculus formation may increase in those patients with calcium renal stone. This study conducted to evaluate if there is a relation between dental calculus accumulation with calcium renal stone formation by investigating the relations of oral hygiene and gingival health status with urinary and salivary physical properties and constituents then comparing the results with healthy looking subjects. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with idiopathic calcium renal stone selected as study group with an age range (25-30) years and 30 gender and age matched healthy looking persons selected as control. Plaque Index of Silness and Loe and Calculus Index component of Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Green and Vermillion recorded oral cleanliness while Gingival Index of Loe and Silness recorded gingival health status. Urinary and stimulated salivary samples collected and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and urinary creatinine. The pH and buffer capacity of saliva also estimated in this study. Results: Higher mean values of Plaque, Calculus and Gingival Indices scores recorded among study group with high significant differences compared control one, positive high significant correlation recorded between dental plaque with calculus accumulations among study group, higher mean values of salivary pH and buffer capacity recorded within study group with high significant difference compared control one, positive significant correlation recorded between calculus accumulation with salivary pH among study group, high significant elevation in the concentration of salivary phosphorus while high significant reduction in salivary magnesium concentration recorded within study group compared control one, significant correlations recorded between calculus accumulation with urinary constituents. Conclusion: presence of significant correlations between dental calculus accumulations with calcium renal stone formation, so special oral health preventive programs are needed for those patients


Article
Psychological impact of dental aesthetics for Kurdish young adults seeking orthodontic treatment

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Abstract

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Kurdish orthodontic patients’ severity of malocclusion and their social and psychological impact. Materials and method: The sample consists of 100 patients, 45 males and 55 females, aged 13–22 years. A translated pre-tested questionnaire [psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire PIDAQ] was used to assess the subjects’ social and psychological impact by their occlusal irregularities. The actual severity of malocclusion was determined, using the dental aesthetic index (DAI) on 100 stone study models. Statistical analysis was carried out, using chi-square test for assessing the associations, and person correlation coefficient was used for assessing correlations. Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression tests were also carried out to complete the statistical analysis. Results: results of the multiple regression analysis showed that not only DAI score were significantly associated with higher score of PIADQ scores, but other factors, like gender was a significant variable in predicting the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics. However, age was not significantly associated with PIADQ scores. The value of R² is equal to 0 .226. Accordingly, there is a significant weak positive correlation between DAI score and PIADQ scale of the study sample at p<0.005


Article
Antibacterial efficiency of salvia officinalis extracts and their effect on growth, adherence and acid production of oral Mutans Streptococci

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Abstract

Background: The use of antimicrobial agent to control plaque and oral disease has been advocated for a number of years. Different compounds have been delivered through mouth rinses or tooth pastes or by topical application. The purpose of this research is to find out and to compare between the anticariogenic properties of aqueous and alcoholic sage extract on the most causative cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity (Mutans streptococci). Materials and methods: In the present study Mutans streptococci were isolated from saliva often dental students (age range between 21-23 yrs) .These bacteria were isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic and biochemical tests. Results: Agar diffusion technique showed that sage extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) were inhibited the growth of Mutans Streptococci, and the diameter of inhibition zone increased as the concentration of sage extract increased, but the effect of aqueous extract was less than the effect of alcoholic extract. The minimum bactericidal concentration of aqueous and alcoholic sage extract were 50%, 20% respectively. Also the alcoholic extract was high significant inhibit (P<0.01) the viable count of Mutans Streptococci in vitro in comparison to aqueous extract. Conclusion: Alcoholic sage extract was interfered with acid production and adherence of Mutans Streptococci higher than aqueous extract resultant in reducing of acid production and inhibition of the adherence of this cariogenic bacteria; alcoholic sage extract have substantively phenomenon similar to those in chlorohexidine in comparison to aqueous extract


Article
Relationship between Herpes simplex Virus Type-1 and Candida albicans in Pregnant Women with Aphthous Stomatitis in the oral cavity

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Abstract

Background: This study was aimed to show the relationship between Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and Candida albicans, and to determine HSV-1 antigen in saliva of aphthous stomatitis patients by immunoflourescent (IF), as well as to determine HSV-1 antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) in saliva samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)test ,in addition to study concentration of the total salivary protein. Materials and methods: Sixty pregnant women with aphthae and thirty healthy control subjects were included in the study. Saliva samples were taken from all the subjects and examined by direct IF and ELISA, and using the saliva swab samples for isolation of Candida albicans .The isolated colonies were identified by germ tube formation, growth at 45 oC, and measuring the total salivary protein. Results: The results of the present study showed that aphthous were most prevalent at age group(26-30) years. The most commonly affected mucosa are the labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, tongue, and rarely the soft palate and floor of the mouth. Positive IF results were observed in 53.33% in patients and 6.67% in healthy control, while in ELISA, the positive results were found to be 63.33% in patients and 6.67% in control subjects. There was significant difference between anti HSV-1 IgG Abs and total salivary protein. Conclusion: the present study show there was no difference between Candida albicans and HSV-1 .The present study indicated that HSV-1 was detected serologically in saliva of patients by ELISA and IF method .The results revealed positive association between HSV-1 and aphthous, and the virus may play a role in the occurrence of the aphthous. Saliva is regarded as a transudate of the serum and it contains the same antibodies as serum, and a similar range of IgG antibodies, but at a much lower concentration and it's easily available and simply examined. The total salivary protein may play a role in the defense against the virus

Keywords

HSV-1 --- aphthous --- ELISA --- IF


Article
Study the role of proinflammatory and anti- inflammatory cytokines in Iraqi chronic periodontitis patients

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infection characterized by an inflammatory process that leads to destruction of teeth supporting tissues. There is a complex network of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines acting in the inflamed periodontal tissues. This study was designed to detect the serum levels of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in chronic periodontitis patients and determine its correlation with different clinical parameters of the periodontal status, as well as study the correlation among these cytokines and to evaluate the ratio between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 patients with chronic periodontitis were studied, their ages range from 23-60 years with a mean age of 40.1±7.6 years. Apparently healthy volunteers consisted of 25 individuals who were their age range (21-50) years with a mean age of 33.4±9.1 years considered as control. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. Blood samples were collected from CP patients and healthy control groups to assess serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 by means of enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results: The current results revealed that median serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) were significantly higher in CP patients than in healthy control groups (p<0.001), whereas the serum levels of IL-2and IL-6 were not observed any significant differences between two groups (p>0.05). In contrast serum levels of antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10) was significantly low in patients when compared to control (p<0.001). On the other hand, the ratios of IL-1βIL-10 and TNF-αIL-10 were significantly higher in patients when compared with the ratios in control group. Regarding correlation between serum cytokines and clinical periodontal parameters, serum IL-1β level was showed significant positive correlation with each of plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. On the otherhand no association between serum IL-2 levels and clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis were found. Moreover; IL-6 was showed significant positive correlation with probing pocket depth, while TNF-α revealed significant positive association with each of gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Conversely, serum IL-10 levels had negative significant correlation with plaque index, probing pocket depth and bleeding on probing. Interestingly strong linear positive correlation was found among each of (IL- 1β, IL-6 and TNF-α,).While strong negative correlation was noticed between IL-10 and each of (IL-1β and TNF-α). Conclusion: The present results may provide direct evidence for the systemic activation of immune cells in periodontitis, and suggests that cytokines may play an important role in pro-inflammatory response in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis. Moreover imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines could be involved in the initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis and is indicative of a stronger systemic proinflammatory state in disease.

Keywords

Chronic Periodontitis --- IL-β --- IL-2 --- IL-6 --- TNF-α --- IL-10

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