Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2012 volume:24 issue:special issue 2

Article
Comparison of apical seal of four obturation techniques after delayed post space preparation

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Backgroound: This in vitro study was conducted to compare the apical seal of four obturation techniques after delayed post space preparation. Materials and methods: Sixty simulated straight canals in clear resin blocks were used. The samples which had the same length, size of apical preparation and taper, were divided into four groups obturated with lateral condensation, warm vertical compaction, Thermafil, and Softcore obturators. Apexit was used as root canal sealer. Delayed post space preparation was carried out by peeso reamers after one week leaving 6 mm of gutta-percha apically. The coronal cavity was sealed and the samples immersed in 2 % methylene blue dye for 7 days after which the samples were examined by stereomicroscope and calibrated grid to measure apical dye leakage in mm. Results: Vertical compaction leaked significantly less than lateral condensation and Softcore, and Thermafil leaked significantly less than Softcore. Both Thermafil and Softcore were comparable to lateral condensation; there was no significant difference between vertical compaction and Thermafil. Conclusion: Thermafil and Softcore had no effect on the apical seal when delayed post preparation was considered and that the apical seal obtained by Thermafil and Softcore was comparable to lateral condensation technique


Article
Evaluation of the tensile bond strengths of heat cure acrylic and Valplast with silicone self cure soft liner

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Background: Soft lining materials have a key role in modern prosthodontics because of their capability of restoring health of inflamed and distorted mucosa. Gradual changes of oral tissues require that complete or partial dentures be relined to improve their adaptation to the supporting tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the tensile bond strength of heat cure acrylic and Valplast denture base materials to silicone self-cure soft lining material stored in artificial saliva. Materials and method: Two types of self cured silicone soft lining material (one with prime the other without prime or adhesive) applied to polymethylmethacrylate and injection-molded nylon denture base materials for tensile bond strength testing using Instron machine. Results: The comparison between all test groups after (48) hours immersion in artificial saliva were highly significantly different from each other except for the comparison between groups PSP and VSP in which theirmeans were non-significant. After (12) weeks, the comparison between all test groupswere highly significantly different fromeach otherwhen compared statistically. Conclusion: This study indicated that prime (adhesive) increase the bond strength of the silicone soft lining materials with denture base materials. Silicone soft lining materials are affected by artificial saliva storage


Article
The effect of plasma on transverse strength, surface roughness and Candida adhesion of two types of acrylic denture base materials (Heat cure and light cure)

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Background: Dental polymers have a great use in dental applications such as denture, temporary crowns….etc; this is due to their superior physical and chemical characteristics. At the same time some of these properties impose a limitation on applications in several new and high technology areas. Plasma treatment is one of the most widely used surface treatment techniques in which the composition and structure of a few molecular layers at or near the surface of the polymer are modified. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment by argon gas on transverse strength; surface roughness and Candida adherence to heat cure and light cure acrylic denture base materials. Also compare the effect of plasma treatment on heat and light cure denture base materials. Materials and methods: A total number of 180 specimens were prepared in this study; they were divided into two main groups according to the type of the material used (heat cure acrylic resin and light cure acrylic resin). Each main group was subdivided into three subdivisions according to the type of the test used (transverse strength, surface roughness and Candida adherence), for each test 30 samples were divided into three groups according to the time of plasma treatment that were applied (control, 5 and 10 minutes). Plasma treatment process was performed for all the studied groups in two different periods (5 and 10 minutes) except for control group no plasma treatment were performed. Results: Plasma treatment of heat cured acrylic specimens revealed a decrease in the transverse strength of the studied groups for 5 and 10 minutes. Similar results were obtained for light cure denture base material after treatment with argon gas plasma for the same periods of time used for heat cure. Plasma treatment of heat cure and light cure acrylic specimens showed decrease in surface roughness and Candida adherence for (5min and 10min).The correlation between surface roughness and Candida adherence in the present study showed a weak correlation for all tested groups for both types of materials except for 5 minutes plasma treated heat cure acrylic specimens which were moderate. Statistically, there was no significant difference between surface roughness and Candida adhesion for all groups of both types of materials except for 5min group of heat cure acrylic specimens. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study it can be concluded that argon plasma treatment to the surface of heat and light cure denture base materials can cause a decrease in transverse strength, surface roughness and Candida adherence for 5 and 10min treatment times


Article
The effect of different acidic environments on the apical microleakage of different obturation techniques (An in vitro study)

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Background: Pulpal and apical inflammation or infection decreases tissue pH in the region surrounding the involved tooth which might affect the sealing ability of different obturation systems. This study evaluate the apical microleakage of three obturation techniques (lateral condensation of Gutta-percha/AH 26, Soft-Core guttapercha/ AH 26 and lateral condensation of Resilon/Real Seal SE), when exposed to 7.3 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5 pH values. Materials and method: One hundred and thirty two roots of freshly extracted teeth were selected. Teeth were decoronated, working length was established and the roots were instrumented using a crown down technique with ProTaper rotary files (SX-F3). The specimens were divided into three groups of 44 samples each. Group A: obturated using lateral condensation of gutta percha and AH 26. Group B: obturated using soft-core and AH 26. Group C: obturated using lateral condensation of Resilon and Real Seal SE. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups, 10 samples each, which were exposed to pH values of 7.2, 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5 respectively. Microleakage was evaluated by longitudinal sectioning, and measurement of liner dye penetration. Results: There was a non significant difference within each group regarding the different pH media. Both Soft-Core and Resilon showed less apical microleakage than lateral condensation of gutta percha with a highly significant difference in all the tested acidic media. Conclusion: Resilon/Real Seal SE subgroups showed the least apical microleakage, however, it didn’t provide the complete sealing claimed by the manufacturer


Article
Effect of thermocycling on some mechanical properties of polyamide hypoallergenic denture base material (comparative study)

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Background: Hypoallergenic denture base material became recently the most attractive option due to their use as alternative to poly methyl methacrylate in hypersensitive patients. The study of the effects of thermocycling on the mechanical properties is very important, as it is beneficial for clinical purposes. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty specimens were prepared according to manufacturer's instructions and they were divided into two groups: Valplast and Vertex as a control group (eighty specimens for each), twenty specimens from each material were used to test each of property. They were either thermocycled or not thermocycled (n = 10). Results: There was significant difference between polyamide and conventional heat cured acrylic in the four tested properties. Furthermore, thermocycling significantly decreased the flexural strength of both polyamide and the heat cured acrylic and it significantly increased the tensile strength and hardness of both tested materials. Thermocycling did not significantly affect the impact strength of both materials. Conclusions: Vertex showed higher values of flexural strength than Valplast, flexural strength of both materials decreased post-thermocycling. Although the flexural strength of valplast was relatively low, it demonstrated greater impact strength than Vertex, impact strength of both tested materials was not affected by thermocycling. The tensile strength of Vertex was more than Valplast, for both materials tensile strength increased after thermocycling. The hardness of Vertex was higher than that of Valplast, both materials' hardness increased after thermocycling


Article
Influence of high expansion dental stone and teeth on the adaptation of maxillary complete denture base

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Background: The aim of this study was to verify the influence of high expansion dental stone and teeth on the adaptation of maxillary complete dentures. Materials and Methods: Maxillary complete dentures/bases were processed on type III dental stone and high expansion dental stone casts. The gap-space between the acrylic denture base and the cast in the posterior palatal seal area was measured by using dino-lite digital microscope. A comparison was made between G1 and G2, G3 and G4 to evaluate the influence of dental stone on the adaptation accuracy and another comparison between G1 and G3, G2 and G4 was made to evaluate the influence of teeth on the adaptation accuracy of maxillary complete denture. Results: Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the fitness of maxillary complete denture base was significantly improved in some points with high expansion dental stone compared to dental stone type III and the presence of teeth reduced the gap-space in the posterior palatal seal area when dentures with teeth were compared with denture bases without teeth (p<0.05). Conclusions: Using the high expansion dental stone and presence of teeth would influence the adaptation accuracy of denture base which in turn would improve the quality of the dentures


Article
Assessment of zirconium oxide nano-fillers incorporation and silanation on impact, tensile strength and color alteration of heat polymerized acrylic resin

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Background: The mechanical strength and color stability of poly methylmethacrylate (PMMA) remains far from ideal for maintaining the longevity of denture. The purpose of this study was to assess impact, tensile strength and color stability of heat polymerized denture base after addition of salinated and non-salinated zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanofillers. Materials and methods: zirconium oxide nanofillers were incorporated into (PMMA) denture base by free radical bulk polymerization. The nano-particales were Silanated by coating with a layer of trimethoxysilypropylmethacrylate (TMSPM) before dispersed and sonicated in monomer (MMA) in two percentages of 3% and 5% by weight. Then it was mixed with acrylic powder as general conventional method. One hundred and seventy five specimens were prepared for this study. fifty bar shapes specimens (80mm x 10mm X 4mm) for impact strength test, another fifty dumbbell shaped specimens (75mm × 12.75mm × 2.5mm ) were prepared for tensile strength test. On the other hand, seventy five disc shaped specimens (50mm diameter and 0.5mm thickness) were prepared for color stability test. They were divided into two groups according to the nanofillers used ; silanated and non-silanated ZrO2 nanofillers, for each group Three subgroups were prepared (one control and two(3% and 5%) for the silanated and non-silanated ZrO2 nano-fillers. Impact strength test was carried out with charpy type impact testing instrument. While tensile strength test were done by using Jain Qiao equipment system. . On the other hand, color stability was objectively assessed by using a spectrophotometer device after 48 hours immersion in three different solutions (distilled water, cola and tea) and the amount of light absorption was calculated. Impact and tensile strength means (in MPa) and color stability means (in nm) were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and the comparative T-test and least significance test (LSD). Result: Significant increase in impact strength occur in acrylic reinforced with 5% wt silanated (ZrO2) nanofillers , but non significant increase was observed at 5% wt non-silanated (ZrO2) nanofillers when compared with control group. On the other hand, there were non-significant improvements in the tensile strength for all groups of (ZrO2) reinforcements. While for the color stability test data showed significant increase in the light absorptions for specimens reinforced with (ZrO2) nanofillers when compared with control group. on the other hand, there were no significant difference observed between specimens reinforced with non-silanated and silanated (ZrO2) nanofillers. Conclusion: the findings of this study showed that Silanaized ZrO2 nano-fillers is effective in improving impact strength while it was not effective in improving the tensile strength, the maximum increase in impact strength was observed in denture base nano composite containing 5% wt of silanated ZrO2 nano-fillers. On the other hand, significant color differences were detected between control group and specimens incorporated with zirconium oxide nano-fillers at different immersion solutions


Article
Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (P53) in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma in relation to tumor grade

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Background: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. They display a variety of biological behaviours, and several systems have, therefore, been proposed to grade this neoplasm. Today, the most popular grading systems are Auclair et al, (1992) and Brandwein et al,(2001) grading systems. Assessment of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and growth molecules are important factors in tumor kinetic which may reflect tumor biological behaviour. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical analyses of seventeen cases of -fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of MEC of salivary gland origin using (Ki-67, P53 and EGFR) monoclonal antibodies. Results: The samples comprised of ten males and seven females to give male to female ratio (1.4:1). The mean age was (47.06±8.5) years. The submandibular salivary gland was the most predominant affected site (5 cases). 100% of cases were EGFR immunopositive. Only 47% of MEC cases showed Ki-67 immunopositivity, while P53 immunopositivity were shown in 94% of MEC cases. There was no statistically significant correlation regarding P53 or EGFR markers in relation with grading systems. There was a statistically significant correlation between the expression of Ki-67 marker and Auclair grading system. There were no significant statistical correlation among markers except between Ki-67 expression and P53. Conclusions: Assessment of tumor biology in term of apoptosis (p53), proliferation (Ki-67) and EGFR are not reflected on tumor grade


Article
Histopathological evaluation of oral lichen planus

Authors: Layla S. Yas ليلى ياس
Pages: 48-54
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Background: Oral lichen planus( OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting mucosal surfaces , which can cause an important discomfort to the patients . To highlight the most characteristic histopathological findings of OLP which are useful in making a diagnosis of OLP. In addition, by studying the association of these findings it was hoped that information about pathogenic mechanism would be obtained. Material and Methods : In this study a retrospective analyses of 194 cases of OLP being diagnosed at Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department, College of Dentistry , were obtained over a period of 26 years , spanning from 1985- 2010 . We analyzed the age and sex of the patients, clinical type of lichen planus, site and different histopathological finding, comparing them with each others. Results: (61%) of the patients are female and (39 %) are males, with an average age for both sexes (49.75 years). The most frequent clinical form is reticular, presented in (78%) of cases, and the most common location is buccal mucosa, presented in (60%) of the patients. The mononuclear infiltration beneath and adjacent to the epithelium, parakeratosis and degeneration of the basal layer of the epithelium were consistent features. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between basal degeneration and mononuclear infiltration and an inverse correlation between the mononuclear infiltrate and the parakeratosis. Conclusion: Linear regression analysis of the parameters studied provided partial support for a cell- mediated immune mechanism


Article
Evaluation the effect of autologous bone marrow – derived mesenchymal stem cells as a treatment in diabetic rabbits

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Back ground: Type 1 diabetes is the result of an autoimmune attack against the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Current treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes typically involves a rigorous and invasive regimen of testing blood glucose levels many times a day along with injections of recombinant insulin. Many recent researches have shown that stem cell therapy can be the best choice for treatment of this disease. The aims of this research were investigating regeneration of pancreatic beta cells of type 1 diabetic rabbits after stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods: 32 rabbits weighting an average of (2.5 - 3 kg) were used in this experimental study, and divided into 2 groups as follows; group A ( contains 16 controlled diabetic rabbits received insulin as a treatment ) and group B ( contains 16 diabetic rabbits received autologous mesenchymal stem cells as a treatment).The induction of diabetes was achieved by a single dose of intravenous injection of the Alloxan, which was administered to the rabbits via the marginal ear vein, mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into insulin – producing cells and reimplanted into the rabbits of group B with daily monitoring of blood glucose level and body weight. Results: The insulin – producing cells regulated the hyperglycemia resulted from diabetic rabbits , 7 to 9 days after reimplantation the blood glucose level were decreased from about( 400 mg/dl into 180 mg/dl). Conclusions: Islet-like functional cells can be differentiated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which may be a new procedure for clinical diabetes stem -cell therapy, these cells controlled blood glucose level in diabetic rabbits as the effect of insulin. MSCs play an important role in diabetes therapy by islet differentiation and transplantation.


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of Cyclooxygenase 2 and Caspase 7 in oral lichen planus

Authors: Muna S. Merza منى ميرزا
Pages: 61-64
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Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common dermatological diseases presenting in the oral cavity. Although relatively frequent, OLP is the target of much controversy, especially in relation to its potential for malignancy. This study was conducted to find biological changes in the expression of caspase 7 and cyclooxygenase 2(cox2) in OLP by immuohistochemistry and to explore the correlation between them. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases of randomly chosen paraffin embedded tissue blocks of OLP with 5 normal oral mucosa cases were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate Cox2 and caspase 7 proteins expression. Results: The expression of cox2 was positive in all studied cases of OLP with negative expression in normal oral mucosa. Caspase 7 expression was positive in (73%) of the cases of which (36.5%) showed strong positive expression score. Non-significant positive correlation was found between the two markers. Conclusion: This study provided further evidence that epithelial cells in OLP undergo apoptotic death, on the other hand they develop high rate of inflammation which may create a good environment for malignant transformation


Article
Oral manifestations, oral health status and saliva composition changes in a sample of Iraqi systemic lupus erythematosus patients

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Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Sicca symptoms are frequent in SLE which may be related to concomitant occurrence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The aims of study were to determine prevalence of oral manifestations and tempromandibular joint disorders, and to find a correlation between the changes in saliva flow rate, pH and composition with the incidence of dental caries in SLE patients. Subjects, materials and methods: One hundred and two individuals were enrolled in this study; 52 of them were SLE patients; and 50 were healthy control individuals matched in age and gender. The assessment of dental status was made according to the decay missing filling teeth (DMFT) index; the gingival inflammation was assessed using the criteria of gingival index; Clinical pocket depth was measured with periodontal probe type William, and whole unstimulated saliva samples have been collected from each subject for biochemical analysis. Also, salivary flow rate and pH were measured. After centrifugation, the supernatant of saliva was aspirated for biochemical analysis. Results: Oral ulceration was the most prominent orofacial manifestations of SLE patients followed by Tempromandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and facial skin rash then oral vesicles& bullae, oral lichen planus and finally oral petechiae & purpura. Salivary flow rate and salivary pH were significantly lower in SLE patients than in the control subjects. Oral hygiene index (DMFT index, gingival index, Clinical pocket depth) were significantly higher in SLE patients than in the control subjects .Salivary calcium, sodium, chloride, and total protein were significantly higher among SLE patients than in the control subjects. While salivary potassium and inorganic phosphorus were significantly lower among SLE patients than in the control subjects. In addition, there was a highly significant positive linear correlation between age of SLE patients and DMFT, and between age and clinical pocket depth; and a highly significant negative linear correlation between salivary flow rate and salivary calcium in SLE patients. Also there was highly significant positive linear correlation between DMFT and salivary calcium, and between DMFT and salivary chloride. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are common in Iraqi SLE patients. Changes in salivary flow rate, pH, salivary composition, and increased dental caries may serve as potential markers of the extent of autoimmune mediated salivary gland dysfunction which is similar to Sjogren’s syndrome


Article
Etiology of the oral burning pain and its relationship to sex, age and anatomical sites (Clinical study among a sample of Iraqi patients in Baghdad)

Authors: Sabah M. Dhamad صباح ضمد
Pages: 70-77
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Background: The studies about oral burning pain are few in Iraq in spite of this disease is a significant common among numbers of Iraqi patients, so more information were required in order to avoid its effect and occurrence. The aim of the current study is to determine the actual causes for the disease by examining a sample of Iraqi patients in Baghdad, in order to evaluate its relationship to the age, sex and the anatomical sites. Subjects and methods: Sixty patients were selected from two hospitals, several specialized dental clinics and public medical clinic, in east of Baghdad (Sadder, Jamella and Baladeyate cities). Nineteen patients were excluded because they could not continue in this study. The remaining forty one patients, 23 female patients, their ages ranged between 25 – 60 years, while the male patients were 18, their ages ranged between 20 – 60 years. The duration of symptoms of burning inside the oral cavity ranged from 6 months to 3 years . Each patient in this study was examined clinically to detect any oral lesion may have direct cause for the disease , also patients were asked about the types of drugs intake , in addition to their psychological conditions . The medical and dental histories were taken from all examined patients, also all medical and dental reports of the patients were determined. Few results of different investigations of the examined patients were replaced by new ones, and the others were taken in consideration for obtaining results for this study. Fasting blood sugar, thyroid function test, histopathological examination and others were examples for such investigations which had been done. The most important finding in this current study that the cause of oral burning pain in the examined Iraqi sample was mainly multi factorial causes and a few cases were caused by single etiology. Results: This study revealed that the most common causes of the oral burning pain in this Iraqi sample was , hormonal changes , bad psychological conditions , the side effects of some drugs intake , chronic gastritis in addition to other factors. The most anatomical site affected inside the oral cavity was the dorsal portion of the tongue. Conclusion: One conclusion for the current study in some examined cases was found that a hiding cause may play a role in oral burning pain occurrence beside other factors. This study appeared that female patients over 50 years were more susceptible to this disease than male patients; also older age groups for both sexes were mostly affected


Article
The influence of menopause on unstimulated salivary flow and subjective oral dryness inrelation to other oral symptoms and salivary gland hypofunction

Authors: Sahar H. Alani سحر حمدان
Pages: 78-80
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Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms in menopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 individuals including 100 women in their menopause (case group) and 100 men in the same age range (control group) participated in this analytic descriptive investigation. None of the patients were being treated for any systemic disease or taking any medication. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was measured using the spitting method and the prevalence of oral symptoms was evaluated by filling out a questionnaire. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, chi-square and Student’s t-test (P<0.05). Results: The average of unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.127 ml/min (SD=0.057) in women and 0.214 ml/min (SD=0.105) in men. The prevalence of dry mouth was 50% versus32%, difficulty in eating dry foods 31% versus 8%, burning sensation in oral mucosa 3% versus 0%, taste reduction, 4% versus 2% and bitter or metallic taste 16% versus 8% in female and male subjects, respectively. Conclusion: A significant difference in salivary flow rate and prevalence of oral symptoms was found between the two groups (P<0.05). Reduced salivary flow rate and a high prevalence of oral symptoms in menopausal women may be related to the hormonal alterations that occur during this period

Keywords

menopause --- salivary flow


Article
Detection of genomic instability in oral squamous cell carcinoma using random amplified polymorphic DNA based on polymerase chain reaction method (RAPD-PCR)

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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an invasive epithelial neoplasm, occurred most commonly in alcoholic and tobacco using adults. The present study is aimed to identify the genomic instability in OSCC patients using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique. Materials and methods: Twenty five blocks of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue was used as malignant DNA source and five sample of healthy DNA obtained from the oral tissue and blood. Using DNA extraction kit (Geneaid minikit) and eleven random sequencing primers to visualize the amplifications pattern under UV. Results: The primer detectability of genomic instability ranged from 21% in well differentiated OSCC to 68% in poorly differentiated OSCC. CasesT8 and T13 showed highest genomic instability (75%). The results determined numbers of genomic instabilities among OSCC patients by comparing the pattern of amplifications of the primers in both malignant and healthy DNA. Conclusions: High significance correlation between primers detection rate and histopathological grade of OSCC. Further larger studies are needed to: 1) Obtain RAPD markers useful for OSCC for early diagnosis; 2) investigate different genes directly involved in the etiology of OSCC; 3) analyze chromosomal instability among OSCC patients


Article
Prevalence of myofascial pain in students of selected secondary schools in Baghdad city

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Background: Myofascial face pain (MFP) is painful disorder of masticatory muscles thought to be the most common type of temporomandibular disorder (TMD).This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of MFP in students of secondary schools of Baghdad city Materials and methods: The sample comprised 242 females' students and 222 males' students of secondary schools, aged 17-18 years. The MFP evaluated according to the specific screening questionnaire of research diagnostic criteria of temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I with clinical examination. Results: the study revealed that (50.8%) of the students had history of pain where females reported higher percentage than males with statistical significant difference. The history of pain in muscles of mastication was higher than joint pain in both genders. After clinical examination this study also showed that (25.4%) of students with history of pain had MFP. The differences between both genders regarding the diagnosis of MFP were higher in females than males but statistically not significant. Conclusion: high percentage of students reported a history of pain which could be attributed to MFP in (25.4%) of the students. The prevalence of pain history and MFP was higher in females’ than males


Article
Trial usage of Iodoform powder as an adjunct in periodontal therapy

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Background: Tooth mobility refers to the movement of loose teeth within their sockets primarily caused by periodontal disease. Treatment involves identifying and addressing the cause of tooth mobility. If detected early enough, loose teeth can be made firm again. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in teeth mobility before and after using iodoform powder in periodontal Flap in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of twenty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (13 males and 7 females) with age ranged from 30 to 50 years. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and tooth mobility grades. The patients were examined at base line, 2 months and 6 months after periodontal therapy. Treatment included oral hygiene instruction, scaling, root planing, internal splints, iodoform powder and periodontal surgery. Clinical parameters were evaluated. Results: The present study showed that teeth mobility was decreased after using iodoform powder as an adjunct in periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusions: Iodoform powder is aid in decrease tooth mobility with periodontal surgery


Article
Comparing the effect of probiotic and chlorhexidine as a mouth rinses in bacterial plaque

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Background: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouth to provide a natural defense against those bacteria though to be harmful to periodontal tissue. Data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The aim of study was the present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of probiotic type inarched yeast extract, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque. Material &method: Four strain of probiotics bacteria were used, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus & bifidubacterium actiregularis, and grown in skim milk and plus 0.25, 0.5 % yeast extract individually, the cell free extract of each one of those treatments were add 1: 9 todiluted bacterial plaque taken from 5 subjects, to measure the effect of cell free extract on aerobic & anaerobic bacteria. 45 subjects with chronic periodontitis attend periodontal clinic in college of dentistry university of Baghdad (age 25- 35) the trial design as 14 days comparative study between a probiotic and chlorhexidine. Result: add yeast extract increased the total count of 4 probiotic bacteria 16.25 -29.22% , Cell free extract of Lb. acidophilus probiotic skim milk dairy product was the most powerful in reducing both aerobic and anaerobic plaque bacteria among other probiotic bacteria, it reduced 3.38 – 2.17 log cfu/gr aerobic bacteria while the same treatment reducing the anaerobic bacteria 2.5- 2.1 log cfu/gr , the probiotic and chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the control group at the end of 14day (P<0.001and P<0.001)respectively . Conclusion: the probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plague accumulation and gingival inflammation, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further study is recommended to determine the efficacy.


Article
Correlation between biochemical analysis and periodontal health status and tooth loss in chronic renal failure patients

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Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gingiva and bone supporting the teeth. The chronic renal failure is one of the serious systemic diseases. It causes general systemic changes which reflect themselves on the oral cavity components. The aims of this study is to determine and compare the periodontal clinical parameters and tooth loss between renal failure patients under hemodialysis and healthy individuals, to determine and compare the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin in saliva and serum between these two groups and to correlate the biochemical parameters with the clinical parameters for the renal failure patients. Materials and Methods: Sample population consisted of (100) individuals. Males and females were included in this study aged from 45-55 years old. The human sample divided into two main groups; study and control groups. The study group subdivided into hepatitis positive and negative subgroups. Sample recruited for study were 73 patients attending the Artificial Kidney Centers in Baghdad city, all were under hemodialysis. The control group consisted of 27 healthy individuals no history of any systemic disease. All the clinical parameters were tested for both groups together with the levels of C-reactive protein and albumin in saliva and serum. Results: The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences between the study and control groups for all the clinical parameters and highly significant differences between the study and control groups when comparing the levels of albumin and C - reactive protein in saliva and serum. Non-significant differences were found when comparing males and females for each group for both clinical and biochemical parameters. But highly significant differences were illustrated when comparing between hepatitis +ve and –ve patients in the study group for all the parameters. Few strong correlations were revealed between the clinical and biochemical parameters; however, most of the correlations had confidence levels more than 75% which could have clinical significance. Conclusions: The study group had worse periodontal health status than the control group. Also, there was a weak correlation between the clinical and biochemical parameters but with some interested numerical differences


Article
Evaluation of inorganic ions and enzymes levels in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects

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Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tissues supporting the teeth. Inorganic ions and salivary enzymes have been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease. This study aimed to detect sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions level in saliva & also to assess the activity of creatin kinase (CK) and gamma glutamyle tranferase (GGT) enzymes in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects and correlate the mean salivary levels of these ions and enzymes with clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, PPD and CAL). Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of (23) patients with chronic periodontitis and (12) healthy subjects of both gender with age ranged (35-45) years .Plaque index (PLI). Gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) are the periodontal parameters used in this study, un stimulated saliva sample were collected from all subjects and the levels of sodium, calcium, Magnesium, potassium, CK and GGT enzymes in each specimen were analyzed for each group .A statistical analysis was done to estimate the levels of these ions and enzymes in saliva and correlate the mean salivary inorganic and enzyme levels with the clinical periodontal parameters. Results: The present study showed that highly significant and significant differences in the levels of inorganic ions Na+ and Ca+2 respectively was found between chronic periodontitis and control group, while non significant differences in the level of Mg+2 and K+ ions were found between the study group and control group. Highly significant differences in the levels of salivary enzymes CK and GGT were found between the control group and chronic periodontitis group. This study showed a positive correlation between the activity CK enzyme and PLI, GI and CAL. Also there was a significant correlation found between Na+, Ca+2 and CAL. Concerning PPD, there was no correlation between those ions and enzymes with PPD in chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion: estimation of those in organic ions and enzymes in saliva of chronic periodontitis may be used as potential diagnostic markers of disease status in periodontal tissues


Article
The antioxidant effect of sulcular injection of green tea

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Background: Green tea is a popular neutraceutical as an antioxidant. The association between tea consumption, especially green tea, and human health has long been appreciated. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxident effect of sulcular injection of green tea to evaluate its use in periodontal treatment. Methods: Fifty –five male rabbit weighted 1-1.5 kg of the same species divided into three groups. The first group, group A, (test group) received 50ìL/Kg of green tea dissolved in distilled water, the 2nd group, group B, received distilled water. The last group, group C, (control group) received no injection. Blood samples were taken at a time interval of (1, 3, 42, 72,168) hours for biochemical analysis of vitamin C and Malondialdehyde (MDA). Results: Study showed there was a highly significant increase in mean concentration of serum vitamin C three hours after sulcular injection with 5%green tea extract (P<0.01),while a significant decrease in mean concentration of serum MDA after injection at the same time with the same extract(P<0.05). Conclusion: Green tea injected into sulcular had beneficial antioxidant effect, thus green tea can be used safely and successfully in periodontal treatment


Article
Orthopantomogrphic pre-surgical assessment of mandibular third molar teeth form and structures using surgical findings as a gold standard

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Abstract

Background: Mandibular third molars are the most frequently impacted teeth in human and their surgical extraction has become one of the commonest dentoalveolar surgeries. Accurate assessment of the position and morphology of the mandibular third molars is necessary to make a sound decision about the proposed surgical procedure. Today, orthopantomography is the imaging method of choice to provide information for adequate assessment of the impacted lower third molars, the related teeth, anatomical features, and the surrounding bone. The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of orthopantomographic view compared with postsurgical removal clinical finding in assessing the crown position, number and morphology of roots of the impacted lower third molar. Materials and methods: Total sample of 50 patients (25 males and 25 females), age range from 19 to 35 years old with impacted lower third molars assessed radiographically by using Standardized orthopantomography for evaluation of crown position and roots number and morphology in comparison with surgical findings. Results: According to the data obtained in this study, the comparison between the radiographic interpretation and the clinical findings revealed a complete agreement for crown position (100% K- value) while based on roots number the (K –value was 0.7, 10.66, 0.80) for teeth with one, two and complex roots respectively and according to roots morphology (K –value was 0.64, 0.67, 0.81) for normal, fused and dilacerated roots respectively with more frequent false negative findings Conclusion: Although Orthopantomograph have a reasonable diagnostic value in the preoperative evaluation of the impacted lower third molars, but for more precise information modern radiographic modalities is advised to be used.


Article
Effects of diabetes mellitus types II on salivary flow rate and some salivary parameters (total protein, glucose, and amylase) in Erbil city

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Abstract

Background: The concentration of some components of saliva may be associated with certain systemic illnesses, reflecting the hormonal, immunological, neurological, emotional, nutritional and metabolic states of the patient. The aim of this work was to assess salivary flow rate, and to evaluate saliva samples for levels of salivary total protein, glucose, and alpha amylase, in diabetics type II and healthy subject in both genders. Subjects and methods: Unstimulated salivary flow rate, salivary total protein, glucose, and amylase were measured in 90 subjects, 60 with diabetes mellitus type II (30 controlled and 30 uncontrolled diabetic patients) and in 30 healthy subjects. Results: Significant difference in salivary flow rate in diabetic patient when compared with healthy subject. The finding showed no significant differences between salivary total proteins in all groups. Significant difference in salivary glucose and amylase concentration was found between the healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. According to the gender, there were only significant differences between male and female in salivary flow rate for healthy subjects Conclusions: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher concentration of salivary glucose and lower value of salivary flow rate and amylase. No significant difference was seen in protein value in all groups


Article
Effect of Zamzam water on the microhardness of initial caries-like lesion of permanent teeth, compared to Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate agents

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Abstract

Background: chemically Zamzam water is suitable for drinking purposes contains calcium, magnesium, sodium, fluoride and other salts higher than other water that have an effective germicidal action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Zamzam water on the microhardness of initial carious lesion compared to CPP-ACP agents. Materials and methods: thirty two maxillary first premolars with enamel caries-like lesion randomly divided into one study group treated with Zamzam water and three control groups CPP-ACP, and CPP-ACP+NaF as a positive control and deionized water as a negative control (each group consists of 8 teeth). Teeth were subjected for microhardness assessment before and after pH cycling and treatment with the selected agents. Results: Agents of study groups were statistically highly significant in elevation of the microhardness values, CPPACP+ NaF caused highest change in the microhardness (158.58%) and less for CPP-ACP (81.48%) and lesser for Zamzam water ( 80.97%). Conclusions: Zamzam water was effective in remineralization of the outer enamel caries-like lesions, which was reflected by increase in enamel microhardness values


Article
Biological evaluation of alveolar bone remodeling in methylprednisolone treated –rats during orthodontic tooth movement

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Abstract

Background: Bone remodeling and metabolism associated with orthodontic tooth movement are regulated by a large number of local and systemic factors. The widespread useof therapeutic corticosteroids (GCs) today raise concerns with regard to their effects on mineralized tissue metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Methylprednisolone treatment on alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: A twenty-six 12-weeks old male Wistar albino rats were divided into 2 groups; control group (n = 13) without any drug administration during the study and steroidal group (n = 13) which received 5 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone for 3 weeks. A split- mouth design was used performing orthodontic tooth movement on the upper right 1st molar by applying 20 g of mesial force using superelastic closed-coil spring attached to the incisors for 21 days while the upper left side served as the non-appliance side. Orthodontic tooth movement was evaluated on weekly basis using digital caliber. The rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks and alveolar bone remodeling process was evaluated by counting the number of osteoblast and osteoclast cells at the compression and tension sites at the coronal and apical levels of the mesiobuccal root of upper 1st molar in both appliance and non-appliance sides using digital microscope at 400~ magnification. At day of sacrifice serum measurements for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were carried out. Results: Showed that in the steroid group there was significantly greater amount of orthodontic tooth movement, greater reduction of bone formation and an increase in bone resorption with the presence of orthodontic appliance, increase in serum ACP activity and reduction of serum ALP activity as compared with the control group,(P . 0.05). Conclusion: The Methylprednisolone therapy in low-medium doses elicits a noticeable change in the bone turnover rate during orthodontic tooth movement


Article
The variation of facial soft tissue thickness in Iraqi adult subjects with different skeletal classes (A comparative cephalometric study)

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Background: The variation of facial soft tissue thickness is an important factor in facial reconstruction and superimposition methods in forensic dentistry as well as for orthodontist and plastic surgeons because they provide the basis for quantification and repeatability. The purpose of this study was to compare facial soft tissue thickness of Iraqi patients with different types of skeletal relations. Materials and method: Lateral cephalometric study was conducted on 60 adult Iraqi patients with normal vertical dimensions (diagnosed clinically and radiographically as SN-Mandibular Plane angle 28›-36›), aged 18-30 years, classified according to skeletal sagittal relationship using ANB angle into three groups (each group consist of 10 male and 10 female subjects): Class I group (ANB2-4›), Class II group (ANB>4›) and Class III group (ANB<2›). Cephalometric analysis of soft tissue thickness was achieved by 10linearmeasurements using AutoCAD program 2007. Results and Conclusions: This study showed that the facial soft tissue thickness measurements were significantly higher in male than in female in almost all measured midline landmarks, in comparing the three skeletal relation groups, Class III group show the highest readings when compared to Class I and Class II, Class II show the lowest results among the three groups (except for the labiomental fold area and pogonion area), while Class I group lies between the other two groups for all the measured values.


Article
Effect of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) on oral health status of children aged 6 years old in Sammawa city

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Background: It has been realized that good nutrition is interdependent with good health, and the protein is the most important nutrient because it regulates the key process within the body, so if any deficiencies in protein occur this will lead to protein-energy malnutrition which is evaluated by using anthropometric measurements(height and weight). When PEM begins it affects adversely various aspects of growth and increase the severity of oral problems later. It has been reported that dental caries and enamel defect occur in malnourished children more than well nourished. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of children by physical examination and its effect on dental caries and enamel anomalies in relation to gender. Materials and methods: This study was conducted among urban primary school children aged 6 years in sammawa city which lies 300 Km south of Baghdad, were clinically evaluated to determine the prevalence of dental caries and enamel anomalies in relation to protein energy malnutrition. The sample size composed of 300 children distributed in primary schools which were randomly selected from different areas in sammawa city. The samples were examined physically by anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and orally for dental caries and enamel defects. Results: The malnourished children with mild grade was the most prevalent grade in this study, males showed malnutrition more than females within the same age group, dmfs and DMFS according to nutritional status indicators were higher among malnourished children than well nourished group, the enamel opacities was higher in females than in males regarding gender differences and according to nutritional status indicators was higher among well nourished children than malnourished group in both primary and permanent dentition. Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition was higher in boys than in girls, also the prevalence of dental caries was higher in malnourished children when compared with well nourished children, while enamel opacities was present only in well nourished children when compared with malnourished group, it was absent in malnourished children


Article
Evaluation of calcium and hydroxyl ions release from nonsetting calcium hydroxide paste and mineral trioxide aggregate during apexification procedure

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Background: Several materials had been used as intracanal dressing to stimulate hard tissue formations during apexification procedure. Recently, a single appointment technique by using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been proposed as an alternative to the multiappointment calcium hydroxide apexification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of calcium and hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide paste and MTA through three different apical aperture sizes during pexification procedure. Materials and Methods: The root canals of sixty extracted premolar teeth were instrumented to a master apical file No. 100, 120, and 140 and filled with either calcium hydroxide paste or MTA. Calcium ions concentrations and pH values of the surrounding media were measured at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the test period. Results: Calcium ions concentrations and pH values of Ca(OH)2 were more than that of MTA at days 1, 3, and 7, then the calcium ions concentrations of MTA increased with time and became more than that of Ca(OH)2 which decreased with time. Ca+2 and OH-1 release from Ca (OH)2 paste and MTA increased with larger apical aperture size at all time intervals. Conclusions: MTA maintains a continuous calcium and hydroxyl ions release for longer time than that of Ca (OH)2 paste


Article
Evaluation of serum anti-Cardiolipin antibody, hs-CRP and IL-6 levels in chronic periodontitis as possible risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

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Background: It has long been established that there is an association between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. Evidence shows periodontally infected patients may be at a higher risk of thrombotic accidents via induced systemic inflammatory mediators’ production and increase in serum levels of autoantibodies such as anticardiolipin antibody. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACLA)-IgG and -IgM, and to investigate the systemic levels of inflammatory markers of cardiovascular diseases like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with chronic periodontitisin (CP) as well as to examine the relationships between these mediators and clinical periodontal parameters. Subjects and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 45 patients with CP (20 with sever periodontitis and 25 with moderate periodontitis) and from 30 healthy age matched individuals served as controls. Clinical periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. The levels of serum ACLA-IgG, ACLA-IgM, hs-CRP and IL-6 were determined using enzymelinked immunosorbent assays. Results: The current results revealed that serum levels of ACLA-IgG, hs-CRP and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients group as compared to healthy control group (p<0.05, p<0.001), whereas the serum level ACLA-IgM was not observed any significant differences between two groups (p>0.05). Concerning the comparison between two patient groups, sever CP group showed significant elevation in serum levels of ACLA-IgG, hs-CRP and IL-6 (p<0.05, p<0.001), while there is no differences in serum level of ACLA-IgM when compared to moderate CP patients group (p>0.05). Furthermore, in regards to the correlation between serum ACLA-IgG, ACLA-IgM, hs-CRP and IL-6, and clinical periodontal parameters, IL-6 level was showed significant positive correlation with clinical attachment level, whereas hs-CRP was showed significant positive correlation with each of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. Moreover; linear positive correlation was noticed between ACLA-IgG and clinical attachment level. Conversely, ACLA-IgM level did not show any correlation with clinical parameters of periodontitis (p>0.05). Conclusion: Elevation in prothrombotic autoantibodies, ACLA-IgG and inflammatory mediators (hs-CRP and IL-6) factors may increase inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and potentially increasing the risk for cardiovascular events


Article
Antibacterial efficiency of chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% against oral β- hemolytic streptococci and oral Staphylococcus aureus in immunocompromised patients

Authors: Firas H. Qanbar
Pages: 166-169
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Background: The use of antimicrobial agents was advocated for a number of years using different compounds that delivered through mouth rinses to control intra- and extra-oral disease in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this research is to find out and to compare between the antibacterial properties of 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)on oral â- hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patient with renal failure. Materials and methods: â- hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated stimulated saliva samples collected from patients receiving steroids therapy. These bacteria were purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic, biochemical and antibiotic sucseptibility tests. Results: Agar diffusion technique demonstrated that chlorexidine digluconate inhibited the growth of both types of isolates, but the antibacterial effect against Staphyllococcus aureus was less than that against â- hemolytic streptococci. Conclusion: The use of CHX 0.2% as a mouth wash to remove those pathogens from the oral cavity to inhibit their infections in immunocompromised patients is highly indicated

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