Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2013 volume:25 issue:1

Article
Effect of post-pressing times on adaptation of maxillary heat cured acrylic denture base at posterior palatal seal area

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Background: The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of post- pressing time of acrylic resin (immediate, 6, 12 and 24 hour) on the dimensional accuracy of denture base whish is a critical factor in the retention and stability of the complete denture that may occur during polymerization shrinkage. Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary stone casts were poured in plastic mold (Columbia Dentoform corp. NEW YORK, type III dental stone (Geastone, Zeus Sri Loc.Tamburine Roccastrada, GR, Italy). The stone casts were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 specimens each according to the post-pressing times into (immediate, 6, 12 and 24 h.). Heat cure acrylic resin denture base was constructed according to the previously mentioned pressing time, the resin base-stone cast sets were transversally sectioned with a manual saw device at the distal aspect of the molar area, anterior to the posterior palatal seal area. The gap between the resin base and stone cast was measured at five points in the right (point B) and left (point D) ridge crests, at the midline (point C), and at the right (point A) and left (point E) marginal limits (A), using a Leitz linear optical comparator microscope with a travelling stage capable of measuring 0.001 mm. Each measurement was repeated three times and the average was used as the linear gap distance for that point. The data were submitted to ANOVA. Result: there was statistically significant difference between the pressing time in which the mean values of gap space in point E for 24h shows lowest value then point A, point B, and point D than the other post pressing time. The mean value in point C shows highest values which mean the greater gap space in palatal area


Article
Effect of surface treatments and thermocycling on shear bond strength of various artificial teeth with different denture base materials

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Background: Separation and deboning of artificial teeth from denture bases present a major clinical and labortory problem which affect both the patient and the dentist. The optimal bond strength of artificial teeth with denture base reinforced with nanofillers and flexible denture bases and the effect of thermo cycling should be evaluated. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of artificial teeth (acrylic and porcelain) with denture bases reinforced by 5% Zirconium oxide nanofillers and flexible bases under the effect of different surface treatments and thermo cycling and comparing the results with conventional water bath cured denture bases. Material and methods: Two types of artificial teeth; acrylic and porcelain were used and prepared for this study. Five specimens of each tooth type were processed to each denture base materials after the application of different surface treatments; these teeth were bonded to heat polymerized, nano composite resin and flexible denture bases. Specimens were thermo cycled and tested for bond strength until fracture with an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and student T-test. Photomicrographic examinations were used to identify adhesive and cohesive failures within debonded specimens. Results: The mean force required to fracture the specimens were obviously larger for nanocomposite specimens compared with the heat cured and flexible specimens. The most common failure was cohesive within the tooth or the denture base. With each base material, the artificial teeth which were treated with thinner exhibited highest shear bond strength. Thermocycling had deleterious effect on the flexible denture base specimens. In general, nanocomposite and heat cured groups failed cohesively within the artificial tooth. While the valplastic groups failed adhesively at the tooth denture base interface. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the type of denture base materials and surface treatments of the tooth selected for use may influence the shear bond strength of the tooth to the base. Selection of more compatible combinations of base and artificial teeth may reduce the number of prosthesis fractures and resultant repairs

Keywords


Article
Push-out bond strength of different root canal obturation materials

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of four different obturation materials to intraradicular dentin and to determine the failure mode. Materials and method: forty straight palatal roots of the maxillary first molars teeth were used in this study, the roots were instrumented using crown down technique and rotary EndoSequence system, the roots were randomly divided into four groups according to the materials used for obturation (n=10).Group (1): AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. Group (2): Activ GP glass ionomer sealer and Activ GP gutta-percha (Activ GP system). Group (3): Bioceramic sealer and Bioceramic gutta-percha. Group (4): GuttaFlow2 sealer and gutta-percha. For all groups single cone obturation technique was used. After incubation period of one week, the roots were embedded in clear acrylic resin and each root sectioned into three levels apical, middle and cervical. The bond strength was measured using computerized universal testing machine, each section fixed in the machine so that the load applied from apical to coronal direction at 0.5mm/min speed and the computer drew curve to show the higher bond force before dislodgment of the filling material. After de-bonding each sample was examined under Stereomicroscopic and the type of failure mode was recorded. Results: showed a non significant difference between AH plus group and Bioceramic group. AH Plus group showed a very highly significant difference with Activ GP group and a highly significant difference with GuttaFlow2 group. There were significant differences between coronal level and both apical and middle levels with no significant differences between apical and middle levels within each group. Conclusion: AH plus group showed the highest mean of bond strength in comparing to other tested groups


Article
The surface roughness of new fluoride releasing material after using three polishing protocols and storage in artificial saliva

Authors: Maha A. Habeeb مها حبيب
Pages: 21-26
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Background: Prophylaxis methods are used to mechanically remove plaque and stain from tooth surfaces; such methods give rise to loss of superficial structure and roughen the surface of composites as a result of their abrasive action. This study was done to assess the effect of three polishing systems on surface texture of new anterior composites after storage in artificial saliva. Materials and methods: A total of 40 Giomer and Tetric®N-Ceram composite discs of 12 mm internal diameter and 3mm height were prepared using a specially designed cylindrical mold and were stored in artificial saliva for one month and then samples were divided into four groups according to surface treatment: Group A (control group):10 specimens received no surface polish and were subdivided into A1 (Giomer) and A2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Group B: 10 specimens received polishing with Air polishing devise (APD) and were subdivided into B1 (Giomer) and B2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Group C: 10 specimens received polishing with pumice and brush and were subdivided into C1 (Giomer) and C2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Group D: 10 specimens were polished with pumice and rubber cup and were subdivided into D1 (Giomer) and D2 (Tetric®N-Ceram). Testing was done by means of profilometer and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance test (ANOVA), LSD and student t-test. Also samples were photographed by special orthoplane camera using light polarizing microscope. Results: The results showed a highly statistical significant difference in surface roughness among Giomer subgroups P<0.05. Also there was a highly significant difference P<0.05 when comparing Tetric subgroups according to type of surface treatment. Furthermore there was non-significant difference P>0.05 between groups according to the type of restorative material used. Conclusion: The use of prophylactic surface treatment significantly increased Giomer and Tetric ceram surface roughness and the use of rotating brush has shown the roughest surface among all other types of prophylactic protocols also Giomer had shown more surface roughness than Tetric ceram although the difference was not significant.


Article
Effect of different acids surface treatments and thermocycling on shear bond strength of composite resin to feldspathic ceramic

Authors: Ammar A. Lateef عمار لطيف
Pages: 27-33
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Background: the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface acids treatments (37%phospjoric acid, 5%hydrofluoric acid, 1.23 acidulated phosphate fluoride) of feldspathic ceramic VITA 3D MASTER , and the effect of thermocycling on shear bond strength using a ceramic repair kit (ivoclar/vivadent). Material and Methods: sixty Nickel-Chromium metal base plates were prepared(9mm diameter,3mm depth) using lost wax technique, 2mm thick layer of ceramic(VITA 3D MASTER) fused to metal plates, all specimens were embedded in acrylic resin blocks except their examined surfaces and divided into 3 main groups 20 specimens each, Grp A: treatment with 37%phosphoric acid for 2 mins, Grp B: etching with 5% hydrofluoric acid for 2mins, Grp C: etching with 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride for 10 mins; monobond-plus, heliobond, resin composite(Tetric EvoCeram) were applied to each specimen according to manufacturer's instruction using transparent split mold(5mm diameter, 4 mm height); specimens were stored in 37OC distilled water for 12 weeks, 10 specimens of each group were subjected to thermocycling between 5 oC and 55 o C for 800 cycles with 30s dwell time; shear bond strength was determined by a universal testing machine (instron 1122) at a cross head speed 0.5mm/min; One way ANOVA test, LSD test and student-t test were used to analyze shear bond strength. Results: Mean shear bond strength values for the tested groups were: A1= 11.65±0.68 Mpa, A2=10.88±0.58 Mpa, B1=17.93±0.41 Mpa, B2=17.42±0.35 Mpa, C1=15.17±0.61 Mpa, C2=14.51±0.48 Mpa ; one way ANOVA test showed highly significant difference among groups; LSD test revealed that the use of 5% HF for ceramic surface treatment(GB) was highly significant than the treatment with 37%PA(GA) or 1.23%APF(GC) respectively and the use of 1.23%APF(GC) was highly significant than the use of 37%PA(GA); Student t- test showed a significant difference between subgroups of the same group with and without thermocycling. Conclusion: ceramic surface treated with 5% HF acid for 2 mins recorded the highest shear bond strength, followed by surface treatment with 1.23% APF for 10 mins, most specimens treated with 5%HF showed cohesive failure with in ceramic while specimens treated with 1.23%AFP showed more (adhesive/cohesive) failure than adhesive or cohesive alone, and specimens treated with 37% PA showed nearly 50:50 adhesive and combination failure, thermocycling reduced the bond strength of each group significantly.


Article
Assessment of some mechanical properties of Imprelon® and Duran® thermoplastic Biostar machine sheets in comparison with some types of acrylic resins

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Background: Imprelon® Biostar foils are new alternative tray material that has become increasingly popular because oftheir several advantages. Also, (Duran®) is another type of Biostar foils which is used in splint therapy. This study assessed some mechanical properties of these two types Biostar sheets in comparison with some types of acrylic resins used for construction of trays and splints. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 specimens were prepared, 30 specimens for each test, 10 for each group material in order to assess some mechanical properties of the Imprelon® Biostar foil (dimension stability, surface roughness and shear bond strength of Imprelon® materialto zinc oxide impression material) and compare them to that of the other tray materials (autopolymerized and VLC) resin materials. Also to assess the mechanical properties (wear rate and transverse strength) of the Duran® Biostar Foil and compared them with that of the other splints materials (heat-cure acrylic and VLC) resins. Results:The results showed highly significant differences at P<0.01 between all studied groups except the in dimensional changes of Imprelon® and VLC, and in wear rate of heat cure acrylic and VLC resins, no significant differences obtained between their studied groups. Conclusions: Imprelon® is dimensionally stable, so it can be used directly after fabrication, also it has a good shear bond to zinc oxide eugenol impression material but it may not provide mechanical retention to other elastomeric impression materials and their adhesives since it has a low value of surface roughness (Ra).Duran® is recommended for short time use in patients with acute pain and/or dysfunction symptoms


Article
The effect of curvature angle and rotational speed on the cyclic fatigue of three types of rotary instrument (In vitro): comparative study

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Background: The fracture of instruments within root canal during endodontic treatment is a common incidence, fracture because of fatigue through flexure occurs due to metal fatigue, this study aimed to assess the effect of curvature angle and rotational speed on the cyclic fatigue of different type of Endodontic NiTi Rotary Instruments and compare among them. Materials and method: Three types of rotary instruments with tip size 0.25: ProTaPer F2 (Densply, Malifier) Revo-S SU( 0.06 taper, MicroMega) and RaCe system (0.06 taper, FKG, Dentaire), Forty file of each instrument were used within two canals with angle of curvature (40 &60 )at two speed (250&400)RPM, twelve group were formed for all instruments(total number=120),ten file for each group. The testing canals customized within stainless steel block covered with glass face, the time to fracture recorded and the mean of cycles to fracture (MCF) detected for each instrument. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, LSD and Independent T-test at 5% significant level. Result: there was a highly significant difference of curvature angle and significant difference of rotational speed on the fracture resistance of instruments. RaCe revealed the best fracture resistance followed by ProTaper then Revo-S that showed the less resistance. Conclusion: The rotary instruments more prone to fracture when used at more curvature angle and higher rotational speed, as well as the rotary instruments differ from each other according to manufacturing process, taper, cross section and other factors


Article
An in vitro evaluation of fit of the crowns fabricated by zirconium oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM systems, before and after porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles

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Background: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the vertical marginal fit of crowns fabricated with ZrO2 CAD/CAM, before and after porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles. Materials and Methods: An acrylic resin model of a left maxillary first molar was prepared and duplicated to have Nickel-Chromium master die. Ten die stone dies were sent to the CAD/CAM (Amann Girrbach) for crowns fabrication. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured at four indentations at the (mid mesial, mid distal, mid buccal, mid palatal) before (Time 0) and after porcelain firing cycles (Time 1) and after glaze cycles (Time 2) using a light microscope at a magnification of ~100. One way ANOVA LSD tests were performed to determine whether the mean and standard deviation of sub group Time 2. Results: The mean values of the ZrO2 CAD/CAM Time 0 were (6.77ƒÊm), Time 1(8.75ƒÊm) and Time 2(10.62 ƒÊm). One way ANOVA test revealed highly statistical significance(P<0.01). LSD test results showed that there is highly significant difference between time (0) and time (2), while there is no any significant difference between time (0) and time (1), and between time (1) and time (2). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the ZrO2 CAD/CAM demonstrated acceptable marginal fit; The porcelain firing and the glaze firing cycles affected the marginal gap


Article
A study to compare the efficiency of different instrumentation systems for cleaning oval-shaped root canals (An in vitro study)

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Background: Proper cleaning and shaping of the whole root canal space have been recognized as a real challenge, particularly in oval-shaped canals.This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficiency of different instrumentation systems in removing of dentin debris at three thirds of oval-shaped root canals and to compare the percentage of remaining dentin debris among the three thirds for each instrumentation system. Materials and methods: Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with single straight oval-shaped distal root canals were randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth each. Group One: instrumentation with ProTaper Universal hand instruments, Group Two: instrumentation with ProTaper Universal rotary instruments, Group Three: instrumentation with Revo-Srotary instruments, Group Four: instrumentation withTwisted rotary files and Group Five: instrumentation with Self-Adjusting Files (SAF). Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as an irrigant for all groups. After canals preparation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a professional digital camera. The images of root sections were then magnified to 100x and the percentage of remaining dentin debris calculated for the apical, middle and coronal thirds by dividing the pixels occupied by debris at each third by the total pixels representing the entire area of the canal using Adobe Photoshop CS6. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and LSD at 1% and 5% significant levels. Results: Both ProTaper hand and ProTaper rotary files resulted in significantly cleaner canals than Revo-S and Twisted rotary files at the middle and coronal thirds. The Self-Adjusting Files produced significantly cleaner canals at the three thirds than all the other groups. The coronal and middle thirds showed a greater amount of remaining dentin debris than the apical third for all groups except a non-significant difference found between the apical and middle thirds in SAF group. Conclusion: The Self-Adjusting Files allowed more efficient cleaning of oval-shaped root canals than hand and rotary instruments


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of Fas/Fasligand and c- Myc in oral lichen planus

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Background: Oral Lichen Planus is a chronic inflammatory mucosal disease, presenting in various clinical forms .Both antigen-specific and non-specific mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Apoptosis or programmed-cell death is a physiological process essential for the normal development and maintenance of homeostasis in many organisms. Fas is a cell-surface glycoprotein, 40-kDa, that belongs to the nerve growth factor / tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Fas is expressed in several tissues including blood, where its expression is upregulated on activated T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. The proto-oncogene c-Myc is a transcripation factor with roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Mutation in the c-Myc gene and protein overexpression has been associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas. Apoptosis is the mechanism that would be dysregulated in this disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the expression of Fas, Fasl and c-Myc in oral lichen planus and to correlate the expression of either markers with each other. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on thirty formalin- fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of oral lichen planus pro and retrospectively. An immunohistochemical staining was done by using monoclonal antibodies for Fas, Fasl and c-Myc. Results: Expressions of Fas, Fasl and c-Myc were highly detected in keratinocytes and inflammatory cells of OLP cases compared to negative expression in normal oral mucosa. Significant correlation has been found between expression of Fas, Fasl and c-Myc in epithelial cells with that of inflammatory cells in oral lichen planus studied cases. Significant correlation has been found among expressions of Fas, Fasl and c-Myc in epithelial cells of oral lichen planus cases. Significant positive correlation found between expressions of Fas, Fasl and c-Myc in keratinocytes and inflammatory cells of oral lichen planus . Conclusion: Increased expression level of Fas, Fasl and c-Myc in both keratinocytes and lymphocytes of OLP cases in comparison to normal mucosa with highly significant correlation among the markers expression indicate their important role in malignant transformation of oral lichen planus.


Article
Evaluation of salivary levels of Proteinaceous biomarkers Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-8) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder of the carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. Various complications of diabetes have been described with periodontitis being added as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been identified as major tissue-destructive enzyme in periodontal disease. MMP-8 is released from neutrophils in a latent, inactive pro form and becomes activated during periodontal inflammation by independent and/or combined actions of hostderived inflammatory mediators .C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response. Subjects, materials and methods: Total samples composed of 60 participant and they divided into (20 patients un complicated type 2 diabetes with periodontitis , 20 patients non diabetic with periodontitis and 20 subjects normal control " with no sign of gingivitis or periodontitis" ) . Diabetes assessment was performed according to Abraham (1982).Attachment loss were assessed using periodontal disease index of Ramfjord (1959) .Un stimulated whole saliva samples were collected and chemically analyzed for quantitative measurments of salivary (MMP-8 and CRP).Blood samples were collected and then measure (HbA1c , FBS , ESR ). All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: It was found that the salivary (MMP-8, CRP) levels were lower in normal controls compared to other groups, the blood ESR level was lower in normal controls compared to other groups and there were no important differences in mean blood ESR, salivary MMP-8 and median salivary CRP between diabetic and non diabetic with periodontitis . Conclusions: Severity of periodontitis increase with increase age , Salivary MMP-8 ,CRP and blood ESR levels were elevated in patients with periodontitis with or without diabetes , CRP and MMP-8 are considered a useful tests in predicting periodontitis ,and in type 2 diabetic patient there was a relationship between metabolic control of diabetes and severity of periodontal disease


Article
Evaluation of the effect of Autolougues Platelet Rich Fibrin Matrix on osseointegration of the titanium implant immunohistochemical evaluation for PDGF-I&IGF-A

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Background: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a simple, low cost and minimally invasive way to obtain a natural concentration of autologous growth factors and is currently being widely experimented in different fields of medicine for its ability to aid the regeneration of tissue with a low healing potential. Fields of application are sports medicine, orthopedics, dentistry, dermatology, ophthalmology, plastic and maxillofacial surgery, etc. The rationale for using platelets in so many fields for the treatment of different tissues is because PLTs constitute a reservoir of critical GFs and cytokines, which may govern and regulate the tissue healing process that is quite similar in all kinds of tissues. Materials and Methods: Screw titanium implants inserted in the femurs of the thirty two adult rats. The right side is considered as experimental groups and the left side considered as control groups. Autologous platelet rich fibrin matrix applicated with the right screw implants . The sample divided into four groups, eight rats are sacrificed at four interval 3days, 7days, 2weeks, and 6weeks respectively. Histological, immunohistochemical (PDGF-A&IGF-1), and radio graphical were studied for each interval. Results: Histological examination showed the acceleration of bone formation and more rapid healing process in the screw implant with PRFM than in the control implant. Radio graphical examinations showed that the process of osseointegration started after 2weeks and complete radio opacity around the titanium implant after 6weeks. Immunohistochemical findings revealed high positive expression for IGF and PDGF in experimental implant in comparison to control one. Conclusion: This study was illustrated that PRFM material was osseo inductive material that enhances the osseointegration process in titanium implant site in comparison to the normal physiological healing process. The results show a positive effect of PRFM and it can be suggested for beneficial use in the practice of dentistry implantation, periodontics, oral surgery since it enhance osseointegration, reduce the period of patient suffering and the incidence of post implant complications


Article
Expression of RANKL by dental cells during eruption of mice teeth

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Background : In order for a tooth to erupt, two obvious requirements are needed. First, there has to be alveolar bone resorption of the bone overlying the crown of the tooth such that an eruption pathway is formed. Second, resorption of bony crypt and apposition of new one, third, there has to be a biological process that will result in the tooth moving through this eruption pathway.The amniotic sac contains a considerable quantity of stem cells. These amniotic stem cells are multipotent and able to differentiate into various tissues, which may be useful for human application. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is concentrated on bone biology, more specifically bone metabolism. RANKL plays a vital role in osteoclastogenesis for bone resorption. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of RANKL marker by dental cells during eruption of the teeth. Materials and Methods: : forty eight albino Swiss mice of one day old age injected with isolated amniotic stem cells in the anterior region of maxilla (incisors area) other 16 mice injected with saline represents control. Sacrifice 4 mice for each period (4, 7, 10, and 13) day old age. The result were studied histologically and immunohistochemistry. Results: The present results localized and identified RANKL marker in 3 areas of developing tooth of the studied groups includes overlying, surrounding and apical bone. Positive RANKL with high significant value expressed by osteoclast of overlying bone in Amnion group followed by Control at day 4. In surrounding bone positive expression of RANKL illustrated to be highest in Control followed by Amniotic fluid at day 10.Apical bone shows positive expression of RANKL in amniotic fluid group and it records to be the highest value in comparison to studied groups at day 10. Conclusion Expression marker RANKL illustrates that amniotic fluid group has a high expression of RANKL in osteoclast surrounding and apical bone areas while control expressed RANKL in osteoclast of overlying bone. The present results opened clinical hopes in dental tissue engineering by application of autologous amniotic fluid and chorion cells

Keywords

RANKL --- tooth eruption


Article
Oral manifestation biochemical and IgA analysis of saliva in hyperthyroid (Grave’s disease) patients (Comparative study)

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Background: Hyperthyroidism occurs due to over production of thyroid hormones, one types of hyperthyroidism was Graves, disease. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by high level of serum thyroxin, triiodothyronine and low level of thyroid stimulated hormones. Material and Methods: fifty two hyperthyroid patients, thirty patients under treatment with carbimazole and other twenty two patients under treatment with radioactive iodine, and sixty healthy control group. The average salivary flow rate was calculated as ml/5mint.The concentration of calcium, potassium, and total protein were determined in the salivary supernatant sample. This is done through different biochemical tests. Determination of salivary IgA is done by ELIZA. Results: The most prevalence oral manifestation was dry mouth; there were highly significant differences in salivary flow rate between the two studied groups. There were differences in concentration of total salivary protein and salivary IgA between the two studied groups although statistically non-significance. However there a significant differences in calcium concentration between the two studied groups, also there was a sequential decrease in potassium concentration between the two studied groups and control group. Conclusions: Those type of patients need dental evaluation especially those who are taking radioactive iodine


Article
Computed tomographic measurement of maxillary sinus volume and dimension in correlation to the age and gender (comparative study among individuals with dentate and edentulous maxilla)

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Background : Although development and progress in various diagnostic methods, but still identification of remnants of skeletal and decomposing parts of human is one of the most difficult skills in forensic medicine . Gender and age estimation is also considering an important problem in the identification of unknown skull. The aims of study: To estimate volume and dimension of maxillary sinus in individuals with dentate and edentulous maxillae using CT scan, and to correlate the maxillary sinus volume in relation to gender and age. Materials and Methods : This study included 120 patients ranged from (40-69 years), divided into two groups, dentate group with fully dentate maxilla and edentulous group with complete edentulous maxilla, and each group composed of 60 patients (30 males and 30 females) who admitted to spiral CT scan unit in X-ray Institute in Baghdad to have CT of the brain and paranasal sinuses from October 2011 to June 2012, who had complaints of headaches or with suspection of sinusitis but without pathological findings in maxillary sinuses. The maxillary sinus volumes and dimensions (width, depth, and height) were measured with the help of the computer software in Spiral CT scan system. Results : The statistical analyses of maxillary sinus measurements for dentate and edentulous groups showed that the volume and dimensions of maxillary sinuses in both groups were larger in males than females and they tend to decrease with the older age, in addition it is found that there was no significant differences in measurements of maxillary sinuses between dentate and edentulous groups, but the exception was in height measurements which were significantly higher in edentulous than dentate group for both genders. Conclusion: It's found that the volumes and dimensions of the maxillary sinuses were larger in males than in females, in addition to that they tend to be less with the older age, so the Computed Tomography measurements of maxillary sinuses may be useful to support gender and age determination in forensic medicine


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of Basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Back ground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and to correlate the two studied marker with each other and with clinicopathologicalfinding including grade, stage. Methods: Sections of 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma were immunostained to assess the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanse in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Results: The expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase were positive in all oral squamous cell carcinoma cases (100%). The positive expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 was significantly correlated with tumor site (p=0.016),and clinical presentation(p-value =0.003).The positive expression of Heparanse was significantly correlated with tumor grade(p-value =0.002) .On other hand there was non-significant correlation between fibroblast growth factor-2 ,Heparanase and other clinicopathological parameters .Statistically significant correlation was found between the expressions of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase(p-value= 0.021). Conclusion: The fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase positive expression was noted in all cases of oral squamous cell carcinomasignifying their important role in the angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, furthermore they cooperate in promoting vascularization, suggesting that fibroblast growth factor-2 and heparanase are promising targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics for head and neck malignancies


Article
Evaluation of the anterior loop of the mental nerve incidence and extension in different age groups in Sulaimania city using digital panoramic imaging system

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Background: The anterior loop of mental nerve is commonly described as that part of the neurovascular bundle that transverses anterior and inferior to the mental foramen only to loop back to exit the mental foramen. The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and extension of anterior loop of mental nerve by using digital panoramic imaging system to avoid nerve damage during different surgical procedures in dentistry. Materials and Method: Panoramic image was taken for all 400 patients and stored in the computer. Then Horizontal and Vertical for the anterior loop extension when exist was measured and recorded in a special case sheet prepared for each subject. Results: Results indicated that out of 400 patients there were only 25 patients (6.25%) having anterior of the inferior alveolar nerve, 14 cases (56%) of them were males and 11 cases (44%) were females. The extension of the anterior loop of mental nerve was with wide range, for horizontal extension it was 1.3-6.36mm with significant difference between right and left sides, and with vertical extension was between 1.44 -5.98mm with no significant difference between the right and left sides. Conclusion: No significant difference among subjects according to sex and the pattern of visualization of the anterior loop was shown. The anterior loop was visible in 6.25% of the dental panoramic radiographs with 3.5% for males and 2.75% for females.


Article
Salivary assessment of Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and albumin in ulcerative colitis patients in relation to oral findings

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Background: Ulcerative colitis disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract. In regulation of this inflammatory process, Interleukin-6, C-reactive proteins and albumin have a major role. Overproduction of IL-6 by immunocompetent cells contributes to activate the liver to produce CRP, transudation of plasma albumin and development of the inflammatory condition. Elevated levels of IL-6 in saliva could be expected, because the saliva-producing cells are part of the digestive system. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary IL- 6, CRP and albumin in ulcerative colitis patients in relation to oral findings. Materials and methods: Forty eight saliva specimens collected from three groups of subjects (sixteen newly diagnosed UC patients, sixteen UC patients on medication and sixteen healthy subjects). The specimens were centrifuged and stored at -20°C then three ELISA kits were used for estimating the three variables. Results: There was a significant elevation of salivary IL-6, CRP and albumin level in both newly diagnosed and on medication groups in comparison to healthy persons. There was a significant elevation differences of salivary IL-6, CRP and albumin level between newly diagnosed and on medication groups. The prevalence of aphthus ulcer was highly significant in the newly diagnosed group in comparison to the other groups. Twenty five percent of patients on medication complain from candidiasis and only one patients with tempromandibular joints problem (hard clicking). Conclusions: Salivary IL-6, CRP and albumin are elevated simultaneously in UC patients, in both newly diagnosed and on medication groups, but the mean of variables in second group was lower than in the newly diagnosed group. There are no correlation between salivary IL-6, CRP and albumin with oral findings.


Article
Immunohistochemical study of PDGF, IGF of radiated tooth rat embryo

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Background: Exposure to microwaves radiation from microwave oven may be harmful for users especially for the one who have highest contact with microwave oven. Because the body is electrochemical in nature, any force that disrupts or changes human electrochemical events will affect the physiology of the body by destabilization and interruption of many chemical body substance including growth factors.The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are a family of mitogenic proteins that control growth, differentiation, and the maintenance of differentiated function in numerous tissues. It fulfils an important role in growth and development of teeth, mandible, maxillae, and tongue. Platelet derived growth factors (PDGF) are proteins that regulate cell growth and division. In particular, it plays a significant role in blood vessel formation (angiogenesis). It seems that IGF and PDGF share in much tissue developmental process. Therefore they included in the present study in correlation to tooth growth & development. This study Illustrates the expression of insulin like growth factor and platelet derived growth factor by dental cells of rat embryos at periods of gestation 16th,18thday intrauterine life(I.U.L) and one day neonatal life. Materials and Methods: Animal model: Thirty-six female rats were used in this study .Starting from zero days (time of gestation that recorded) the pregnant rats were divided into three groups. Group A serve as a control, groups B exposed to microwave oven radiation For (15 /minutes; 5/min /hour for 3 hours continuously) daily and C exposed to EMF radiation for (45 minutes ;15 min /hour for3hours continuously)daily starting from zero day of gestation till the last day. The embryo of rats at 16thday and 18th day of intrauterine life and one day old rat (new born rat) were studied immunohistochemically for localized of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin growth factor (IGF) markers. Results:The results showed that experimental group (B) exposed to short duration of radiation (5/ min.) stimulates the development of tooth germ and faster tooth growing in comparison to control with immunohistochemical results show strong to moderate intense stain for positive expression of growth factors(PDGF,IGF) by dental tissue.For long exposure period of radiation( group C) , it showed retardation in the tooth growth withimmunohistochemical findings record weak to negative intense stain for the expression of growth factors(PDGF,IGF) by dental tissue. Conclusion: Exposure to microwave (oven) radiation during pregnancy may play a role in the expression of IGF and PDGF by cells of tooth germ thatinfluence on cell differentiation and physiological activity of specialized dental cells, depending on exposure time


Article
The effect of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells with estimation of molecular events on tooth socket healing in diabetic rabbits (Histological and histomorphometric study)

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Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to an inability to produce insulin. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes is clinically associated with increased susceptibility to delay healing. Many recent researches have shown that stem cell therapy can be the best choice for treatment of this disease. The aims of this research were investigating regeneration of pancreatic beta cells of diabetic induced rabbits after stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods: 64 rabbits weighting an average of (2.5 - 3 kg) were used in this experimental study, and divided into 4 groups as follows; group A ( contains 16 healthy rabbits regarded as control group ) , Group B ( contains 16 diabetic rabbits not received treatment ), group C ( contains 16 controlled diabetic rabbits received insulin as a treatment ) and group D ( contains 16 rabbits received mesenchymal stem cells as a treatment) , the lower incisor for each rabbits was extracted and the socket was examined by histological and histomorphometric analysis after 2, 10, 20 and 30 days of healing periods after scarification. Results: Histological findings showed that there was a normal healing of teeth – extracted sockets (early bone formation, mineralization and maturation) of the animals of group A, C and D when compared with group B. Histomorphometric analysis of the parameters (trabecular width (TbW), Tb Separation(TbS), Tb Number ( TbNo), osteoblasts number (OBNo), osteocytes number( OCNo ) and blood vessels number (BVNo) of all groups for all healing periods illustrated that there was a highly significant differences of groups A , C and D when compared with group B animals. Conclusions: The present study concluded that there was delayed healing of teeth extracted sockets of the animals of group B (diabetic rabbits) due to the few numbers of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) which differentiated from the fibroblasts cells and subsequent impairments in bone formation, mineralization and maturation


Article
Factors associated with facial swelling severity following impacted lower third molar surgery: A prospective study

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Background: The ultimate purpose of this prospective study is to estimate and measure swelling associated with surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars in different four post-operative times and to identify the risk factors associated with determination of their risk degree. Material and Methods: In this prospective cohort study 159 consecutive cases in which removal of impacted lower third molars in 107outpatients were evaluated. Five groups of variables have been studied which are regarded as a potential factor for swelling after mandibular third removal which will enable the surgeon to predict and counsel high risk patients in order to offer a preventive strategy. Results: Facial measurements were carried out on 1st, 2nd days, 1st and 2nd week postoperatively to measure the swelling area in each time respectively The peak level of swelling was noted on the second post-operative day and subside by seven days but in some cases the swelling was still in minor degree while in most patients it was zero by day 14. Conclusions: The degree of difficulty of the surgical extraction was the main indicators of risk factors for the swelling in all post-operative days because it involves all the other risk factors together


Article
Relationship of maximum bite force with craniofacial morphology, body mass and height in an Iraqi adults with different types of malocclusion

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Background: Information concerning the maximum bite force in human population is important to clinical orthodontics. Additionally, the influence of bite force on the vertical stability of any treatment result is important. The new position of the dentition should be compatible with the dynamics of the muscular and occlusal forces in all planes. This study was conducted to 1) to measure and compare maximum bite force, body height and weight among normal occlusion and malocclusion groups (cl I,cl II,cl III) in both gender 2) to evaluate the correlation between bite force and craniofacial morphology, body height and weight. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 100 Iraqi adult subjects aged 18-25 years. It was classified in to four groups: cl I normal occlusion, cl I malocclusion, cl II malocclusion, and cl III malocclusion according to(skeletal) the value of ANB angle and (dental)the Angle classification. Each group consist of 25 (13 male, 12 female), Maximum bite force was measured by a digital device (GM10, Naganokeiki, Japan) by putting the sensor part of occlusal force meter on first molar region, body height and weight were measured by using the Length and Weight Measuring Standard (Tanita, 2008) and craniofacial measurements were achieved by analysis of lateral cephalometric radiograph Results: The highest mean value of maximum bite force was found in normal occlusion followed by class II malocclusion and then class I malocclusion and the lowest value was found in class III malocclusion, class I skeletal relationship (cl I normal occlusion & cl I malocclusion group) had larger values of body weight when compared with skeletal class II& class III .Regarding the gender, mean values of maximum bite force and body height are higher in male than female in normal occlusion and malocclusion groups, There is a positive correlation between maximum bite force and body height and weight in normal occlusion and class I malocclusion ,there is a positive correlation between maximum bite force and palatal plane, Ramus plane, mandibular plane, posterior facial height, cranial base, dentoalveolar height, while there is a negative correlation with anterior facial height, Gonial angle, SN-Mp¢ª,PPMP& SN-PP¢ª angles. Conclusion: The normal occlusion group had larger values of bite force than malocclusion group,the maximum bite force, body height is gender related, larger body build up was usually associated with larger bite force in class I skeletal relationship, Individuals with characteristics of larger maxilla ,larger mandible, larger cranial base ,short anterior facial height long posterior facial height, flat mandibular plane had the largest value of bite force.


Article
The effect of thermocycling and debonding time on the shear bond strength of different orthodontic brackets bonded with light-emitting diode adhesive (In vitro study)

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Background: Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. This in vitro study done to measure and compare the effect of thermocycling on the shear bond strength of stainless steel and sapphire brackets bonded to human enamel teeth using light cured orthodontic adhesive and debonded at various time, and to measure adhesive remnant index after debonding. Materials and Methods: one-hundred-twenty extracted upper first premolars for orthodontic reason were used in this study; depending on weather thermocycled or not, the sample was divided into two main groups, then within each group 30 teeth were used for stainless-steel brackets (Bionic®) and for sapphire brackets (Pure®). Both groups were subdivided into three groups (n = 10) according to the debond times: I: debond after 24 hour, II: debond after 7 days and III: debond after 30 days. Within 24 hr, half of the sample was thermocycled manually for 500 complete cycles between 5/55°C and the remaining sample was stored in distilled water at room temperature and water was changed daily until debond time for each group was performed. The adhesive remnant index was tested under 20X magnification lens using stereomicroscope. Results and Conclusions: Both bracket types demonstrated high shear bond strength values before thermocycling (P≤0.05), whereas after 500 thermocycles, there were significant changes in shear bond strength resulted in marked reduction in the stainless steel brackets than in the sapphire brackets (P≤0.05). Shear bond strength values increased with time for both stainless steel and sapphire brackets with and without thermocycling (P≤0.05). The tendency of bond failure was increased at the bracket/adhesive interface rather than enamel/bracket interface in the stainless steel brackets whereas at the enamel/bracket interface rather than bracket/adhesive interface in the sapphire brackets.


Article
Shear bond strength of different lingual buttons bonded to wet and dry enamel surfaces with resin modified glass ionomer cement (in vitro comparative study)

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Background: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of three lingual button (Nickel free / rectangular base, Nickel free / round base and Composite) and bonding environment, wet and dry enamel surface, on: the shear bond strength (SBS) of light and self-cured Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cements, and the debonding failure sites. Materials and method: One hundred twenty no-carious, free of cracks maxillary first premolar teeth were selected. Three types of orthodontic lingual buttons were used in this study: Nickel free / rectangular base, Nickel free / round base and Composite buttons. The teeth were divided into two groups of sixty teeth each. One group was used for testing the chemically cured GC Fuji Ortho Resin modified Glass Ionomer (RMGIC), while the other was used for testing the light cured GC Fuji Ortho LC RMGIC. Each was further subdivided into two subgroup; thirty teeth were bonded to wet enamel surface while the other was bonded after drying the enamel surface. Then each ten teeth from each subgroup were bonded with only one type of buttons. The sample was tested for bond strength using the universal testing machine and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was inspected under the stereomicroscope. Results:The highest (SBS) values were obtained in the Nickel free / round base button with both types of RMGIC in wet and dry environment as revealed by ANOVA test. While t-test revealed that both systems of RMGIC yield relatively lower values of (SBS). Conclusions:The GC Fuji Ortho RMGICs resist shear force in dry better that in wet environment.Nickel free / round base buttons give the greatest shear bond strength among the three types of button.The composite buttons give greater bond strength in dry than in wet environment with both GC Fuji Ortho and GC Fuji Ortho LC RMGICs


Article
Dental caries, Mutans Streptococci, Lactobacilli and salivary status of type1 diabetic mellitus patients aged 18- 22 years in relation to Glycated Haemoglobin

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Background: diabetic mellitus is one of the serious systemic diseases that may cause general systemic changes, which may be reflected in the oral cavity. The aims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries, Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli in addition to flow rate and pH among uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups in comparison with non-diabetic control group. Materials and Methods: Study groups consisted of 25 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c > 7), 25 controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≤ 7), in addition to 25 non-diabetic healthy looking individuals. Their age was (18-22) years from both genders. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to severity of dental caries lesion through the application of D1_4MFS (Manji et al, 1989) and stimulated salivary samples were collected. Salivary flow rate and pH were estimated. Viable count of mutans streptococci (on Mitis- Salivarius Bacitracin Agar) and lactobacilli (on Rogosa) was determined. Results: The mean values of caries-severity were recorded to be highest among study groups compared to the control with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01). Lowest values of salivary pH and flow rate were among study groups compared to the control with highly significant difference (p<0.01). Concerning Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli were found that the mean values of them for uncontrolled diabetic group were highly significant higher than both mean values of controlled diabetic group and control group. Conclusion: Dental caries revealed higher percentage of occurrence and severity among uncontrolled diabetic group. Furthermore there was significant influence of the diabetic and the poor metabolic control on the salivary flow rat, pH, mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli that have an effect on caries occurrence and severity


Article
Force decay of orthodontic elastomeric chains by using three different mechanisms simulating canine retraction

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Background: The ideal force-delivery system must: provide optimal tooth moving forces that elicit the desired effects, be comfortable and hygienic for the patient, require minimal operator manipulation and patient cooperation and provide rapid tooth movement with minimal mobility during orthodontic therapy, the elastomeric chains have the greatest potential to fulfill these requirements. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was designed to determine the effect of three different mechanisms for canine retraction : (6-3 , 6-5-3 and chain loop ) on the load relaxation behavior of three types of elastomeric chains : (maximum clear , maximum silver and extreme silver) from the same company (Ortho Technology company) with two different brand configurations: closed loop and open (short filament) chains under effect of time at (zero time, 24hr., 7, 14 , 21 and 28 days) in artificial saliva. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a highly significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the three different mechanisms (P≤ 0.001).For all the three types, the 6-3 mechanism had the smallest mean percentage force decay. There was a highly significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the different types (P≤ 0.001). For all three mechanisms, extreme silver elastomeric chains had the smallest percentage force decay while maximum silver elastomeric chains had the highest percentage force decay. Conclusion: This study illustrated that for all the three types of elastomeric chains, the (6-3) mechanism had the smallest mean percentage force decay. This finding suggests that it may be most efficient to retract a canine utilizing elastomeric chain directly from the molar hook to the canine bracket. The chain loop mechanism may not be indicated for space closure in vivo due to the excessive physiological force values involved with this mechanism


Article
Bone density determination for the maxilla and the mandible in different age groups by using computerized tomography (Part I)

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Background: Mini implant stability is primarily related to local bone density; no studies have evaluated bone density related to mini implant placement for orthodontic anchorage between different age groups in the maxilla and the mandible. The present research aims to evaluate side, gender, age, and regional differences in bone density of the alveolar bone at various orthodontic implant sites. Materials and method: Fifty three individuals who were divided into two groups according to their age into: group I (ages 16-20 years) and group II (ages 21-29 years) had subjected to clinical examination, then 64-multislice computed tomography scan data were evaluated and bone density was measured in Hounsfield unit at 102 points (51 in the maxilla and 51 in the mandible), and mean alveolar bone density was calculated at each site in the CT axial plane. Results: No significant differences in bone density between the sides and gender were found. Generally, the bone density measurements of group I and II were not statistically different at almost most sites. The mean bone density of the alveolar cortical bone was greater in the mandible than in the maxilla and showed a progressive increase from the anterior to the posterior area, while in the maxilla the highest bone density was at the premolars region. The maxillary tuberosity was the region with lowest bone density. Cancellous bone had almost comparable densities between the mandible and the maxilla and its density was less than those of cortical sites. Conclusion: When mini implants are indicated, no gender and side differences affect the success rate regarding bone density; while age and area should be considered when selecting and placing mini implants for orthodontic anchorage.


Article
Concentrations of selected elements in saliva among a group of adolescent girls in relation to severity of caries and selected salivary parameters

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Background: Saliva is one of the most important etiological host factors in relation to dental caries. It affects the carious process by its organic and inorganic constituents; in addition to its physiological functions as (flow rate, pH and buffer capacity). The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of major elements (calcium and phosphorus) and trace elements (ferrous iron, nickel, chromium and aluminum) in saliva among a group of adolescent girls, and to explore the relation of these elements, flow rate and pH with dental caries. Material & Methods: The study group consisted of 25 girls with an age of 13-15 years old. Dental caries was diagnosed by both clinical and radiographical examinations following the criteria of D1-4MFS index. Stimulated saliva was collected from patients between 9-11 Am under standarized conditions, and chemically analyzed to determine the concentration of calcium, nickel, chromium and aluminum by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, while salivary phosphorus and ferrous iron were determined by using colorimetric method. The average salivary flow rate was measured from total volume, and salivary pH was determined using digital pH meter. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: All elements measured in saliva in addition to P/Ca ratio recorded statistically non significant correlation with DMFS, except ferrous Fe ions which showed statistically significant correlation (r= 0.34, P=0.05). Salivary flow rate and pH correlated weakly and statistically not significant with DMFS There were weak and statistically not significant correlations between all elements measured in saliva and salivary flow rate and pH. Conclusions: It had been found that Fe, Ni, Al and Cr ions present in very small amounts in saliva in comparison to Ca and P ions. The presence of these elements in saliva may indicate their presence in food, water and air


Article
Concentrations of selected elements in permanent teeth and enamel among a group of adolescent girls in relation to severity of caries

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Background: Human teeth considered to be an important etiological host factor in relation to dental caries through its morphology and composition. Elements may incorporate in tooth structure during pre and post-eruptive period changing the resistance for caries. The aims of this study were to determine the concentration of selected major (Calcium and phosphorus) and trace elements (Ferrous iron, nickel, chromium and aluminum) in permanent teeth and enamel among a group of adolescent girls in relation to severity of dental caries Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 25 girls with an age of 13-15 years old referred by Orthodontists for extractions of upper first premolars (two sides). Tooth and enamel samples were prepared for chemical analysis according to method described by Lappalainen and Knuttila (1979). Dental caries was diagnosed by both clinical and radiographical examinations following the criteria of D1-4MFS index described by Muhlemann (1976). All data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: The concentration of major elements in teeth and enamel (measured in % of dry weight) showed that Ca ions were higher than P ions. On the other hand the concentration of trace elements in teeth and enamel samples (measured in ppm) showed that Al ions was the highest followed by Ferrous Fe then Ni ions, while Cr ions were the least in concentration. All elements showed statistically highly significant difference in concentration between teeth and enamel samples. Ca/P ratio was higher in enamel than tooth, but the difference was statistically not significant. Major elements (calcium and phosphorus) in tooth and enamel samples recorded negative correlations with DMFS. Trace elements except chromium ions recorded positive correlations with DMFS. They were not significant except for nickel ions in tooth and aluminum ions in enamel. Conclusions: The presence of these elements in both teeth and enamel samples indicated that these elements present in our environment; as foods, water, and air so they incorporate through out the tooth layers during the preeruptive period of tooth development, and incorporate the outer enamel surface during the demineralization and remineralization processes that occurs in the post-eruptive periods. Ca and p ions play an important role in mineralization of tooth and enamel. Cr ions may play a role in improving mineralization and crystallity of teeth, while Fe, Ni and Al may act as cariogenic elements


Article
An evaluation of three fissure sealants microleakage with presence or absence of bonding agent through time intervals (In vitro study)

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Background: Pit and fissure sealant have been considered an outstanding adjunct to oral health care in the decrease of occlusal caries onset and low progression. The aims of this in vitro study were to evaluate the marginal microleakage of three different types of fissure sealants (SDI, Tg and tetric N-flow) by time interval, one day and 45 days, in the presence or absence of bonding agent among maxillary and mandibular teeth. Materials and methods: Seventy two sound human maxillary and mandibular first premolar teeth were collected which were free from obvious carious lesions. The teeth were randomly divided into two main equal groups, group (1) and group (2), each group consists of (36) teeth involving equal numbers of maxillary and mandibular teeth. The first group incubated for one day, the second incubated for (45) days. Each group divided into two subgroup; one of them treated with bonding agent while the other without. Then each subgroup was treated with three different materials which were; Tg sealant (without fluoride) group (A), SDI sealant (containing fluoride) group (B) and Tetric Nflow (flowable composite) group (C). Each one consist of six teeth involving three maxillary and three mandibular. Then dye penetration tested by using methylene blue dye, then the teeth cleaned and sectioned by sectioning device and tested under microscope. Results, the results had shown that, group (C+) in both incubation periods have no microleakage (score 0), but there was an opposite effect when using bonding agent with sealant materials not containing filler particles that showed a significant increase in the microleakage rate as shown in groups (A+ and B+). The opposite effect was seen also when used sealant materials containing filler particles but without bonding agent that seen in group (C) during both incubation periods that showed significant increasing in microleakage rate. While the effect of fluoride was very clear in decreasing significantly the microleakage rate after (45) days of incubation in both groups that treated with and without bonding agent (groups B and B+). Concerning the anatomical variation, there were no significant changes in most groups regarding the microleakage rate. Conclusions: Results had shown that the microleakage can be prevented by using of flowable composite containing nanofillers that treated with bonding agent after etching of enamel with 35% phosphoric acid gel

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