Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

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Table of content: 2008 volume:8 issue:2

Article
Effect of Organic Acid Solutions on Color Change of Acrylic Resin Facing For Fixed Crowns and Bridges

Authors: Lamia T Rejab
Pages: 128-135
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Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effect of the organic acid solution on color stability of the facing heat-cured acrylic resin. Materials and methods: Two heat-cured facing acrylic resins were used in this study. Sixty four rectangular shape specimens were prepared to evaluate the color changes of the heat-cured acrylic resin after immersion in three organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic acids). The specimens were divided into two groups according to tested resin materials, and then subdivided into four tested groups according to immersion solution, eight specimens for each subgroup. The assessment of color property (opacity) done by using ultra-violet visible spectrophotometer at wavelength 345 nm. Mean values were compared statistically with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan , s multiple range test to determine the significant difference among the tested groups at (p<0.05) level of significance. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference of the means value of the color change among the four tested groups for both tested materials for two different immersion periods, but there is no significant difference of color change between tested materials. Specimens immersed in acetic acid have a higher value than that immersed in other organic acids. Conclusion: The result of this study show that immersion in organic acids for different immersion periods had a significant effect on color stability of the facing heat-cured acrylic resin cured acrylic resin .


Article
Protective Effect of Topical Ibuprofen Against Dry Socket

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Aims: To assess the clinical effect of topical preventive measures on the incdence of alveolar osteitis (dry socket) by inserting (either gelfoam sooked with ibuprofen suspension, or gelfoam sooked with metronidazole suspension, or gelfoam alone) in the extraction socket following removal of lower posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: One hundred eighty patients were included in the present study, (86) males and (94) females aged between 13–65 years, they were divided randomly into four treatment groups. The first group included 43 patients (control –ve),who received no topical medication following extraction.Whereas, in the second (control +ve) group which comprised 44 patients, gelfoam alone was inserted in the socket of extraction. While in the third group, gelfoam impregnated with metronidazole suspension was placed in the extraction socket, this group included 50 patients.However 43 patients treated in the fourth group, where gelfoam sooked with ibuprofen suspension was packed into the socket following extraction. Results: Comparison of the incidence of dry socket among the study groups were performed. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence of dry socket were significantly affected by the sex and tooth number. The topical application of ibuprofen provided a higher incidence of reduction in dry socket followed by metronidazole, while the application of gelfoam alone increased the incidence of this complication when compared with the remaining groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the topical ibuprofen suspension can be used as a prophylactic method to reduce the incidence of dry socket following removal of lower posterior teeth.


Article
The Microbial Contamination of Toothbrushes and Their Disinfection by Antimicrobial Solutions

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Aims: To evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes after brushing and the efficacy of their decontamination by immersing them in different antimicrobial solutions when toothbrushes were not in use. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy dental students participated in this study, they were all supplied with a new toothbrush of the same brand and type together with identical tubes of fluoridated toothpastes and were asked to brush twice daily for a period of 4 weeks during which they were asked to follow their oral hygiene practices. The students were divided into 3 groups, the first group kept their toothbrushes in a ventilated area exposed to air after brushing; the second group kept their toothbrushes soaked in 1% Sodium hypochlorite solution (1 part bleach, 4 parts of distilled water); the third group immersed their toothbrushes in 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. After one month the toothbrushes were collected, decapitated and examined in the laboratory by making bacteriological cultures to identify the aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms in each toothbrush, also the total live bacterial counts per toothbrush were obtained. Results: The toothbrushes that were not immersed in any antimicrobial solution were heavily contaminated and the immersing of toothbrushes in 0. 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate solution was a very effective method in reducing the mean number of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Conclusions: Toothbrushes can become contaminated after approximately 1 month of use, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate which proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent to reduce toothbrush contamination.


Article
The Skeletal Posterior Facial Heights Change Among Adolescent Subjects (A Cephalometric Study)

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Pages: 151-156
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Aims: To find out the changes among four age groups for total posterior facial height, upper anterior facial height and lower posterior facial height. Materials and Methods: The sample subjects were having normal class I molar relationships. The sample included: age 11 years (23 males and 25 females),age 12 years (19 males and 22 females), age 13 years (22 males and 28 females), and age 14 years (22 males and 22 females). All subjects were radiographed with lateral cephalometric films and the films were traced. The traced parameters of facial heights were measured. The results were subjected to the descriptive statistics and to the ANOVA And Duncan’s Multiple Range tests to detect the changes among the four age groups and to student's t–test to explore the sex variation fort these parameters. Results: The total posterior facial height displayed no significant change between 13 and 14 years groups, however, the values at both 13 and 14 years groups were significantly greater than that at 11 year. The lower posterior facial height in males demonstrated a significantly higher value at 14 years group as compared to both 11 and 12 years groups, while females showed significantly higher value for both 13 and 14 years groups than 11 years group. The sex variation of the facial heights showed that males possessed significantly greater values than females for the lower anterior facial height at 11 years group, the changing also displayed significantly greater value for the total posterior facial heights at 14 years group. Conclusions: Both sexes tend to show an increase in the facial heights with the increase in the age groups and there are significant changes in facial heights between males and females except for total posterior facial height at 14 years age group.


Article
The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Authors: Asmaa S Al-Douri --- Shatha S Mohamed
Pages: 157-160
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Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods: fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing process of the oral ulcers.

Keywords

Ulcers --- healing --- honey


Article
Mental Health Assessment: A Comparison between Different Completely Edentulous and Dentate Patients

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Aims: To aid the dentist, in a more precise method for the mental health assessment of edentulous patients, and isolates those who refuse complete denture wearing for psychological reasons. Materials and methods: The study was conducted during the period from July 2004 to November 2005. One hundred members with especial criteria were agreed to participate in this study. They were collected randomly from Dental College of Mosul University and Dental Health Center at Mosul city. The members were asked to answer the Mental Health Questionnaires. Results: It was found that mental health score decreased with females especially who refused the prosthodontic treatment, also groups with low educational and financial levels at same group. Members that received their prosthodontic treatment at the Dental Collage with age between (55–64) years old seamed to be achieved a highest level within the Mental Health Scale. Finally the members with high anxiety tendency, showed less mental health scores. Conclusions: The completely edentulous who refused the prosthodontic treatment, especially females, low educational and financial groups achieved the minimum scores with Mental Health Scale.


Article
Effects of Curing Modes of Light Emitting Diode on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite

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Aim: To evaluated the SBS of three resin composites (Tetric Flow, Tetric and Heliomolar) bonded to dentin and cured by different curing modes utilizing light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit. Materials and Method: Buccal dentin of 90 upper premolars was expose and Clearfil SE Bond applied and cured prior to restorative procedure. Samples divided into 9 groups (3 groups for each composite type), photoactivation of groups of each composite was carried out using three modes: Continuous (CO: 600 mW/cm2 for 40 s), Soft-Start (SS: 100 mW/cm2 for 10 s + 600 mW/cm2 for 30 s) and Pulse-Delay (PD:100 mW/cm2 for 3 s + 3 min wait + 600 mW/cm2 for 37 s). Samples thermocycled and loaded at toothcomposite interface at 1 mm/min cross head speed until failure. Results: Two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05) followed by Duncan multiple range test revealed that SBS of SS mode (21.5 Kg) is significantly higher than SBS of both CO (18.1 Kg) and PD (18.7 Kg) and its also revealed that although SBS of Tetric Flow (21.2 Kg) is higher than that of Tetric (20.1 Kg) and both are significantly higher than that of Heliomolar (16.9 Kg).Conclusions: Less material’s rigidity along with slower polymerization reaction by SS mode result in higher SBS due to lesser contraction stress at the adhesive interface


Article
Psychological Assessments for the Partially Edentulous Persons through Different Scales, According to Some Demographical Variables.

Authors: Monia MN Kandil
Pages: 177-188
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Aims: To get more information about the psychological condition for the partially edentulous persons, and the effect of culture and other demographical factors on there psychological condition. Materials and Methods: Fifty persons were diagnosed and were suitable for the criteria of the study, only 38 of them continued until completing the questionnaires; Information about members that needed for the study were taken. Mainly the sample group was divided to Iraqi and Egyptian sample, then sub grouped according to sex, age, education, financial and anxiety levels; Each member at this study requested to 3 method of psychological assessments, which were: Eysenck Personality Inventory; Hamilton Anxiety Scale; And Mental Health Test, then the scales results included in statistical analysis, by using the General Linear Models and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis. Results: For the Iraqi group,a significant difference with Euphoria Scale related to age group variable, and with Hamilton Anxiety Scale related to sex variation, as well as anxiety level differences. For Egyptian group, the results showed significant differences with Neuroticism, Hamilton Anxiety Scales with anxiety levels differences; Also with Mental Health Scale related to all demographic variables taken at this study, except with the educational variation. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test for partially Iraqis' and Egyptians' groups according to sex, education, finances, age and anxiety variation; Different significant values appeared at each one except with Euphoria Scale and some variables. Conclusions: There were significant differences in all psychological traits that examined at this study, except with Euphoria Scale. The Egyptians generally tend to be more euphoric, neurotic, anxious and less in mental health than Iraqis. The Lying and anxiety scales had a reverse relationship with the education and financial variation. Usually an anxious person tends to be more neurotic and less in mental health abilities; Usually females had more anxiety tendency than males.


Article
The Effect of New Formula (Nut Meg Extract) As A Mouth Wash Compared With Chlorhexidine Mouth Wash

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Aims: To compare the anti–plaque and anti–inflammatory effects of new mouth rinse (nut meg) to the conventional chlorhexidine anti–inflammatory and anti–plaque effects (in vivo study). Materials and Methods: Sixteen dental students in the final year participated in this study (2 females and 14 males) aged 22–23 years (mean 22.5 years). A double blind study was carried out by measuring plaque index, modified gingival index and bleeding index pre–treatment and post–treatment with the two mouth rinses (nut meg and chlorhexidine). The same volunteers were participated in the two test periods and each period lasted 5 days with a wash out twice daily. Deterioration rate for each parameter was derived and used ass a unit of analysis. Results: The new mouth rinse (nut meg extract) had a significant anti–plaque and anti–inflammatory effects (measured by reduction in bleeding index), which was nearly equivalent to the anti–plaque and anti–inflammatory effects of chlorhexidine. No significant difference was noticed between post–treatment group (p > 0.05) of the two mouth rinses regarding plaque and bleeding indices. Conclusion: The nut meg extract mouth rinse had anti–inflammatory effect which encourage its use in dentistry as a new mouth rinse for the treatment of gingivitis.


Article
Effect of Wax Burn-Out Heating Temperature on The Compressive Strength of Casting Dental Alloy Investment

Authors: Lamia T Rejab
Pages: 197-204
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Aims: To evaluate the effect of the burn-out heating on the compressive strength of investment materials. Materials and Methods: Three commercial investment materials were used in this study. Seventy two cylindrical shape specimens were prepared to evaluate the compressive strength of the investment materials at room temperature (cold strength) and at two different burn-out heating temperatures : 700 oC and 1000 oC (hot strength). Three groups were prepared according to tested investment materials, The specimens were then subdivided into three subgroups according to burn-out heating temperatures,eight specimens for each subgroup. The compressive strength (kg /cm2) was evaluated by using Instron testing machine. Mean values were compared statistically with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA),Duncan , s multiple range test and t-test to determine the significant difference among the tested groups at (p<0.05) level of significance .Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference of the means value of the compressive strength among the three tested investment materials. The compressive strength value significantly decreased with increasing burn-out heating temperature. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the increase of burn-out heating had a significant decrease the compressive strength of the investment materials, and cold compressive strength gives an indication of the hot strength .


Article
Panoramic Radiography, Diagnosis and Abnormalities.

Authors: Amera K Khalil
Pages: 205-212
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Aim: To find the importance of panoramic radiograph as aid in iagnosis, prognosis and determination of treatment complexity.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among (132) panoramic radiographs of males and females which were nearly equal in numbers. The mean age of males was (36.73) years and the mean age of the females was ( 29.82) years. Result: Among these radiographs (0.75%) showed edentulous upper and lower ridges, ( 0.75%) showed multiple dental implants, (1.51%) showed fixative appliance, ( 8.33%) showed fixed bridges, ( 9.84%) showed retained roots, (16.66%) showed endodontically treated teeth, (5.3%) showed radiopaque lesions. The dental caries experience of the total patients were (6.92) for D3MFT and (4.07) for D3FS. The majority of caries experience was found in permanent molars. The percentage of radiograph that showed microdontia and congenital missing teeth were (4.54%) and (10.6%) respectively, the number of males was higher than that of females and mostly related to third molars. The percentage of hyperdontia (0.75%), dilacerations (4.54%), concrescence (0.75%). The number of impacted teeth in females was higher than that in males with statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The panoramic survey is necessary for all patients.


Article
The Effect of Microwave Disinfection on Tensile Strength of Dental Gypsum

Authors: Radhwan H Hasan
Pages: 213-218
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Aims: To evaluate the effect of microwave disinfection on diametral tensile strength (DTS) of type III and type IV dental stones. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 cylindrical specimens was prepared with dimensions 40 mm in height and 20 mm in diameter. These specimens were divided into 4 main groups: Geastone type III, Zeta type III, Micromod type IV and Silky Rock type IV. Twenty specimens for each main group were divided into 10 specimens as control subgroup and 10 specimens representing microwave irradiated subgroup. The microwave irradiation was performed in a household microwave oven at 900 watts for 5 minutes. The DTS was conducted on a mechanical testing machine at a cross head speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The data were statistically analyzed using Student's t–test, analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range test. Results: The microwave disinfection caused significant increase in DTS (p < 0.05) for all types of dental stone, and dental stones type IV (Micromod and Silky Rock) had significantly higher DTS (p < 0.05) than dental stones type III (Geastone and Zeta). Conclusion: Microwave disinfection of gypsum cast cause significantly increase in diametral tensile strength of type III and type IV dental stone.


Article
Salivary Protein Components and Oral Health in Patients Undergoing Therapy with Beta Adrenegic Agonist and Antagonist

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Aims: To study the effect of Beta–adrenergic agonist (salbutamol) and Beta adrenergic antagonist (atenolol) on salivary protein concentration and to study relation between salivary protein concentration and oral health. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 45 individuals; 15 individuals of them were apparently healthy with no history of systemic diseases and represent a control group, the second group which comprised 15 subjects were given adrenergic agonist drug (salbutamol) for treatment of asthma, and third group (15 individuals) were given adrenegic antagonist drug (atenolol) for treatment of hypertension. subjects were selected from the out patients attending Oral Surgery Department, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. The samples of saliva were collected using spitting method and oral hygiene index simplified was recorded for each individual and total protein concentration of these saliva samples were determined. Its relation to oral health was measured according to simplified oral hygiene index by Greene and Vermillion. Results: The results of this study revealed that in all study groups, significant differences were present for both salivary protein concentration and oral health scores and there is correlation between salivary protein concentration and oral health in patients receiving atenolol. Conclusions: Chronic treatment with adrenergic agonist and antagonist drugs, resulted in changes in salivary protein concentration and those will affect the oral health of patients treated by these drugs.


Article
The Effect of Tranexamic Acid (Cyclokapron) on Post–Surgical Bleeding Following the Removal of Impacted Lower Wisdom Teeth in Healthy Individuals

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Aims: To evaluate the effect of local irrigation with tranexamic acid in minimizing post–operative bleeding following the removal of impacted lower wisdom teeth. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery / College of Dentistry / University of Mosul. The sample recruited comprised twenty healthy subjects who required surgical removal of clinically as well as radiographically evident impacted lower wisdom teeth. The sample was subdivided into two groups of ten subjects each. The first group which is the control group included ten subjects where after removal of the tooth, local irrigation of socket was carried out with normal saline. The second group which is the trial group comprised ten subjects also, but in which tranexamic acid (injectable solution) in diluted form was used for local irrigation of socket. Both solutions were of equal amount. Estimation of amount of blood loss immediately following surgery was the criterion for comparison and was based on weight of gauze used before and after application over extraction socket. Results: The results showed a statistically significant decrease in the amount of blood loss in the trial group when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid as commercially available or freshly prepared oral rinse may be used as an aid for the reduction or prevention of postoperative bleeding following the removal of third molars in healthy subjects as well as in patients with bleeding problems.


Article
Evaluation of Holdaway Soft Tissue Analysis for Iraqi Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion

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Aims: To determine cephalometric standards for Iraqi adults using Holdaway soft tissue analysis. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 60 individual (31 males and 29 females), aged 18–23 years. Ten linear and tow angular parameters were measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs, using the definitions provided by Holdaway. For each variable mean and SD were calculated, in addition independent samples t– test was performed to detect sexual dimorphism. Results: Some differences were determined when the measurement obtained for Iraqi sample were compared to Holdaway norms. Iraqi adults showed a more obtuse H angle, less nose prominence, more upper lip strain, more skeletal convexity, and greater soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, a comparison between males and females revealed a significant sexual dimorphism for upper lip sulcus depth, upper lip thickness, basic upper lip thickness, and soft tissue chin thickness. Conclusions: soft tissue cephalometric norms are specific for each ethnic group. The normative data for Iraqi population should be used as a guide for diagnosis and planning of orthodontic treatment


Article
Causes of Primary and Permanent Teeth Extraction in Children Aged 3–12 Years in Mosul City

Authors: Aghareed Gh. Mohammed
Pages: 238-245
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Aims: To establish the different reasons of primary and permanent teeth extraction and the most frequent tooth type extracted among children attending the pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic at Collage of Dentistry ,Mosul University. Materials and Methods: Out of the 375 pediatric patients aged 3–12 years–old attending pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic, 130 child patients were selected for this study. The teeth were examined carefully, the tooth that needed to be extracted was recorded to determine the cause of extraction for each tooth according to the criteria gathered and modified from the following researchers, Cahen et al; Kay and Blinkhorn and Cawson. Results: Statistical results showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 between primary and permanent teeth and the cause of tooth extraction, as extraction due to caries was the main reason for primary tooth extraction while extraction for orthodontic treatment was the major cause for permanent tooth extraction. The first premolar recorded 43.6% this result showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 compared with other permanent teeth to be extracted, while the first primary molar registered the higher value as an extracted primary tooth type (35.6%) with high significant difference at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although caries and it is sequelae were the most common causes of premature loss of a primary tooth, an increasing need for tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment in this population of children was observed.


Article
An Evaluation Of The Treatment Methods Of Denture Granuloma: A 5−Year Longitudinal Study.

Authors: Nadira A Hatim
Pages: 246-254
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Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of the position of denture granuloma in the oral cavity, to evaluate the treatment methods of denture granuloma by different conservative prosthetic treatment or by surgical treatment, and to find if there is any relation between the length of the lesion and treatment methods. Materials and methods: Seven hundred and six (706) complete denture patients, age range between (40−70) year were treated by construction of complete maxillary and mandibular dentures, 550 of them attended for adjustment after placement of the prosthesis. Patients are recalled for post insertion care for 5 years. One hundred and seventy two (175) of the (550) patients were presented with denture granuloma. In this study four treatment methods were applied according to the mean length of the lesion by using soft−liner and tissue conditioning materials. Results: Showed that 47.73% of denture granuloma was located at the vestibule in the canine and premolar mandibular region. There was a relation with sequence of treatment with high significance of X 2 analysis. Conclusions: Tissue recovery plays role in treatment of different an important length of denture granuloma


Article
The Effect of Curing Time on Fluoride Release from Composite Resin Material

Authors: Amer A. Taqa --- Manal A. Sultan
Pages: 255-258
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Aim: This study aims to measure the amount of fluoride release in deionized water from two composite resins materials (Kerr and Tetric ceram)over period of one month. By using different curing time for curing the composite.Materials and Methods : Two types of composite resin materials were used. They are Tetric ceram and Kerr composite resins divided into five groups for each type of materials used, each group contain ten sample materials and cured with different time of curing which are(20,30,40,50,60) seconds.The samples measured fluoride release after storing in 5ml of deionized water then incubated incubator at 37°C for 24 hours.Results: The amount of fluoride release was affected by the period of curing time. The materials which cured at (20,30,40) seconds gave high amount of fluoride release while the materials which cured at (50,60)seconds gave low amount of fluoride release. Conclusions: The amount of fluoride release from composite resins materials were affected by curing time. There is an increase in the amount of fluoride release by decreasing the period of curing time and decreasing by increasing the period of curing time.


Article
Study the Effect pf Using Intensifying Screen on Magnitude of Changing Calibration Curve For Dental X-Ray Film in Manual evelopment Method

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Aim: To study the effect of using intensifying screen (Rare Earth ),with a film which dose not exist with it. Materials and Methods: The patient received the radiation dose during dental fustigation by x-ray radiation. The optical density of the x-ray film was measured using densitometer. Result: A decrease in radiation dose was approximately 20% for the same condition . 241Am was used, because its energy (59.5keV) is close to the energy of x-ray in dental radiography. Conclusions: It is essential to use intensifying screen I.S in the diagnoses field of dentistry for the purpose of reducing the amount of radiation dose. It could be concluded that small calibration operation must be determined during the regular interval periods for the optical density measurements of the optical density by densitometer to show its efficiency


Article
The Measurement of Surface Hardness of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Material (MTA) using Two Techniques of Condensation.

Authors: Maha A. Al.Murad
Pages: 266-269
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Aims: This in vitro study was conducted to exam the effect of condensation technique on surface hardness of MTA. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 acrylic blocks were used. In each block a cubic shape cavity 4 mm in width and 4 mm in depth was prepared. The first group which involve ten samples were filled with MTA using hand condensation method. The other ten samples were filled with MTA using hand method followed by ultrasonic activation for one second after each increment. All sample after setting were prepare for Vickers Hardness Test. The first group subjected to a load started from 0.5 Kg and show fatigue at 1 kg using the Vickers Hardness Machine. The second group subjected to a load started from 0.5 Kg and increased the load until showed fatigue of the material at 3 Kg using the Vickers Hardness Machine. All the samples were examined using stereo microscope the magnification power about 200x to perform hardness number. Results: Samples condensed with hand method followed by ultrasonic condensation showed more surface hardness than samples condensed with hand method only. There was highly significant difference between samples. Conclusions: Because OF use MTA as pulp capping is import to use Ultrasonic condensation for placement of MTA.

Keywords

Surface hardness --- condensation --- MTA

Table of content: volume:8 issue:2