Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access


A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Contact info

Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2011 volume:23 issue:4

Effect of etchant type and the use of silane on the shearbond strength of composite resin to porcelain.


Background: This study was formulated to compare the effect of 5%hydrofluoric acid in comparison to 37%phosphoric acid with and without the application of silane on bond strength of composite to porcelain. Materials and Methods: Specimen preparation was divided in to two phases, metal-disks fabrication (8mm-diameter and 4mm-thickness) and ceramic veneering. Thirty two specimens were prepared, sandblasted with 50 μm aluminum oxide, and divided into four groups of eight samples. Groups I and III were etched with 37%phosphoric acid while groups II and IV were etched with 5%hydrofluoric acid; and groups I and II were silaneted while groups III and IV were not. Heliobond, and resin composite were applied to each specimen using a plastic transparent split mold (4mmdiameter and 4mm-height). Specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours then thermocycled for 100 cycles. Shear bond strength was determined by a Zwick universal machine at a cross-head speed 5 mm/minute. Results: Mean shear bond strength values were 21.02(group I), 23.31(group II), 4.00(group III), and 18.60(group IV). Paired-t revealed that specimens treated with 5%hydrofluoric acid were significantly higher than those treated with 37%phosphoric acid regardless the use of silane. The use of silane dramatically enhanced the bond strength of composite resin to porcelain for both acids. All specimens treated with 37%phosphoric acid without silane showed adhesive failure, while those treated with 5%hydrofluoric acid showed mostly cohesive failure within ceramic. Conclusion: Silane improved the shear bond strength of composite to ceramic, and hydrofluoric acid performed greater bond strength compared to phosphoric acid.

An evaluation of the sealing ability of different obturationand gutta-percha removal techniques (A ComparativeStudy)


Background: Removing gutta-percha (GP) during post space preparation is common in dental practice. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of using two types of rotary instruments (peeso reamers and Core-Remover) for GP removal on the apical sealing ability of GP in three obturation techniques (lateral condensation, thermafil, and softcore) using dye penetration method. Materials and method: Sixty palatal roots of freshly extracted human maxillary first molars were sectioned and prepared with ProTaper manual system in crown-down manner to size F4.. Samples divided randomly into 3 groups (20 roots each) according to the method of obturation; group A: Lateral condensation, group B: Soft-Core and group C: Thermafil. All samples received GP removal after 7 days incubation (37˚C and 100% humidity) either using Peeso reamer (groups A1, B1 and C1) or Core Remover (groups A2, B2 and C2) (10 roots each group). The samples were sealed coronally, immersed in Indian ink and incubated for a week. Roots were demineralized with a 5% nitric acid solution, cleared in methyl salicylate and examined using a stereomicroscope under 40X magnification with calibrated grid to establish the degree of apical dye penetration in millimeters. Results: Data were collected and subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (ANOVA and t-test) and there was no significant difference between using peeso reamer and core remover. Conclusion: Apical sealing ability of remaining GP is less affected by the technique of GP removal

A study to compare the cleaning efficiency of three different irrigation devices at different root canal levels (An in vitro study)


Background: Irrigation of the canal system permits removal of residual tissue in the canal anatomy that cannot be reached by instrumentation of the main canals so the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficiency of conventional irrigation system, Vibringe sonic irrigation system and Endovac irrigation system in removing of dentin debris at three levels of root canals and to compare the percentage of dentin debris among the three levels for each irrigation system. Materials and methods: Forty-five extracted premolars with approximately straight single root canals were randomly distributed into 3 test groups of 15 teeth each. All canals were prepared with Protaper Universal hand files to size #F4, and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl 1ml between files and 5ml for 60 seconds as a final irrigant by different irrigation devices; group one, by using conventional system; group two, by using Vibringe sonic irrigation system and group three, by using the Endovac system. After the final irrigation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a digital camera. The roots were magnified to 100X; a percentage of debris was calculated for the apical 0-3, 3- 6 and 6-9 mm. The debris score was calculated as a percentage of the total area of the canal that contained debris as determined by pixels in Adobe PhotoshopCS2. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and LSD at 5% significant level. Results: when comparing the debris remaining, both the Endovac and Vibringe groups showed significantly less debris than the conventional group at all three levels (p < 0.01). The Endovac group showed significantly less debris than the Vibringe group at 3-9 mm levels while no significant difference found between the Endovac system and Vibringe system at apical 0-3mm .The apical 0-3 mm showed significantly more debris than both the 3-6 and 6-9 mm for all groups. Conclusion: the EndoVac system showed a higher cleaning capacity of the canal at all levels, followed by the protocols that used Vibringe sonic irrigation system. The conventional irrigation system with maxi-i-probe needles showed inferior results. The apical three millimeters showed a greater amount of debris than the 3-9 millimetres from the working length, regardless of the irrigation device used.


dentin debris --- Vibringe --- Endovac

The effect of 35% H2O2 and 22%carbamide peroxide on compressive strength of composite resin


Back ground: The compressive strength of composite resin may be affected by bleaching agent. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two different bleaching agents; at home (22% carbamide peroxide) and in office; light activated (35% hydrogen peroxide) bleaching agent on the compressive strength of light cured composite resin; spectrum (submicron hybrid composite). Material and methods: A total number of 20 samples were prepared,10 samples for each type of bleaching agent which were divided in to 2 groups; first group was subjected to at-home bleaching for one day. The second group was subjected to at-home bleaching for one week, The third group was subjected to the in-office (35% H2O2) for one day. The forth group was subjected to in-office bleaching for three days. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the tested groups (p=0.048). Highly significant reduction of the compressive strength of composite was observed subsequent to treatment with H2O2 for three times. Conclusion: Reduced compressive strength was detected in composite when it was subjected to bleaching process with H2O2 carbamide peroxide.

A comparison between arbitrary and kinematic mandibular hinge axis location in full mouth rehabilitation patients (An in vivo study)


Background: Casts are often transferred to the adjustable articulator by arbitrary means because the method of locating the mandibular terminal hinge axis is thought to be complicated and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare between the arbitrary and kinematic location of the hinge axis in full mouth rehabilitation patients. Materials and methods: Arbitrary hinge axis was marked at eleven mm from the superior border of the tragus of the ear on both sides of fifty full mouth rehabilitation patients. Terminal hinge axis of each patient was located using the TMJ kinematic hinge axis locator. Position differences between the arbitrary and terminal hinge axes were recorded. Results: Results indicated that 28% of the patients possessed terminal hinge axes located in an anterior-inferior position to their arbitrary hinge axes from the superior border of the tragus of the ear. Conclusion: Careful location of the terminal hinge axis as the posterior reference point instead of depending upon an arbitrary marking is recommended to avoid potential sources of error in mounting casts on the adjustable articulator thus preventing statistically different articulator settings


Arbitrary --- Terminal --- Hinge axis

Comparison of the efficacy of three different techniques in the removal of gutta-percha and two types of sealers during endodontic retreatment


Background: root canal retreatment is a common practice to preserve the teeth. This study aimed to assess the
efficacy of ProTaper rotary re-treatment files, D-RaCe rotary desobturation files and gates glidden drills in
combination with hedstrom files for removal of gutta-percha and sealer from root canals.
Materials and methods: Palatal roots of sixty extracted maxillary first molars were instrumented with ProTaper rotary
files to size F2, then samples were randomly divided into two main groups (30 specimens each) according to the
sealer used (Apexit Plus for group A and TubliSeal sealer for group B). The teeth were obturated with lateral
compaction of Gutta-Percha points and placed in incubator for a period of one week. After that each group was
subdivided into three subgroups (10 samples each) according to the removal techniques. After removal of the root
filling material the roots were sectioned longitudinally. The percentage of root filling material area remained and
times for all of the samples were calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Student t-test at 5%
significant level.
Results: The results showed that all retreatment techniques left filling material inside the canal, The mean percentage
of remaining root filling material areas with Ca(OH)2 based sealer groups were less than ZOE-based sealer groups.
Gutta-Percha removal with D-RaCe rotary desobturation files was better than other techniques. The time of removal
with D-RaCe rotary desobturation files was significantly faster than other techniques.
Conclusion: In conclusion, complete removal of gutta-percha cannot be achieved with any of the techniques used.
D-RaCe desobturation system for re-treatment is more effective and faster in removing Gutta-Percha than other
Key words: ProTaper rotary retreatment files, D-RaCe desobturation instruments, retreatment. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


The effect of different disinfectant solutions on the surface roughness of heat cure acrylic resin in comparison to visible light cure acrylic resin denture base

Authors: Mithaq R. Mohammed
Pages: 31-35

Back ground: A new denture should be disinfected before delivery to the patient before and after adjustment
procedures (1). Also, denture should be disinfected used may have harmful effect on the plastic or metal component
of the denture (2). so the dentist must be able to recommend a denture cleanser that is effective, non deterious to
denture material and safe for patient use(3,4,5).The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chlorehexidine and
sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant solutions on the surface roughness of different Denture base material.
Materials and methods: Sixty specimens were made from two different denture base materials. Twenty specimen of
hot cured acrylic denture base which divided into two subgroups. And twenty specimen of light cured acrylic
denture base which divided into two subgroups. Then each groups was immersed in 0.2% chlorehexidine and 0.525%
sodium hypochlorite for 48 hours at (37c0) before being tested (ADAno.12,1999)(6) .And then each specimen was
measured by surface roughness test by using (profilometer device) to show the effect of each solution on the
denture base roughness. In comparison to twenty specimen immersed in distilled water as control group of hot cured
acrylic and light cured acrylic.
Results: The mean values of roughness change were analyzed and showed the specimens polymerized by water
bath presented a smaller differences in roughness, while the largest difference in roughness were observed in
specimens polymerized by light cure system. T- test for three disinfectant solutions were showed non significant
difference among distilled water and chlorehexidine and sodium hypochlorite for both water bath and light curing
method. The t- test between water bath and light cure were showed a significant difference in surface roughness
when different solution has been used.
Conclusion: The result of this study indicated that the roughness of acrylic materials was not affected by immersion in
any disinfectant solution this is due to the effect of glitaraldehyde base disinfectants (alkaline, phenol buffered) on
surface morphology of denture base resin (7) and also the disinfectant solution was able to reduce the pathoginicity
and colorization of micro organism present on the surface of the material, so the acrylic surface remain smooth and
polished (8).
Keywords: Surface roughness, chlorehexidine, sodium hypochlorite, hot cured acrylic, light cured acrylic. (J Bagh
Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):31-35).


Evaluation of Candida albicans attachment to flexible denture base material (valplast) and heat cure acrylic resin using different finishing and polishing techniques

Authors: Amir HM --- Mustafa MJ
Pages: 36-41

Background: Surface roughness of the denture play a major role in the adhesion of microorganisms, it affected
primarily by the finishing and polishing techniques, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two finishing
and four polishing techniques on the surface roughness of flexible denture base (Valplast)and heat cure acrylic and
its effect on Candida albicans attachment with the effect of saliva on Candidal adhesion .
Material and method: Three hundred twenty square samples (2cm*2cm*3mm) were prepared (160 flexible acrylic
and 160 heat cure acrylic as control), the flexible acrylic and heat cure samples were divided into two major groups
according to the finishing method. Group A finished by stone bur, tungsten carbide bur and sand paper).
Group B finished by special green cone (silicone finisher bur). Each group divided to four subgroups according to
the polishing method, subgroup contains (20 samples flexible acrylic, 20samples heat cure acrylic). The mean surface
roughness values (Ra)were gained for each sample after finishing and polishing, the samples then incubated in
media containing suspension of Candidal cell(conc.of 1*10^6cell/ml)for sixty minutes at room temp ,after that they
were dried, fixed and stained. Ten samples of each subgroup were incubated in artificial saliva for thirty minutes
before adherent assay.
Result: Statistical analysis revealed that flexible acrylic samples that were finished by special green cone with the
different polishing techniques were smoother in profilometric study with significance difference in Candidal
Conclusion: Using of special green cone with different polishing techniques for flexible acrylic and heat cure acrylic
will yield smoother surface more than using stone bur, tungsten carbide bur and sand paper, Candida albicans
attachment affected by the finishing and polishing method, the method that yield less surface roughness values
have less Candidal attachment, saliva decreases the attachment of C. albicans.
Key Word: Valplast poly(methylmethacrylate),Candida albicans, Finishing ,Polishing, Saliva. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


The effect of Resilon system on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots using two instrumentation techniques."An in vitro study"

Authors: Majida K. Al-Hashimi --- Sinan A. Shwailiya
Pages: 42-45

Background: Vertical Root Fracture (VRF) is one of the most common problems facing endodontically treated teeth.
The greatest incidence of VRF occurs in teeth that have undergone endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots using two instrumentation techniques either rotary
with ProTaper system or hand instrumentation with k-files and obturated with different obturation techniques: Guttapercha
with ZOE. sealer, Gutta-percha with AH-26 sealer or Resilon cones with Real-Seal sealer.
Materials and Methodology: Ninety root samples were sectioned, from natural mandibular premolar teeth freshly
extracted for various reasons and stored in sterile water, to a length of 14 mm, then the samples were randomly
divided into 9 groups with ten roots for each group. Group I: Uninstrumented-unfilled roots, (control group) Group II:
Hand instrumentation-GP+Z.O.E. sealer obturation. Group III: Hand instrumentation-GP+AH-26 sealer. Group IV: Hand
instrumentation-Resilon+Real-Seal sealer. Group V: Hand instrumentation-No obturation. Group VI: Rotary
instrumentation-GP+Z.O.E. sealer. Group VII: Rotary instrumentation-GP+AH-26 sealer. Group VIII: Rotary
instrumentation-Resilon+Real-Seal sealer. Group IX: Rotary instrumentation-No obturation. The samples were
incubated in 37 c and 100% humidity for 7 days, and then they were subjected to the mechanical test in a universal
testing machine and the maximum load at the fracture point for each sample was recorded.
Results: Descriptive statistics showed higher means of fracture loads for Resilon groups and student t-test showed a
significant difference between Resilon group over other experimental groups for rotary instrumented roots, for hand
instrumented roots there was no significant difference between different obturation techniques. Rotary ProTaper
instrumented roots were significantly less than hand instrumented roots in resistance to fracture.
Conclusion: Rotary instrumentation with ProTaper instruments significantly decreased fracture resistance of teeth and
Resilon system significantly increased resistance to fracture more than other obturation materials used in this study.
Key words: Resilon, ProTaper, Fracture resistance, Vertical root fracture. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):42-45).


Electrophoretic deposition of Alumina on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy


Background: The clinical success of implants has been achieved not only because of the mechanical strength or
excellent biocompatibility of the implant material but also because of other characteristics such as surface
properties. This study was done to investigate the optimum conditions for the electrophoresis deposition of alumina
on Ti6Al7Nb alloy.
Materials and methods: Electrophoretic Deposition technique (EPD) was used to obtain a uniform coating of Alumina
on Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy with different applied voltage and at different time. Specimens weighting and thickness
measurement of coated layer was performed for all specimens. For examination of the changes occurred on the
surface, structural analysis beside morphological investigations were carried out on the modified surfaces of the Ti-
6Al-7Nb alloy using X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Results: The result shows that the coating thickness and the weight of the coated film were increased with increasing
of the time and with increasing of the applied voltage. Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy specimens coated with alumina shows rough
surface with large number of porosity, no cracks appear on the surface of all specimens. The XRD patterns of Ti-6Al-
7Nb alloy specimen coated with alumina shows the domination of the γAL2O3 phase with presence of αAL2O3
phase. The pattern indicated that the surface of the specimen is well covered with alumina layer.
Conclusion: The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a good alternative coating technique for dental implant since
the thickness and surface topography of coating layer can be controlled by time, applied voltage and particles size
Keywords: Electrophoretic Deposition, Alumina, Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):46-52).


A cephalometric study of sella turcica size and morphology among young Iraqi normal population in comparison to patients with maxillary malposed canine

Authors: Lamia Al-Nakib --- Areej A. Najim
Pages: 53-58

Background: Sella turcica - bony depression located in sphenoid bone that houses and protects the pituitary gland.
Calcification of the interclinoid ligament of the sella turcica, or sella turcica bridging, has been associated with
severe craniofacial deviations and with dental anomalies. The permanent canines are the foundation of an esthetic
smile and functional occlusion. It's the most commonly ectopically erupting permanent teeth after maxillary first
molars, so an attempt to guide impacted canines into functional occlusion should be made. The aims of this study
were to establish normative reference standards of Sella Turcica size in Iraqi sample that could assist in a more
objective evaluation and detection of pathological conditions, secondly to compare the size measurements of Sella
Turcica between normal subjects and patients with buccally and palatally maxillary malposed canine, and to
evaluate the prevalence of Sella Turcica bridging in young subjects with malposed canine using lateral
cephalometric imaging.
Material and method: Lateral cephalometric images for 40 subjects(18 male and 22 female), aged between 13 and
25 years, with displaced or impacted canines were reviewed and compared with a control group (60 male and 60
female). The size of Sella turcica (length, depth and diameter) was measured and the bridging was evaluated.
Results: The results show no significant differences in linear dimensions between genders, and the prevalence of Sella
Turcica bridging was higher in subjects with malposed canine (70%) when compared with control group. All linear
measurements of Sella Turcica were within standard range. The prevalence of Sella Turcica bridge in subjects with
displaced or impacted canine is increased.
Conclusion: Early appearance of Sella Turcica bridge during development should alert clinicians to possible tooth
anomalies in later life.
Key words: sella turcica, size, morphology. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):53-58).


Traumatic ulcertive granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (a clinicopathological study of 18 cases)

Authors: Bashar H. Abdullah
Pages: 59-64

Background: Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) is a benign chronic ulcerative lesion
of the oral mucosa of an unclear pathogenesis characterized by a mixed infiltrate of inflammatory cells including
large mononuclear cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils. This study was designed to find any possible correlation
between the number of different cells infiltrates and the clinical features.
Method: A histopathological objective analysis was performed on ten highpower fields and the number of different
types of cells was correlated with the clinical data.
Results: No relationship was found between clinical and the quantifiable histopathological features studied.
Conclusion: No correlation is existed between the type of cell infiltrate and the size, site or the duration of the lesion
was found.
Keywords: traumatic ulcer, oral, eosinophilic granuloma. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):59-64).
من الافات الفمویة الحمیدة غیر واضحة الخواص المرضیة، و تتمیز برشائح مختلطة من الخلایا الالتھابیة كالخلایا (TUGSE) خلفیة الدراسة: یعد التقرح الفموي مع كثرة الیوزینیات
وحیدة النواة، الخلایا اللمفیة و الخلایا الیوزینیة.
ھدف الدراسة: ایجاد اي علاقة محتملة بین عدد الخلایا المرتشحة باختلاف انواعھا مع الخواصالسریریة.
طریقة العمل: باستخدام القوة التكبیریة العظمى اجري تعداد مجھري للخلایا بمختلف انواعھا ومن ثم تمت مقارنة الاعداد الناتجة بالخواصالسریریة المختلفة احصائیاً.
النتائج: لم یتم ایجاد علاقة معنویة بین الخواصالسریریة والبیانات المجھریة التي اجري قیاسھا في الدراسة.
الاستنتاج: لا توجد غالبیة مفردة لاحدى انواع الخلایا الالتھابیة المرتشحة ولا ایة علاقة بین الخلایا المرتشحة مع الحجم ، الموقع ، او المدى الزمني للتقرح.


Evaluation the effect of platelet rich fibrin matrix on bone healing

Authors: Siba A. Mohammed --- Athraa Y. Alhijazi
Pages: 65-70

Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the histological and radiographical behavior of newly developed
platelet rich fibrin matrix as bone filler for dental socket after tooth extraction.
Materials and methods: Twenty four rabbits were used for extraction of upper central incisors under general
anesthesia .The left side was filled with platelet rich fibrin matrix material and the right side was left for normal healing
as control group .The two sockets were sutured.
Results: The results were studies histologically after 1,2,3,4 weeks postoperatively. The histological examination was
performed under light microscope for the section stained with heamatoxyline and eosin with assessment of
histometric analysis including counting of bone cells osteoblast, osteocyte, bone trabecular number, bone
trabecular width, bone trabecular separation, cortical width ,blood vessel number and bone marrow space volume
at the 2nd ,3rd and 4th week periods interval post operatively. Histological examination showed the acceleration of
bone formation and more rapid healing process in the socket filled with PRFM than in the control socket.
Radiographical examinations showed that the process of ossification of the socket filled with PRFM started after 2
weeks and completely filled with radiopacity after 4weeks.
Conclusion: This study was illustrated that PRFM material was osteoinductive material that enhances of osteogenesis
process in the extraction tooth socket in comparison to the normal physiological healing process. The results show a
positive effect of PRFM and it can be suggested for beneficial use in the practice of dentistry.
Key words: Platelet rich fibrin matrix, tooth extraction, healing process. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):65-70).


Histological evaluation of Platelet–rich plasma effect on bone healing in alloxan–induced diabetic rabbits (Experimental study)

Authors: Shathaa S. Mohammed --- SuhairM. Alturuk
Pages: 71-75

Background: Diabetes Mellitus has an impact on bone healing process, Platelet – rich plasma PRP ameliorated the
deleterious effect of diabetes on bone healing process so the aims of this study were to assess histologically the
effects of PRP on bone healing in intrabony defect of maxillary bone in alloxan – induced diabetic and nondiabeic
rabbits, and to correlate the effect of time of bone healing in two experimental groups with that of controls.
Materials and methods: Fifty rabbits were used, thirty – five rabbits rendered diabetic by the use of alloxan (five of
them dead for unknown reasons), the remaining fifteen rabbits left normal. An intrabony defect was created in the
maxilla of each rabbit, the defect of control group left for normal healing, while diabetic rabbits divided2groups First
diabetic group, the defect filled with autologous PRP as experimental group -Second diabetic groups, defect left
empty. The specimens were collected at 1, 3, 6 weeks postoperatively. Histological examination was performed
under light microscope for sections stained with heamatoxylline and eosine to assess histomorphometric analysis
including, counting of inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and bone cells infiltration. The regeneration levels were
detected by measuring the thickness of new bone trabeculae by a special graduated lens, at the end of each three
Results: Histological examinations showed that with the use of autologous Platelet – rich plasma in a bone of diabetic
rabbit, an obvious enhancement of new bone forming and neovascularzation significantly more than that of
diabetic group without PRP application, the results of diabetic group treated with PRP reached the levels of normal
group in all the three periods postoperatively.
Conclusions: this study illustrated that PRP has an osteopromotive activity that accelerated bone healing process in
maxillary bone of diabetic rabbits.
Key words: - Platelet – rich plasma; alloxan; Diabetes intrabony defect. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):71-75).
المقدمة:- داء السكري لھ تاثیر ضار على عملیة التئام العظم ،المصل الغني بالصفیحات الدمویة یقلل من ھذا التاثیر الضار ،ویعمل على تسریع عملیة التئام العظم
في الارانب المصابة بداء السكري.ھذه الدراسة اجریت لتقییم التطبیق السریري والسلوك النسیجي للمصل الغني بالصفیحات الدمویة والمأخوذ من نفس دم الحیوان
وتأثیره على تسریع عملیة التئام العظم. الدراسات الحدیثة تتجھ نحو استخدام المصل الغني بالصفیحات الدمویة الذاتي في مختلف المجالات الطبیة مثل جراحة الوجھ
والفكین ،والجراحات التعویضیة،وجراحة اللثة.
طریقة العمل والمواد المستخدمة:- في ھذه الدراسة تم استخدام خمسین أرنبا، خمسة عشر ارنبا لم یتم حقنھم بایة مادة وتم حقن خمسة وثلاثین أرنب بعقار
الالوكسان لتحویلھم الى أرانب مصابة بداء السكري (خمسة ارانب ماتوا بعد الحقن لاسباب غیر معروفة)، تم تقسیم الارانب الخمسة والاربعین الى ثلاثة مجموعات
: الاولى :طبیعیة،تم حفر فتحة في الفك العلوي ولم تعامل بأیة مادة. الثانیة:أرانب مصابة بداء السكري ،قسمت الى مجموعتین :- في الاولى تم حفر فتحة في الفك
العلوي وملئت بمصل غني بالصفیحات الدمویة من نفس دم الحیوان.أما الثانیة فقد تم حفر فتحة في الفك العلوي ولم تعامل بأیة مادة. أخذت العینات للفترات 6,3,1
أسابیع بعد اجراء العملیة. أجریت النتائج النسیجیة بأستخدام المجھر الضوئي حیث صبغت الشرائح بصبغة الھیماتوكسیلین والایوسین لتسھیل اجراء القیاسات
النسیجیة لبیان ترسب الخلایا الالتھابیة ،الارومات اللیفیة والخلایا العظمیة فضلا عن قیاس سمك الشرائح العظمیة المكونة جدیدا في نھایة كل فترة
النتائج: نتائج الفحص النسیجي أوضحت زیادة معنویة في نسبة تكون العظم وزیادة ثخن الصفیحات العظمیة في العظم الجدید لمجموعة الحیوانات المصابة بداء
السكري والتي عومل فیھا عظم الفك بالمصل الغني بالصفیحات الدمویة مقارنة بتلك التي في مجموعة الحیوانات المصابة بداء السكري ولم یعامل فیھا العظم بھذا
الاستنتاجات: استخدام المصل الغني بالصفیحات الدمویة أدى الى زیادة أسرع وأفضل في تكوین عظم الفك وزیادة عدد الخلایا المكونة للعظم بنسبة واضحة وأكثر
من المجموعة المصابة بداء السكري والتي لم تعامل بھذا المصل.


Identification of bifid mandibular canals among Iraqisubjects using panoramic imaging system

Authors: Lamia Al-Nakib --- Jamal Ali --- Sura A. Rashid
Pages: 76-80

Background: Bifid mandibular canal is a rare anatomical variation that can be of considerable interest to dentist. The
purpose of this study is to identify and classify specific anatomic variations of the mandibular canal suggested the
term "bifid mandibular canals".
Materials and Methods: The courses of the mandibular canal in 319 panoramic images of Iraqi subjects were
evaluated carefully and bifid mandibular canal was recorded when identified.
Results: The results revealed that 1.88% of the total sample was with duplication or division of mandibular canal.
Conclusion: The course and configuration of the mandibular canal should be carefully observed in different locations
because it posses many variations. Bifid mandibular canal is rarely detected but it is important because of its clinical
Key words: Bifid mandibular canal, mandibular canal, variations. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):76-80).
ان قناة الفك الاسفل المنشطرة ھي حالة تشریحیة نادرة ذات اھمیة حاصة لدى طبیب الاسنان. الغرضمن ھذه الدراسة ھو معرفة وتقسیم حالة
تشریحیة خاصة بقناة الفك الاسفل واقتراح استخدام مصطلح " قناة الفك الاسفل المنشطرة ".
تم تقییم مسار قناة الفك الاسفل بدقة في 319 صورة اشعة بانورامیة لمواطنین عراقیین وقد تم تشخیصقناة الفك الاسفل المنشطرة حیثما وجدت.
اثبتت النتائج ان 1.88 % من العینة الكلیة لدیھم قناة منشطرة او مضاعفة.
یمكن الاستنتاج ان مسار وشكل قناة الفك الاسفل یجب ان یلاحظ بمختلف الاوضاع أذ ان لھا اختلافات تشریحیة عدیدة وبالرغم من قناة الفك
الاسفل المنشطرة ھي حالة نادرة غیر ان اھمیتھا تبرز من خلال تاثیرھا في جانب التطبیق السریري.


Treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis bysilymarin

Authors: Tagreed Altaei
Pages: 81-89

Background: Oral mucositis is a common and severe complication of head and neck radiation therapy. Silymarin is a
polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle exhibits a strong antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory
effects. The efficacy for the treatment was assessed in comparison with indomethacin.
Patients and Methods: A prospective, randomized, double blind; placebo controlled study was conducted in 65 of
chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis patients; plasma IL-1β, leptin, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity
(TEAC) were assessed for 3 orally treated groups; Silymarin 140mg, or Indomethacin 25mg, or placebo, 3 times daily
for 14 days, radiation technique and dose were similar. The oral mucositis was assessed weekly according to OMAS
and WHO scale, pain related to oral mucositis was scored subjectively by visual analog scale.
Results: Patients' characteristics showed no significant differences between tested groups. Statistical significance
showed in; lower OMAS value at the time of using Silymarin, and lower mean time to healing of oral mucositis in
Silymarin treated group compared to Indomethacin treated and placebo groups. Ulcer healing and pain relief were
seen in 100% of Silymarin treated group but only 40% of Indomethacin treated group compared to placebo after 5
days of treatment. Serum IL-1β, leptin were reduced significantly, and TEAC showed significant elevation in Silymarin
treated group compared to baseline and other tested drugs.
Conclusion: Silymarin could interrupt or block the mucositis process at multiple targets that protect the mucosa and
promote healing of chemotherapy-induced mucositis by reducing the incidence, blocking the oxidative stress and
anti-inflammatory actions.
Key words: Silymarin, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, IL-1β, leptin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):81-89).


Musculoskeletal disorders: back and neck problems among a sample of Iraqi dentists in Baghdad city

Authors: Zaheda J. Mohammad
Pages: 90-95

Background: musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent an important occupational health issue in dentistry.
Musculoskeletal pain, particularly back pain, has been found to be a major health problem for dental practitioners
Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of back and neck problems among a sample of
Iraqi dentists in Baghdad city.
Subjects and Methods: The self-administered questionnaire was prepared comprising of 16 questions including personal
details such as age, sex, occupation, specialty, weight. The study was conducted on sample of 100 dentists, were
randomly selected form College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, and private clinics in Baghdad city.
Statistical analysis used: The study was analyzed using chi-square test with help of SPSS software.
Results: the results of present study showed that back and neck problem among the dentist with 77% had complaints of
back and neck problem. 67% of subject excessively bending and twisting in order to gain better access to oral cavity.
There is significant relationship of back and neck problem with age, weight but no significant relationship of back and
neck problem with weekly working hours. About 60% of dentists contributed stress increased their back and neck
Conclusion: The prevalence of musculoskeletal complains among dentist is high and well documented. Stress and wrong
postural practices are the main contributing factors to back and neck problems among dentists.
Keywords: Back Pain, Neck Pain, Dentistry Posture, Dental therapy. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):90-95).


The effect of tooth loss on mandibular morphology (Radiographic Study)

Authors: Ahlam. A. Fattah --- Zeana A. Hussein
Pages: 96-100

Background: Throughout one’s life, Mandible undergoes remodeling and morphological alteration occurs in various
areas of mandible including the gonial angle, condyle and ramus. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of tooth
loss on morphology of the mandible (i.e. condylar height, ramus height and gonial angle) using digital panoramic
Materials and methods:150 Iraqi male subjects aged from (20-83) years attending to the digital panoramic clinic of
Al-Karkh Hospital, divided in to 3 groups according to the presence of teeth in the mandible; the first group consists
of 50 subjects with full dentate (complete dentition), second group consists of 50subjects with (partial dentition) and
third group consists of 50 subjects with(edentulous mandible).Using digital panoramic image, the condylar and
ramus heights and gonial angle were measured on both right and left sides by tracing elements. The collected data
were possessed and analyzed using Storage Package of Statistical Science package program (version 13).
Results: The mean values of Condylar and ramus heights and gonial angle were significant different between
complete dentition and edentulous groups (p-value<0.001) and between partial dentition and edentulous groups
(p-value <0.001). For the effect of tooth loss of the mean values of 3 measuring variable i.e. (condylar and ramus
heights and gonial angle) among partial dentate group showed; a statistically significant moderate positive linear
correlation of condylar and ramus heights with available teeth (not missing)(p-value<0.001), while gonial angle
showed a statistically significant moderate negative linear correlation with available teeth(p-value<0.001) in the
same group.
Conclusions: The morphology of the mandible changed as a consequence of tooth loss, which could be expressed
as a widening of gonial angle and shortening of both condylar and ramus heights. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
خلال فترة حیاة الفرد یخضع الفك السفلي لإعادة بناء وتغیر شكلي تحدث في مناطق مختلفھ من الفك السفلي بما في ذلك زاویة الفك السفلي ،لقمة الفك السفلي وفرع الفك السفلي . ان
الغایھ من ھذه الدراسھ ھو تقییم تاثیر فقدان السن على التغییر الشكلي للفك السفلي (اي ارتفاع لقمة الفك السفلي،ارتفاع فرع الفك السفلي وزاویة الفك السفلي) باستخدام الاشعھ البانورامیھ
83 ) سنھ قاموا بزیارة عیادة الاشعھ البانورامیھ الرقمیھ في مستشفى الكرخ ..تم تقسیم ھؤلاء 150 الرقمیھ. اجریت ھذه الدراسھ على - شخص ذكرعراقي تتراوح اعمارھم بین ( 20
في الفك السفلي: مجموعھ یملكون كافة اسنانھم، مجموعھ فاقدین بعضاسنانھم ومجموعھ فاقدین كافة اسنانھم.ان في كل الاشخاصالى ثلاثة مجامیع دراسیھ اعتمادًا على وجود ألاسنان
اشعھ بانورامیھ رقمیھ تم قیاس زاویة الفك السفلي وارتفاع كل من لقمة وفرع الفك السفلي لكلا الجانبین (الایمن والایسر) بواسطة ادوات الرسم وان البیانات خضعت للتحلیل الوصفي
التمییزي باستخدام برنامج ( SPSS ) نسخھ 13 . اظھرت النتائج ان ھناك فرق احصائي في ارتفاع كل من لقمة وفرع الفك السفلي وزاویة الفك السفلي بین الاشخاصالذین یملكون كافة
اسنانھم والاشخاص الفاقدین كافة اسنانھم وكذلك بین الاشخاص الفاقدین بعض اسنانھم والفاقدین كافة اسنانھم. .كما أظھرت الدراسھ تأثیر فقدان السن على معدل المتغیرات الثلاثھ (أي
ارتفاع كل من لقمة و فرع وزاویة الفك السفلي)في مجموعة الاشخاص الفاقدین بعض اسنانھم حیث ان ھناك علاقھ احصائیھ متوسطة القوه ایجابیھ بین كل من ارتفاع لقمة وفرع الفك
السفلي و الاسنان المفقوده في حین ان ھناك علاقھ احصائیھ متوسطة القوه سلبیھ بین زاویة الفك السفلي والاسنان المفقوده. أخیرا نتوصل بعد تقییم ھذه النتائج ان التغییر الشكلي للفك
.السفلي نتیجة لفقدان الاسنان ، یمكن ان یعبر عنھ بإتساع زاویة الفك السفلي وتقصیر كل من إرتفاع لقمة وفرع الفك السفلي


Experimental gingivitis on Iraqi over weight adult male: A clinical and microbiological study


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of over weight on the initiation of gingival
inflammation compared to normal weight subjects on mankind.
Material and methods: Thirty six adult male, aged 20-30 years, systemically proved as healthy, sub-grouped in three,
twelve in each, as normal weight, pre-obese and obese according to BMI index. All have been subjected to a
vigorous oral hygiene control up to getting as low as possible full mouth Plaque and Gingival scores (PL.I= less than
0.3 and G.I. less than 0.2).taken as Base line records. Subjects have been advised to continue their usual life-style,
withdrawing the daily brushing, and to be subjected to a weekly oral examination up to getting a clinically visible
gingivitis, then re-establishing the oral hygiene to watch the improvement of gingival lesion under the influence of
over weight.
Results: Showed a significant increase of PL.I for the three groups in first week. A positive significant difference in favor
of obese and Pre-obese, But it was insignificant between Pre-obese and Obese. Identical results were obtained in
G.I. scores. Bacteriologic findings showed significant increase of pseudomonades species in obese group.
Conclusions: Results suggested great influences of Over-weight on plaque accumulation and thus facilitate the
virulent bacterial invasion and disease acceleration, daily oral hygiene control is a successful preventive measures
regardless the body weight
Key Wards: BMI, PL.I, G.I. Obesity, Gingivitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):101-106).


Evaluation of the salivary biomarkers creatine kinase (CK) & blood urea nitrogen (BUN) activities before& after non surgical periodontal treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis

Authors: Maha Sh. Mahmood
Pages: 107-111

Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by
stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells into saliva & gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Aim of the study: to assess the difference in the activity of CK &BUN enzymes in the saliva of male patients with
chronic periodontitis before & after non surgical periodontal treatment & to evaluate the correlation between these
enzymes& probing pocket depth &relative attachment level.
Materials & methods: Measurements of plaque index (PlI),gingival index(GI) , bleeding on probing (BOP) , probing
pocket depth (PPD) &relative attachment level (RAL) were taken from male patients suffering from chronic
periodontitis before perio dontal treatment & one month after treatment .
Saliva was collected for biochemical analysis of the enzymes creatine kinase & blood urea nitrogen.
Results: The results have shown that after conventional periodontal therapy, the activity of these enzymes was
significantly decreased .There was a correlation between the activities of these enzymes & probing depth .Also there
was a strong correlation between CK enzyme & relative attachment level.
Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be assumed that the activity of these enzymes in saliva, as biochemical
markers for periodontal tissue damage, may be useful in the diagnosis, prognosis & evaluation of periodontal therapy
effects in periodontal disease.
Keyword: Salivary markers, periodontal disease. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):107-111).


Low level laser treatment for dentinal hypersensitivity

Authors: Qutaybah Abdul Razak
Pages: 112-115

Background: Dentinal hyper sensitivity is a problem in many ways in IRAQI patients , the cause of this hyper sensitivity
usually exposure of dentinal tubular for many reasons, reduce or loss enamel and cementum covering which expose
them to external stimuli , hot , cold , chemicals ,sweat or even air.
Material and Methods: Seventy two patients had been examined and treated with 238 teeth affected , 29 males , 43
females from different causes of hypersensitivity and treated with low level laser Beams with different doses and
durations without any chemical agents.
Results: The study revealed about 93 % successful result often receiving different doses with different visits.
Conclusion: Desensitization with LLLT to these patients was successful time consuming and easy for the patient and
Keywords: Laser, dentinal hypersensitivity. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):112-115).


Association between psychosocial factors and periodontitis

Authors: Saif S. Saliem Juma
Pages: 116-120

Background: Research has suggested that psychological factors that play a role in the development and
progression of periodontal disease. It is not clear, however, whether these factors lead to periodontal disease
through physiological or behavioral changes, or by some combination of the two. This study investigated the
association of anxiety and depression with periodontal disease.
Material and Methods: A total of 150 subjects took part in this study. Probing depth and clinical attachment level
were recorded at four sites per tooth and the gingival and plaque indices were also recorded. The instruments used
to assess the psychological variables were: the Beck Anxiety Inventory, State– Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck
Depression Inventory.
Results: Mean probing depth and clinical attachment level were 6.32 ± 0.80 and 5.81 ± 1.61in the case group and
1.98±0.71and 1.12±0.87 in the control group, respectively. Positive association of periodontitis with age (odds ratio
(OR) 1.16 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–1.21) and plaque index (OR 2.15,CI: 1.07–4.69) was confirmed. Analysis
did not demonstrate significant mean differences in anxiety symptoms, trait or state of anxiety, or depression
symptoms between cases and controls. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated no significant association
between psychosocial factors and periodontal disease.
Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it is possible to conclude that there was no significant association between
periodontitis and the psychosocial factors analyzed. The association of periodontal disease to depression and
anxiety should be investigated in psychiatric populations, especially in those with depression and anxiety disorders.
Key words: Anxiety and depression; periodontal disease; Psychosocial factor. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):116-


Tooth wear in relation to physiochemical characteristics among a group of mixed dentition children

Authors: Alsaadi A.A.
Pages: 121-123

Background: The individual susceptibility or resistance to attrition, damage (tooth wear) has been attributed to
variation in the quality and quantity of saliva. Aims of this study were to assess the tooth wear (dental attrition)
among 7-10 years old children of primary school in relation to physiochemical characteristic.
Materials and methods: A study group consisted of 22 children aged 7-10years old, who had at least four teeth wear,
was compared to a control group without any tooth wear matching with age, gender and number. Tooth wear was
examined by using sterile dental mirrors, Nilner and lasing criteria was used to determine the severity of attrition.
Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standard condition from the study and control group. Salivary flow
rate was determined in addition to the estimation of concentration of salivary zinc, cupper, calcium, iron ions and
Results: The concentrations of salivary elements (zinc, calcium, iron, protein) were lower among the study group than
the control, as well as the salivary flow rate. All salivary elements correlated directly with tooth wear, except the
cupper; this was in the primary teeth.
Conclusion: Tooth wear was found to be correlated with salivary compositions.
Keywords: tooth wear, saliva, mixed dentition, physiochemical characteristics. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):121-


The real site of anterior TSD in Iraqi orthodontic sample

Authors: Dhia'a J. Al-Dabagh
Pages: 124-127

Background: Anterior tooth size discrepancy (TDS) considered as the main reason that interferes with getting a stable
occlusion after finishing an orthodontic case. The aim of the study is to determine the real cause of anterior
intermaxillary TSD in Iraqi orthodontic patients and its proper way of management.
Materials and methods: 144 dental cast sets of pre-treated orthodontic patients were selected carefully, the greatest
mesio-distal width of the anterior teeth were measured by sharp end digital caliper to a nearest 0.1 mm, then the
anterior Bolton ratio were taken and the sample was divided accordingly to 3 groups :normal anterior Bolton ratio,
anterior mandibular excess and anterior maxillary excess, by using independent student's t-test comparison of mesiodistal
width of each anterior tooth in normal anterior Bolton ratio group with each of other 2 groups separately.
Results: For the mandibular excess group smaller mesio-distal width of all upper anterior teeth and larger for the all
lower anterior teeth can be seen in comparison to normal anterior Bolton group, however upper lateral and lower
incisors associated with significant statistical differences, while for the maxillary excess group, larger mesio-distal width
of all upper anterior teeth and smaller or comparable mesio-distal width of lower anterior teeth in comparison to
normal anterior Bolton ratio group can be seen, however only upper incisors associated with significant statistical
differences .
Conclusions: In anterior mandibular excess group, the main cause of anterior TSD was smaller upper lateral incisors
or/and Larger lower incisors, while for anterior maxillary excess group, the main cause was wider upper incisors, this
can be managed by stripping of over-sized teeth or/and placement of over-contoured restoration of under-sized
Keywords: TSD, Bolton ratio. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):124-127).


Anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI) and Overbite depth indicator (ODI) in a sample of Iraqi adults with different skeletal classes

Authors: Jinan E. Saloom
Pages: 128-133

Background: This study aimed to establish the mean value of Anteroposterior Dysplasia Indicator (APDI), as
measurements of the sagittal discrepancy and Overbite Depth Indicator (ODI), as measurement of vertical
discrepancy, in a sample of Iraqi adults with different skeletal classes.
Materials and Methods: Ninety dental students, 30 subjects have class I (15 males and 15 females), 30 subjects have
class II (15 males and 15 females) and 30 subjects have class III (15 males and 15 females) were chosen for this study.
Each student was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric X-ray. The radiographs
were analyzed using AutoCAD 2007. Descriptive statistics obtained for the variables for both genders, independent
samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender difference, and ANOVA then LSD tests were applied to
compare the measurement among the skeletal classes.
Results and Conclusions: The mean value of APDI and ODI were established for class I, class II and class III, the APDI
and ODI values showed high statistically significant differences among the different skeletal classes for both genders.
The mean value of APDI was greater for class III group, and the mean value of the ODI was greater for class II group
and it was smaller in class III group.
Keyword: APDI, ODI. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):128-133).


Wits appraisal and Tweed triangle for a sample of Iraqi adults


Background: This study aimed to establish the normal value of Wits appraisal and Tweed triangle for a sample of Iraqi
adults and to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism.
Materials and Methods: 95 dental students (41 males and 54 females) having normal occlusion and acceptable
facial profile were chosen for this study. Each student was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral
cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD 2007 to measure the distance
representing the Wits appraisal and the angles representing Tweed triangle. Descriptive statistics were obtained for
the measurements for both genders separately and for total sample; independent samples t-test was performed to
evaluate the gender difference.
Results: The results indicated that the mean value of Wits appraisal was higher in males than females with a nonsignificant
difference between both genders, on the other hand, the Frankfort- mandibular plane angle was higher in
males than females while the Frankfort- mandibular incisor angle was higher in females than males and mandibular
incisor- mandibular plane angle was nearly similar in both genders with a non-significant difference.
Conclusions: The normal values of Wits appraisal and Tweed Triangle were established. The Iraqi sample showed Wits
appraisal of females near to that of Jacobson while of males was higher. Regarding Tweed triangle, both genders
showed more proclination of lower incisors than of Tweed with a Frankfort- mandibular plane angle near to that of
Key words: Tweed triangle, Wits appraisal. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):134-140).


Salivary constituents in relation to caries-experience among a group of cerebral palsied adolescents

Authors: Nada J. Radhi
Pages: 141-147

Background: Cerebral palsy is a major severe childhood disability. The nature of handicap seems to have definite
effect upon the prevalence of oral disease in handicapped individuals. Controversy exists about the incidence of
dental caries and its associated salivary risk factors in cerebral palsied children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to
assess the level of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and urea in unstimulated saliva and their relations to
dental caries among cerebral palsied adolescents in comparison to normal adolescents.
Materials and Methods: Thirty institutionalized cerebral palsied adolescents and 30 normal adolescents aged 11-14
years old were included in this study. DMFS/DMFT, dmfs/dmft was assessed according to WHO (1997) and
unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of the
following constituents: Ions of calcium, sodium, potassium by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while
salivary phosphorus and urea by using colorimetric method. The average salivary flow rate was measured from the
total volume, and salivary pH and buffer capacity was determined using pH meter. All data were analyzed using
SPSS version 13.
Results: The results showed a highly significant difference between study and controls for caries as a higher
DMFS/DMFT were recorded among cerebral palsied adolescents than the control group (P< 0.001). Significantly
lower values of pH, flow rate and buffer capacity were found among study compared to the control group (P<
0.001). The same results were recorded regarding salivary calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and urea.
Conclusion: A variation in salivary constituents of cerebral palsied adolescents was recorded in comparison to
control group; this may explain the high caries-experience among them.
Key Words: cerebral palsy, Dental caries, pH; Flow rate; Buffer capacity; salivary calcium; sodium; urea; phosphorus.
(J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):141-147).


An evaluation of ultrasonic water extract of ginger onmicrohardness and microscopic features of enamel carieslike lesions, compared to fluoridated agent(An in vitro study)

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi --- Namir S. Al-Azawi
Pages: 148-152

Background: Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements. Ginger has been
used by traditional Chinese and Indian medicine for over (25) centuries for various medical purposes including
sedation of dental pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different
concentrations of ultrasonic water extract of ginger on the microhardness of enamel surfaces compared with that of
sodium fluoride and de-ionized water (control neutral) in addition to the examination of the microscopic changes.
Materials and Methods: Teeth sample consisted of (31) healthy upper first premolars extracted from (11- 14) years old
patients. One tooth was directly used for microscopic examination of sound enamel, while the remaining teeth were
randomly divided into five groups, four study groups and one control group. The initiation procedure of caries like
lesion on the enamel surface was repeated for successive ten days. While microscopic examination and Vicker’s
microhardness testing were accomplished for teeth of selected groups before and after pH cycling and after
treatment with selected agents.
Results: Ultrasonic water extract of ginger in concentrations of (0.5%, 1% and 5%) and sodium fluoride were
successful in the elevation of the microhardness values of demineralized enamel surfaces, this elevation was
statistically highly significant for ginger extract at (0.5%, 1%, 5% and sodium fluoride). Although, none of the above
agents were able to increase the microhardness values to about the original values of sound enamel, but when the
matter of change between reminerlization and demineralization was taken into account, ginger extract 0.5%
concentration caused highest change, while ginger extract at 5% was resulted in lowest change in the
microhardness values. Microscopic examination of enamel ground sections under light microscope revealed that
zones of remineralization in enamel were seen after treatment with all concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 5%) of ultrasonic
water extract of ginger, and sodium fluoride, but it was more obvious with 0.5% concentration of ginger extract.
Conclusions: The ginger extract at (0.5%) concentration was effective in producing the maximum change between
demineralization and remineralization, thus ginger extract at this concentration could be tried as a safe mouth wash.
Key wards: Microhardness, ultrasonic, ginger, caries, reminerlization. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):148-152).


Salivary streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in relation to rampant caries pattern among children

Authors: Yasameen A.A. Al-Bayati
Pages: 153-157

Background: Several interrelated factors which are the tooth and saliva (host), microorganisms, substrate and time
are involved in the process of dental caries. Rampant caries is a severe form of tooth decay that can affect primary
or permanent teeth. It is characterized by its speed of onset and progression. Nursing caries is a type of rampant
caries affecting the primary teeth of young children and has been associated with prolonged unrestricted bottle or
breast feeding. This study was conducted in order to estimate the salivary level of streptococcus mutans and
lactobacilli among the rampant, nursing caries and control (caries free) children.
Materials and methods: Seventy five children aged 3 to 10 years old were included in the study. Forty six children
were selected for colony counting (19 children with nursing caries, 13 children with rampant and 14 children with
caries free).Dental caries was measured using dmfs, DMFS for primary and permanent teeth respectively using the
criteria of WHO. One ml of unstimulated (resting) whole saliva was collected from the children using spitting method
then diluted and applied on the surface of agar media specific for streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli growth.
Colony forming units with morphology characteristic of s. mutans and lactobacilli were counted and expressed as
numbers of CFU per ml of saliva.
Results: The results of present study showed no significant difference in the number of colonies of Streptococcus
mutans and lactobacilli among nursing, rampant and caries free groups (p>0.05) however there was a highly
significant difference in caries experience in the primary teeth among the three groups (p<0. 01) and a significant
difference in caries experience in the permanent teeth among the three groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The etiology of dental caries is multifactorial in that simultaneous participation of multiple factors is
required for caries to occur. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobaculli are microorganisms with cariogenic capacity,
however, their presence only do not determine the presence of dental caries.
Key words: streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, nursing caries, rampant caries, saliva. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


The level of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in the dental plaque among rampant, nursing and caries free children

Authors: Zainab J. Ja'far
Pages: 158-162

Background: Rampant caries in children is one of the most frustrating and difficult condition to treat. Nursing caries is
characterized by a rampant caries pattern, but it has a unique pattern of dental caries in young children. This study
was conducted in order to estimate the level of streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in the dental plaque among
the rampant, nursing caries and caries free children.
Materials and method: Sixty children in age group 3-10 years old were chosen for this study (20 with nursing caries,20
with rampant caries and 20 caries free) matching in age and gender, a subsample of 47 children were underwent
the bacterial examination. Clinical examination of teeth to record dmfs, and DMFS was conducted according to
WHO 1987, and dental plaque sample was taken from the sound buccal surface of the upper second primary molar,
otherwise the sample will be taken from the maxillary first primary molar to have the colony forming units of the caries
related microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli).
Results: There was a statistically highly significant difference among rampamt caries, nursing caries and caries free
groups in the dental caries (p=000), while a statistically non significant difference in the count of bacteria (p=.592 for
the streptococcus mutans and p=.140 for the lactobacilli).
Conclusion: This study supports the fact that the dental caries is a multifactorial disease, and suggests that the
bacterial count is not the major cause.
Keywords: nursing caries, rampant caries, streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(4):158-


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