Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access


A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Contact info

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Table of content: 2011 volume:23 issue:3

Comparison of bond strength in different levels of post space of fiber-reinforced post luted with different resin cements


Background: with the advent of new adhesive materials in dentistry, it has become important to measure regional
bond strength along the length of the canal of human teeth to assess the bond strength of resin cements to
endodontically treated teeth. This study aimed to investigate the effect of post space region (coronal, middle and
apical) and the mode of polymerization of the resin cement on the retention of the translucent fiber post to root
canal dentin, by using pull-out and push-out test methods.
Material and methods: extracted single rooted mandibular first premolars (n=32) were instrumented with ProTaper
universal system files (for hand use)and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26® root canal sealer. After 24hrs in the
incubator, post space was prepared to a depth of 8mm using FRCPostec drills no.3. . The prepared samples were
randomly divided into two main groups (16 samples each) according to the resin cement mode of polymerization
(Group A Dual-cure, RelyxU100), (Group B Self-cure, SpeedCem). Then each group was subdivided into two groups
(each with 8 samples) according to the test performed (A1: RelyxU100 and Push-out test, A2: RelyxU100 and pull-out
test, B1: SpeedCem and push-out test, B2: SpeedCem and pull-out test). Pull-out and push-out bond strength test
were measured using a universal testing machine to measure the bond strength.
Results: regarding the root region, the bond strength values decreased significantly from the coronal to the apical
region in both cements tested. For the mode of polymerization, no statistical significant difference was detected
between the dual- and self- polymerized resin cements.
Conclusions: the retention of fiber post was affected by the root region while the mode of polymerization didn’t
affect the bond strength. When measuring the bond strength of luted fiber post, the push-out test appears to be
more dependable than the conventional pull-out
Keywords: Fiber post, self-adhesive resin cement, push-out test, root region. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3):1-5).


Evaluation and comparison of the effect of repeated microwave irradiations on some mechanical and physical properties of heat cure acrylic resin and valplast (nylon) denture base materials

Authors: Raghdaa KJ --- Ali AM
Pages: 6-10

Background: Microwave irradiation has been considered for denture sterilization/disinfection instead of chemical
solutions since it has no expiration date and does not induce resistance to the microorganisms. The aim of this study
was to evaluate the effects of repeated microwave disinfection on heat cure and valplast (nylon) denture base
materials in some mechanical and physical properties.
Material and method: A total No. of 320 specimens (80 maxillary denture bases and 240 specimens) were prepared
in this study, then divided into two main groups according to the type of material used (heat cure resin and valplast
resin).Each main group was subdivided into four subdivisions according to the type of test used (Transverse strength
test, Surface hardness test, Surface roughness test, and fitness test), for each test 40 samples were divided into four
groups according to the number of cycles of microwave disinfection that were applied (control, 1 microwave cycle,
3 microwave cycles, and 7 microwave cycles). The term cycle refer to 3min of microwave disinfection at 680 watt.
Each specimen was disinfected(subjected to one cycle) one time per a day then transferred to container contain
distilled water until another cycle applied in the next day.
Result: The repeated microwave irradiation of heat cure and valplast specimens showed slight but no significant
decrease in transverse strength, shore D hardness, and surface roughness. The results of the fitness of denture base
materials to stone cast showed an improvement in the fitness of heat cure and valplast denture base materials after
the first microwave cycle, and no further improvements in the fitness were taken place after repeated microwave
Key Word: valplast (nylon), microwave irradiation, mechanical and physical properties. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


Cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with a Silorane and a Dimethacrylate-resin based composite (A comparative study)


Background: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the cuspal deflection between 2 low-shrinkage
resin composites ( Filtek™ Silorane ) and ( Tetric EvoCeram ), and the effect of using light-cured GIC (Vivaglass® Liner)
and storage in water on cuspal deflection at different periods.
Materials and methods: Forty extracted maxillary first premolars of approximately similar sizes were prepared with
standardized MOD cavities. The sample teeth then divided into two main groups ( 20 specimens each ) according to
the restorative material ( group A Filtek™ Silorane and group B Tetric B1: restored by Tetric EvoCeram with Vivaglass®
Liner. Group B2: restored only by Tetric EvoCeram. All samples restored with oblique incremental technique. The
intercuspal distance was measured before and after the restorative procedures and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of water
storage and the difference were recorded as cuspal deflection. Cuspal deflection was measured using digital
micrometer. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and least significant difference (LSD) test.
Results: Filtek™ Silorane significantly less cuspal deflection. Vivaglass® Liner significantly reduced cuspal deflection
with Tetric EvoCeram. After four weeks water storage, cuspal deflection in all subgroups were highly significantly
different with the two restoratives (P<0.01) . While light-cured glass ionomer cement has a non significant effect on
cuspal deflection after 4 weeks.
Conclusions: Silorane showed lower cuspal deflection and lower water uptake than Tertic EvoCeram. Polymerization
shrinkage deformation was almost compensated by hygroscopic expansion within 4 weeks.
Key words: Cuspal deflection, Silorane, Tetric Evoceram, hygroscopic expansion. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3):


Influence of dental cleansers on the color stability and surface roughness of three types of denture bases

Authors: Hussam MSaied
Pages: 17-22

Background: This study is concerned with color stability and surface roughness of three types of denture base
materials when immersed into three types of denture cleansers.
Materials & method: Forty five specimens were prepared, fifteen of each type were immersed into distilled water for
48hours which regarded as control and then each five specimens were immersed into one of three different denture
cleansers for twelve hours then undergone testing for color stability and surface roughness ,the results were analyzed
by paired t-test and ANOVA test.
Results: In color stability the hot cure acrylic give non significant difference p>0.05 with denture cleansers, the soft
base give (HS) high significant difference which is greatly affected by denture cleansers while the nylon denture was
significantly affected by bleach rather than the other two cleansers was non significant. The ANOVA test show
smooth effect of fitty dent (NS)on both nylon and soft base. The surface roughness test it was significantly affected by
denture cleansers by t-test while ANOVA the smooth effect of both fitty and lacalut dent on denture bases with non
significant difference.
Conclusion: Denture cleansers can cause whitening or color fainting or even bleaching. The surface texture affected
by cleansers in deferent level according to time of immersion, concentration and type of active component that
lead to increase of roughness or wear of denture outer surface. The effect of fitty dent was safer in its action and
smoother than bleach and lacalut.
Key words: Denture base, dental cleaners, surface roughness. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 17-22).


Evaluation the effect of modified nano-fillers addition on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material

Authors: MoudhaffarM --- Ihab NS
Pages: 23-29

Background: The poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) shown to be lacking two properties which are strength and
radio-opacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of modified nano-zirconium oxide (ZrO2)on
some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material .
Material and method: (ZrO2) nanofillers were incorporated into (PMMA) denture base by free radical bulk
polymerization. (PMMA) nanoparticales were coated with a layer of trimethoxysilypropylmethacrylate (TMSPM)
before dispersed and sonicated in monomer (MMA) in different percentages 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% by weight. Then
mixed with acrylic powder as general conventional method. Two hundred fifty five (255) specimens were prepared
for this study they were divided into (6) groups according to the test used. The tests were impact strength,
indentation hardness, surface roughness, transverse strength, radio-opacity and microscope test, for each test five
subgroups (one control and four for nano-ZrO2). The size and shape distribution of nano-ZrO2 particles were
estimated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) .
Result: Highly significant increase in impact and transverse strength occur in acrylic reinforced with 5wt%, but non
significant increase was observed at 7wt% when compared to control group. Non-significant increases in indentation
hardness and surface roughness appear with addition of modified nano-ZrO2 at different percentages. For radioopacity
a highly significant increase had occurred with the addition of modified nano-ZrO2.
Conclusion: The maximum increase in impact strength, transverse strength and radio-opacity was observed in
denture base nano composite containing 5wt% of nano-ZrO2.
Key words: poly (methylmethacrylate), nano composite. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 23-29).


The effect of low shrinkage dental composite on the fracture strength of weakened premolar teeth (An in vitro study)

Authors: Ali H. Al –Khafaji --- Rasshaa I. Suhail
Pages: 30-36

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of weakened maxillary
premolar teeth with MOD preparations restored with low shrinkage new Silorane based composite (Filtek p90) in
comparison to low shrinkage methacrylate based composite (1-packable Filtek p60,2- nanohybrid Tetric Evoceram ).
Materials and Metods: Fifty human adult maxillary premolar teeth recently extracted for orthodontic purpose were
selected. These teeth received MOD cavity preparations with no proximal boxes. The teeth were then randomly
divided in to five groups (n=10), according to the material used for restoration: Group A (Teeth were not prepared ),
Group B (Teeth, with MOD cavity preparation were not restored.) Group C (Teeth, with MOD cavity preparation were
restored with Filtek p60 packable composite), Group D (Teeth, with MOD cavity preparation were restored with Tetric
Evoceram nanohybrid composite) Group E (Teeth, with MOD cavity preparation were restored with Filtek p90 silorane
based composite). These specimens were then stored in an incubator at 37Ċ for one week, at 100% humidity in
deionized water before test. Cuspal fracture resistance was determined using compressive testing machine.The
fracture specimens in group C,D and E were stained with 1%methylene- blue dye for 24 hours then examined by
stereo microscope ×40 to evaluated the mod of failure, the data were staistically analyzed using Analysis of variance
test (ANOVA), LSD test and student t-test .
Results: The results showed that there’s a high significant improvement of the fracture resistant of restored teeth using
posterior composite as compared to the unrestored ones, but; ther’s no difference of the type of the posterior
composite material used on the fracture resistance of the weakened teeth, while the sound teeth remained the
strongest teeth compared with all the other groups. Examination of the fractured specimens of GC, G D and G E
using stereo microscope revealed that for Group C and group D,70%and 50% cohesive failure respectively while for
group E 70% showed adhesive failure.
Conclusion: Posterior composite resin restoration whatever material type used for packing it, showed a great
improvement in the resistance to cuspal fracture, Silorane based composite show little improvement in fracture
resistance by means value in comparison to methacrylate based composite although statistically there is no
significant difference between them.
Key words: low shrinkage composite, fracture strength of teeth, silorane based resin composite. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2011;23(3): 30-36).


Push out bond strength of different obturation systems (An in vitro study)


Background: The bond strength of the root canal sealers to dentin seems to be a very important property for
maintaining the integrity and the seal of root canal filling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond
strength of four different obturation systems using push-out test.
Materials and methods: Forty straight palatal roots of the maxillary first molars teeth were used in this study, these
roots were instrumented using crown down technique and ProTaper system, instrumentation were done with copious
irrigation of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% buffered solution of EDTA was used as final irrigant followed by distilled
water, roots were randomly divided into four groups according to the obturation system (ten teeth for each group):
Group I: AH26 sealer and lateral condensation technique, Group II: AH26 sealer and single cone obturation
technique, Group III: AH26 sealer and thermafil obturation technique and Group IV: RealSeal SE sealer and lateral
condensation technique, the roots then stored in moist environment at 37°C for one week The roots were
embedded in clear acrylic resin and each root sectioned into three levels apical, middle and cervical. The
measurement of each section was taken to prepare the supporting jig for the sections and the punch used in pushout
test, the bond strength was measured using computerized universal testing machine each section fixed in the
machine so that the load applied from apical to cervical direction at 0.5mm/min. speed and the computer drew
curve to show the higher bond force before dislodgment of the filling material. These forces were divided by the
surface area to obtain the bond strength in MPa.
Results: Statistical analysis was performed and the result showed avery highly significant differences between the four
obturation systems at each level and there were non significant differences between all level apical, middle and
cervical within each obturation system except a significant difference found between cervical and apical level in
single cone obturation system.
Conclusion: This study showed that the shear bond strength of AH26 sealer was higher than RealSeal SE sealer when
the same obturation technique was used. The shear bond strength was affected by the obturation technique and
lateral condensation technique showed higher bond strength than thermafil and single cone obturation technique
when the same type of sealer was used and the bond strength was not or little affected by the tooth level.
Key words: bond strength, push-out test, endodontic sealers, obturation systems. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 37-


Histological evaluation of intrabony defect repair induced by white ordinary Portland cement (WOPC)

Authors: Shatha S. Mohammed --- Atheer A.Ali
Pages: 44-49

Background: recently the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) has been analyzed and compared physically, chemically
and biologically to mineral trioxide aggregate MTA and because of the similarity between OPC and MTA, So the
Possibility of using Portland cement as a less expensive alternative to MTA in dental practice should be considered. In
view of this, the Present study is to evaluate the biological response of the jaw bone to intraosseous ordinary Portland
cement (OPC) implantation.
Materials and Methods: fifteen local breed adult male rabbits divided into three groups of five rabbits, each rabbit
has receive two intrabony defects in the mandible bone, one filled with white ordinary Portland cement (WOPC), the
other left empty as a control The histological sections obtained after 1, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively. The
histomorphometric analysis including counting of bone cells (osteoblasts & osteoclasts) ,inflammatory cell and
observation of the degree of inflammation and the type of bone reaction to OPC material.
Results there was no significant difference in inflammatory response between OPC group and control group at all
period of time, , there was significant increase of osteoblasts number at one and four weeks interval of OPC group
when compare with the control groups but at eight week there were no significant difference of osteoblasts
number between them, control group showed highly significant increase of osteoclasts number at four and eight
weeks interval when compare to OPC groups. Most of OPC group and in all period of time showed bone deposition
in direct contact with ordinary Portland cement (Type I bone reaction).
Conclusions: As a result we can conclude that the OPC material show high degree of biocompatibility, induce bone
healing and act as bioactive material.
Key words : Portland cement,intaosseos inplantation, bone biomaterial. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 44-49).


The prevalence of cervical carotid arteries stenosis and calcifications among sample of Iraqi diabetic postmenopausal women detected by using Doppler sonography and digital dental panoramic tomography


Background: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in United States today, it is also the leading cause of severe
disability (1,2). The most well-known risk factor for the development of stroke is high-degree internal carotid artery
stenosis (3). Stroke may be preventable (but the major challenge is to find effective methods of detection of strokeprone
patients). The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of cervical carotid arteries stenosis among
healthy and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus Iraqi postmenopausal women sample also correlating carotid
artery calcification detected on digital dental panoramic tomography with carotid stenosis determined by Doppler
Materials and methods: The Digital Dental Panoramic Tomographs was taken to the sample and observed for
presence or absence of any radiopacity in the soft tissue region at the bifurcation of common carotid artery. Many
parameters were measured by Doppler ultrasound include peak systolic velocity, peak end diastolic velocity for
Internal and common carotid arteries, Ratio of velocities for Internal Carotid/ velocities for Common Carotid and
Ratio; Measure the reduction in lumen diameter and area of Internal and Common Carotid to calculate the
percentages of Linear stenosis and area stenosis of the two arteries; detect presence of Carotid plaque in right and
left sides .
Results: The sensitivity of the diagnostic performance of Digital panoramic tomograph in predicting atheromal
plaque and final diagnosis of significant stenosis, atheromal plaque detected by Doppler in predicting final diagnosis
of significant stenosis was higher when the risk increase (higher in type II diabetic group) .No statistically significant
differences between control group and type II diabetic group regarding finding on panoramic radiograph although the
prevalence ratio in type II diabetic group higher than control . Calcification finding shows statistical significant
difference regarding being employed and age (un employed over and over 60 years subjects had more calcification).
Statistical significant difference was found between control and type II diabetic group regarding carotid atheromal
plaque finding on Doppler. Although the prevalence ratio of ffinal diagnosis of significant stenosis in type II diabetic
group 5 times higher than control group, the observed increased risk failed to reach the level of statistically significant
,also final diagnosis of significant stenosis shows statistically a significant difference regarding being
employed(employed had less) . Statistically found that there was significant differences between those had FDSS or not
in the mean of low density lipoprotien in type II diabetic group. The prevalence rate of atheroma, final diagnosis of
significant stenosis and Carotid calcifications were higher in unemployed subjects and sedentary life style.
Conclusions: The highest risk group in relation to had Carotid artery calcifications, atheromal plaque and Final
diagnosis of significant stenosis detected by Doppler ultrasound was in type IIDM group.
Encouragement of physical activity and sports may reduce the prevalence rate of atheroma, FDSS and
calcifications .The diagnostic performance of CAC detected by DDPT as a diagnostic tool for plaque detected by
Doppler and the diagnostic performance DDPT and AP detected by DUS in predicting FDSS had higher sensitivity
and PPV in type IIDM group than healthy .The dentist able to discover asymptomatic significant stenosis in patient
with carotid artery Calcification on panoramic radiograph and should refer these patients to physician for
determination the magnitude of the disease by further examination this referral had similar importance when
radiologist discover in patient atheromal plaque detected by Doppler ultrasound and do further investigation by
Doppler to determine the magnitude of the disease and find asymptomatic significant stenosis .
Key words: carotid stenosis. Doppler ultrasound. Panoramic radiograph. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 50-55).


Assessment of serum and salivary oxidative stress biomarkers with evaluation of oral health status in a sample of autistic male children

Authors: Raja H. Al-Jubouri --- Mayyadah H. Rashid
Pages: 56-60

Background: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, presents in early childhood, characterized by severe
impairments in socialization, communication and behavior. Autism is considered a multi-factorial disorder that is
influenced by genetic, environmental, and immunological factors with oxidative stress as a mechanism linking these
factors. Assessment of any oral manifestations; measurement of oxidative stress in saliva has to be discovered,
evaluated and measured in autistics to be used as a potential diagnostic aid since saliva is an ultra-filtrate of serum
and meet the demand for inexpensive, noninvasive and accessible diagnostic methodology.
Materials and methods: Oral health status: DMFT/dmft and gingival indices as well Serum and salivary
Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels , glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and uric acid (UA) were estimated
for 58 individuals aged (2-13) years, twenty nine of them were autistics and twenty nine were sex and age matched
healthy controls.
Results: The results of this study showed that Iraqi autistic children sample was more likely to be caries-free, with
significant abnormalities of the oxidative stress biomarkers.
Conclusion: Saliva can be used as adjunctive diagnostic aid for measurement of the oxidative stress in autism. Serum
GSH and uric acid then serum and salivary Malonyldialdehyde followed by salivary glutathione and serum
superoxide dismutase are the most powerful predictors of autism spectrum disorder respectively.
Key words: Autism spectrum disorder; Oxidative stress; Oral health status. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 56-60).


Histological study of the effect of eucalyptol oil vapours on the development of the palate and tooth germ (experimental study on rats)

Authors: Athraa Y. Al- Hijazi --- Muhanad T. Jehad
Pages: 61-66

Background: Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the
eucalyptol oil vapour on the palate and tooth germ development of rats embryos for the periods of (16th day ,18th day
intrauterine life and one day old rats) histologically and histomorphometrically.
Materials and Methods: In this study thirty pregnant albino Wistar female rats(2-3 months of age, 200-250 gm of weight)
were divided into two groups: Control group not subjected to the synthetic eucalyptol oil inhalation vapour and
experimental group subjected to the synthetic eucalyptol oil inhalation vapour. The embryos at 16,18 day of intrauterine
life and one day old were histologically studied for the development of palate and molar tooth germ development.
Results: The results demonstrated a retardation of the palate and tooth germ development of 16th and 18th intrauterine
life embryos of experimental groups in comparison to control. Immature enamel , wide predentin and interglobular
dentin were detected in the tooth germ of embryo (one day old) from pregnant rats exposed to the eucalyptol oil
Conclusions : Eucalyptol oil vapour can affect on the palate(Failure of fusion of palatine shelves) and tooth germ
development (mineralization and maturation process of dentin and enamel respectively showing immature enamel
and interglobular dentin with wide predentin ) .
Key words: Eucalyptol oil, Wistar rats, palate , molar tooth germ, palatine shelves. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 61-


Prevalence, sex distribution of oral lesions in patients attending an oral diagnosis clinic in Sulaimani University

Authors: Mustafa J. Abdullah --- Shanaz M. Gaphor
Pages: 67-73

Background: Oral lesions prevalence studies are important to know the state of health and the needs of treatment.
The age, gender, educational, socioeconomic, and cultural levels, smoking, medications used, and systemic
diseases are factors that could predispose the presence of oral lesions. The present study was designed to determine
the prevalence of oral lesions in patients who visit the Oral Diagnosis Clinic of the College of Dentistry, University of
Patients and methods: This prospective study was performed on 3144 patients from July 2009-July 2010. In this study a
total of 3144 patients were examined. Of these 1507 (47.93%) were males and 1637 (52.06%) females. The patients'
age ranged between 10 to 79 years. An interview was conducted to collect information using a structured
questionnaire which was completed by each patient. The lesions that could not be diagnosed by clinical
examination alone were analyzed histopathologically.
Results: Among the 3144 patients, only 799 patients (25.41%) had one or more oral lesions. The number of oral lesions
was 905. Females constituted 49.81% (n=398) and males 50.18% (n=401). Oral lesions were classified according to the
following seven categories: tongue lesions (9.70%), anatomic changes (8.71%), white lesions (4.8%), ulcerated lesions
(3.1%), candidiasis (1.3%), benign lesions (1.05%) and malignant lesions (0.03%). Tongue lesions were highly
significantly more common among males (12.07%) than in females (7.51%). Denture stomatitis, Denture induced
fibrous hyperplasia, and Torus palatinus were significantly more common among females than in males (P<0.05),
while hairy tongue, Ankyloglossia, Fordyce granule were highly significantly more common among males than in
females. Linea alba was highly significantly more common among females (5.86%) than in males (3.64%).
Conclusion: Routine examinations of oral cavities are valuable in identifying several oral lesions and this will help to
establish early diagnosis and treatment and better prognosis particularly early precancerous and other oral lesions.
Keywords: Abnormalities, oral mucosal lesions, prevalence. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 67-73).


The study of oral manifestations, oxidative stress marker and antioxidants in serum and saliva of rheumatoid arthritis patients

Authors: Tagreed F. Zaidan --- Zahra K. Hadi
Pages: 74-79

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease with a spectrum of clinical severity ranging from
mild arthritis to a crippling joint disorder with internal organ involvement. Besides the immunological reaction, there is
another biological process, based on the injurious activity of free radicals, playing a major role in the pathogenesis;
an increase in the generation of oxidants and lipid peroxidation products was demonstrated in the serum of RA
patients, which correlated with the antioxidant levels.
Subjects, Materials and Methods: Seventy six individuals were enrolled in this study; Fifty one of them were patients
having RA; twenty five were healthy control individuals matching the patients in age and sex. Serum and saliva
samples have been taken from each subject for biochemical analysis.
Results: The highest number of RA patients was of mild disease activity, while the lowest number was of inactive
disease activity. Xerostomia was the most prominent oral manifestations of RA patients. The mean of serum and
saliva MDA and UA in RA patients was significantly higher than of the healthy controls. The mean of serum and saliva
caeruloplasmin in RA patients was higher than that of the healthy controls.
Conclusion: Rheumatoid arthritis patients were associated with increased oxidative stress, antioxidants and
inflammatory markers.. Patients with RA have different oral manifestations xerostomia were the most prominent. The
highest number of RA patients was of mild disease activity.
Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, oxidative stress, DAS, saliva flow rate. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 74-79).


Factors associated with parotid gland enlargement among poorly controlled Type II Diabetes Mellitus


Background: Microscopic examination of parotid gland reveals hypertrophy of the aciner cells sometimes two to
three times greater than normal size of PG, in cases associated with longstanding diabetes. This study was designed
to determine the effects of duration, fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin on parotid gland
enlargement among poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Subjects, Materials, and Method: This study was conducted on 36 parotid glands of 18 with type 2 DM , at age range
( 40-60) years, all of them were selected from subjects attending (Endocrine clinic for diabetic patients) in Baghdad
Teaching Hospital. , pg was measured with ultrasonography in both longitudinal and horizontal plane.
Results: the rate of enlargement of pg was higher with higher duration period of DM study sample , also the rate of
enlargement of pg was higher with higher value of HbA1c % and finally the rate of enlargement of pg was higher
with higher fasting serum glucose level among DM study group.
Conclusion: This result show that the duration is the most effective factor associated with parotid gland enlargement
among poorly controlled type 2 DM.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2011;23(3): 80-82).


Salivary enzymes as markers of chronic periodontitis among smokers and non smokers

Authors: Ayser N. Mohammad
Pages: 83-87

Background: the periodontal cells contain many intra cellular enzymes like alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate
aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenates (LDH) that are released outside into the saliva and gingival
crivicular fluid (GCF) after destruction of periodontal tissue during periodontitis.
Aim of the study: To determine the activity of these enzymes in saliva among smoker and non smoker patients with
chronic periodontitis, and its relation to the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index PLI, gingival index GI,
pocket depth PD and clinical attachment level CAL).
Material & methods: 40 samples of chronic periodontitis patients (20) non smokers and (20) smokers were collected
for the study of salivary (AST), (ALT), and (LDH) levels were analyzed spectra metrically.
Result: statistical analysis revealed highly significant difference in LDH activity (142±14.63IU/L) between smoker and
non smoker groups with significant positive correlation between the activity of LDH and GI, PD and CAL among
smokers. Also significant positive correlation between AST, ALT, LDH enzymes and CAL in smokers.
Conclusion: The present study showed a significant positive correlation between CAL and all enzymes levels among
Key words: non smokers, smokers, salivary enzymes, periodontitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 83-87).


Experimental gingivitis in overweight subjects Clinical and Microbiological study


Background: Obesity is a complex multifactorial chronic diseasethat affecting the host immunity which may stimulate
a hyperinflammatory response in periodontal disease. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the gingival
clinical parameters between Obese, pre-obese, and normal weight. Along with estimating the effect of overweight
on healing process of experimental gingivitis, also to determine and compare the microbiological findings between
Obese, pre-obese, and normal weight.
Materials and Methods: Our study dealing with experimental gingivitis using the clinical parameters (plaque index
and gingival index), existent bacterial flora, oral hygiene improvement on normal weight, pre-obese, and obese
subjects showing healthy systemic condition, using the body mass index (BMI) and inter parametric comparison on 30
individuals, male with no previous medical history, age ranged from 20-30years old,10 of them are obese, 10 are
within overweight(pre-obese) and the other 10 are within normal weight.Dental plaque samples were taken from
each subjects when the gingiva reaches inflammation (Mean GI≥1).
Results: The G.I .parameter showed a significant higher score of inflammation on the pre-obese and obese samples
during the initiation of the disease (P≤0.002), and also showed a prolonged improvement response after the recovery
of the oral hygiene control (P≤0.001).The bacterial findings showed an equal percent of streptococci and
staphylococci but with predominance on other species in normal weight subjects. The pre-obese showed an
increase percent of klebsiella .The obese subjects showed insignificant differences and almost equal percent of
streptococci, staphylococci and pseudomonades with undetectable number of klebseila.
Conclusion: This study found that Obesity is an active risk factor for gingival and periodontal disease, and it’s playing
a role in elevating body response to dental plaque with increasing the healing period.
Key words: Obesity, experimental gingivitis, microbiology, healing period. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 88-91).


Prevalence of periodontal abscess among controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients (comparative study)

Authors: Hayder R. Abdulbaqi
Pages: 92-96

Background: The aim of this study is to compare the periodontal health status and prevalence of periodontal
abscess between controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients.
Material and Methods: sixty four type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study, thirty two patients were
controlled diabetic and the other thirty two patients were uncontrolled diabetic. The study was cross sectional and
the diabetic patients were selected regardless the periodontal health status and sex but adjusted according type 2
diabetic mellitus. Periodontal health examination include plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket
depth (PPD) and teeth with periodontal abscess were recorded except third molar teeth were excluded.
Results: There was no significant difference in mean of plaque index and probing pocket depth but significant
difference in mean gingival index between both groups. There was a significant difference regarding periodontal
abscess per tooth between both groups with a frequency distribution showed that the lower anterior teeth were
most affected followed by the upper anterior teeth then the lower posterior teeth.
Conclusion: periodontal abscesses affect more uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patient than controlled. So it is
important to the diabetic patients to control their diabetic status to avoid such a decline in their periodontal health.
Key words: periodontal abscess, type 2 diabetic patient, periodontal health status, frequency distribution. (J Bagh
Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 92-96).


Oral hygiene and gingival health among overweight Iraqi school – age children (clinical comparative study)

Authors: ReemH. Majeed --- Enas R. Naaom --- KadhimJ. Hanau
Pages: 97-101

Background: The impact of obesity on general human health status has been studied extensively in modern literature
as it found to be related to most systemic disease including cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic and other
diseases. On the other hand, studies have found a strong association between obesity and various clinical and
pathological aspects of periodontal disease, but most of these studies were directed toward adult age group only
without inclusion of younger age groups. This matter calls for more researches to be directed toward these age
groups. This research was conducted to provide a baseline data that hopefully fill the gap of shortage of knowledge
in this vital subject.
Material and method: The sample of this research was consists of 180 children (90 girls & 90 boys) with age range (6 –
12). For each gender and according to their percentile ranking, the children were allocated into three subgroups
(healthy weight, at risk of overweight and overweight). Each group was consists of (30) children. All of children were
examined for Plaque Index (PLI), and bleeding on probing index (BOP).
Results: Greater values for PLI were recorded for children in overweight groups (1.36 for girls & 1.51 for boys) in
comparison to those in healthy (0.85 for girls & 0.98 for boys) and at risk (1.07 for girls & 1.91 for boys) groups. Greater
values for BOP were also recorded for children in overweight groups (0.43 for girls & 0.67 for boys) in comparison to
those in healthy (0.11 for girls & 0.13 for boys) and at risk (0.42 for girls & 0.35 for boys) groups. According to paired
sample t-test, most of these differences were found to be statistically highly significant. Non significant differences
were recorded between different study groups on gender basis.
Conclusion: This research has documents the relation of obesity to periodontal health in children regardless of their
genders, but more studies to explore different aspects of this relation still required.
Key words: Obesity. Periodontal disease. BMI. BOP. PLI. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 97-101).


Measurements of periodontal temperature & its comparison to the crevicular fluid flow in the assessment of periodontal disease severity

Authors: Maha Sh AL-Rubaie --- Enas Sh Hamad
Pages: 102-108

Background: In periodontics, there is a need for objective measurements in monitoring disease processes& in
assessing the effectiveness of treatment. Elevated temperature is one of 4 cardinal inflammatory signs& is a potential
indicator of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to determine& compare the severity of periodontal
disease by subgingival temperature measurements in health& disease state, determine the correlation between
periodontal parameters (bleeding on probing& probing depth) and subgingival temperature measurements&
compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow with subgingival temperature.
Material & Methods: 10 male subjects ranging in age (35-55) years were measured at 4 sites per tooth for subgingival
temperature, GCF flow, probing pocket depth& bleeding on probing.GCF collected by means of endodontic paper
points size 30. Subgingival temperatures were measured using digital thermometer while sublingual temperature was
measured by sublingual digital thermometer. To compensate for subject-to-subject variations in core temperature,
site temperatures were measured& expressed as a difference relative to sublingual temperature. Following
measurement of subgingival temperature, probing depth& bleeding on probing were recorded using periodontal
Results: The results indicated that subjects differed in their mean temperature difference. Similarly, temperature at a
site in relation to its location in the mouth, pocket depth, bleeding on probing, GCF flow& inflammatory status.
Analysis of the results revealed a significant (p<0.05) difference between mean temperature difference of healthy&
diseased sites, anterior& posterior, maxillary& mandibular teeth for both healthy& diseased sites. A natural posterior to
anterior temperature gradient was observed with the posterior sites being hotter than the anterior sites& mandibular
sites hotter than maxillary sites. Tooth by tooth analysis showed that diseased teeth have higher temperature than
anatomically equivalent healthy teeth. Subgingival temperature also correlates significantly (p<0.05) with certain
clinical parameters like probing depth, bleeding on probing while GCF flow differed significantly from subgingival
Conclusion: subgingival temperature measurements can be used as a successful mean of diagnosis or monitoring
periodontal condition, but additional studies are necessary to develop thermometry as a diagnostic aid in
periodontal practice.
Key words: Subgingival temperature, periodontal disease severity. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 102-108).


Effect of super dental floss on oral hygiene in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

Authors: Mohammed A.H. Al-Bahadli
Pages: 109-111

Background: orthodontic appliances contribute to plaque retention and interfere with the performance of good oral
hygiene. This study was conducted to find the effect of using super dental floss in the oral hygiene of orthodontic
Materials and methods: The study sample is comprised of 16 orthodontic patients (7 males and 9 females); ranging in
age from 15–22 years at the beginning of orthodontic treatment. The quantity of plaque were evaluated after one
week when patients wear orthodontic appliance then another recording was done after one week instruction of
using super dental floss. By using disclosing tablets we account the quantity of plaque. We assessed 12 anterior teeth
in each patient by using score from 0-3
Results: four teeth from 192 one represent 0 score and 34, 111, 43 teeth represent score 1, 2, 3 respectively before
using super dental floss while 143, 37, 12, 0 represent number of teeth in score 0, 1, 2, 3 respectively after flossing.
When the t-test was applied to test significant between plaque quantity before and after using super floss,a
significant differences were noted.
Conclusion: Patients' instructions to use super dental floss are considered as an important factor for planning good
oral hygiene.
Keywords: super dental floss, oral hygiene, fixed orthodontic appliance. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 109-111).


The effect of low-level laser on osseointegration of dental implants

Authors: Ali H. Abbas --- Salah A. Issmaeel
Pages: 112-116

Background: The aim of this study to evaluate the effect of low- level laser on the Osseointegration of dental implant.
Materials and methods: Fourteen patients included in this study that needs dental implants in both sides of the jaw
whether upper or lower jaw. One side of the jaw received dental implant and laser radiation, while the other side
received dental implant only.
Results: Low- level laser application had stimulated Osseointegration, that’s bone formation and maturation around
the implants was improved the site where laser application has been used than that bone around implants without
laser application especially at 4-6 weeks after surgery.
Conclusion: Accelerated bone formation and maturation around the dental implant after application of low- level
Key words: Dental implant, low- level laser. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 112-116).


Caries experience of the first permanent molars among a group of children attending Pedodontics' Clinic College of Dentistry

Authors: Ahlam T. Mohammed
Pages: 117-119

Background: First permanent molars are very important teeth and they have the highest caries attack rate among
the permanent dentition. This study was designed to investigate the mortality and severity of caries as well as
treatment needs in the first permanent molars.
Materials and methods: The sample composed of 92 children aged 6-12 years old. Caries experience and treatment
needs were measured by using dental mirror and sickle shape probe.
Results: 14. 1% of children were caries free. DMFT and DMFS were increased with age. DT was the major part of DMFT.
About 47% of the total sample needed one surface restoration.
Conclusion: First permanent molars have a high caries experience and more care should be given to conserve them
by fissure sealing or by prompt treatment of early lesions.
Keyword: Caries, permanent first molars, children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 117-119).


Oral hygiene and salivary immunoglobulin among acute lymphocytic leukemic patients undergoing chemotherapy courses

Authors: Nadia A. Al-Rawi
Pages: 120-123

Background: Chemotherapy impaired the normal function of the human immune system. The patients' ability to
accomplish adequate oral hygiene may be limited. When chemotherapy is indicated, it is imperative that health of
the oral cavity be assessed initially as well as throughout therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the oral
hygiene and salivary immunoglobulin in patients undergoing chemotherapy courses.
Subjects and methods: The study groups included 30 acute lymphatic patients, they were under chemotherapy. The
control group includes 30 subjects matching with study group in age and gender. Plaque status was evaluated
according to the Silness &Loe Index, dental calculus according to Ramfjord index, while gingival condition was
assessed according to Loe & Silness. After oral examination, stimulated saliva samples were collected from the subjects
and performed under standard condition following instruction cited by Tenovuo & Lagerlof, and chemically analyzed
for the detection of salivary immunoglobulin (IgA & IgG).
Results: Higher plaque, calculus and gingival index were recorded among acute lymphatic patients compare to the
control group, statistically significant difference with calculus index between groups. A low level of IgA, and IgG were
seen among the study group compared to the control groups in both genders. A non-significant correlation was
found between salivary immunoglobulin and oral cleanliness among acute lymphatic patients.
Conclusions: Salivary immunoglobulin levels affect severally by chemotherapy. Salivary IgA, and IgG defect seem to
play a role in the development of poor oral hygiene among acute lymphatic patients.
Key words: Oral health, salivary immunoglobulin, chemotherapy. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 120-123).


Enamel defects in relation to nutritional status among a group of children with congenital heart disease (Ventricular septal defect)

Authors: Wael S. Al-Alousi --- Nidaa O. AL-Etbi
Pages: 124-129

Background: Congenital heart disease is a structural anomaly of the heart or great vessels, that is or could be of
functional significance. Children with congenital heart disease are at a high risk to develop oral diseases. The aim of
this study was to investigate the percentage of occurrence and severity of the enamel defects in relation to the
nutritional status among a group of children with ventricular septal defect compared to control group matching with
age and gender.
Materials and methods: A sample of 60 pediatric patients with ventricular septal defect (study group) and 30 normal
healthy children (control group), their ages range between (5-8) years old were examined. The study group was
divided into two subgroups according to the medication (with medication ventricular septal defect and without
medication ventricular septal defect groups). Clinical examinations were conducted under standardized conditions.
Enamel defects were diagnosed and recorded following the criteria of World Health Organization (1). The assessment
of nutritional status was performed by using anthropometric measurement (body mass index) following the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (2).
Results: Results revealed that a higher percentage of children with enamel defects were recorded among with
medication ventricular septal defect group 80%, without medication ventricular septal defect group 63.3%
compared to13.3% in the control group. For the primary teeth, hypoplasia was the most distributed type of enamel
defects among ventricular septal defect groups. While among the control group, demarcated opacities were the
most prevalent type for both dentition. The enamel hypoplasia for primary and permanent teeth showed higher
mean value among malnourished children compared to well nourished among both ventricular septal defect
groups with statistically no significant difference.
Conclusions: Children with ventricular septal defect had a high enamel defects compared to the control children.
Key words: Septal defect, nutrition, hypoplasia. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 124-129).


Alveolar base and dental arch widths with segmental arch measurements in different classes of malocclusions (A comparative study)

Authors: Ausama A. Al- Mulla --- Noor F.K. Al-Khawaja
Pages: 130-136

Background: The size and shape of the arches have considerable implications in orthodontic diagnosis and
treatment planning. The aim was to evaluate and compare alveolar bases, dental arches and segmental arch
dimensions of class II division 1, class III malocclusion groups with normal occlusion subjects and to check gender
differences and maxillary and mandibular arch widths difference.
Materials and Methods: Dental casts of 62 subjects aged between 18 - 28 years were included in the study. They
were equally divided between males & females, consisting of 26 class I normal, 22 Class II division 1, and 14 Class III
malocclusion and eleven liner measurements were utilized for each dental arch.
Results: All measured dimensions were greater in males than in females except for mandibular inter alveolar premolar
width and maxillary left canine molar distance in class III malocclusion and in maxilla than in mandible except inter
molar width in class II and class III groups and alveolar base dimensions in class III malocclusion. In class I all
measurements were wider than class II division 1 while, in class III was wider than class I in all mandibular alveolar
base and mandibular inter premolar width and wider in all maxillary dental arch widths, all mandibular alveolar base
dimensions and mandibular inter canine and premolar widths than class II division 1 group.
Conclusion: Maxillary molar teeth in subjects with Class II division1 tend to incline buccally to compensate the
insufficient alveolar base, while subjects with Class III malocclusion maxillary posterior teeth tend to incline lingually
and mandibular posterior teeth inclined buccally due to the restriction in maxillary arch.
Key words: Alveolar base; dental arch; class I normal; class II division 1 and III. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 130-


The morphology and texture of Iraqi skeletal class II young adults (Cephalometric study)

Authors: Nagham Al-Mothaffar --- Raoof R. Toma
Pages: 137-143

Background: Different studies concerning craniofacial morphology of skeletal Class II have reported a lot of
controversies in their results. The aim of the present study is to study the types of class II that can be found what are
the texture and craniofacial growth pattern in each type rather than in the loose context of "Class II".
Materials and methods: The skeletal class II sample included 104 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric
radiographs (18-30 years) who were selected on the basis of Beta angle [<27°] and divided into five groups
according to the location of maxilla and mandible in relation to the anterior cranial base (SNA and SNB angles).
Another 30 radiographs were selected as a control group (normal SNA and SNB angles, Beta angle 27°-35°). Fourteen
angular and nine linear measurements were digitized and recorded using AutoCAD 2010 computer program.
Results and conclusions: In comparison with skeletal class I, skeletal class II had no significant difference in anterior
and posterior cranial base lengths and facial heights. The individuals with othognathism of upper jaw and
retrognathism of lower had the highest anterior facial height and the least mandibular base length, while those with
prognathism of upper jaw with orthognathism of lower had the highest gonial angle with least articular angle.
Combination of prognathism of maxilla with retognathism of mandible showed vertical growth pattern with most
convex profile. Retrognathism of both upper and lower jaws appeared in individuals with highest saddle and palatal
plane angle with the least gonial angle, while individuals with prognathism of both jaws showed horizontal growth
pattern with highest posterior facial height and least mandibular plane angle and anterior facial height.
Key words: Skeletal class II, class II, cephalometrics. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 137-143).


Inter-arch tooth size discrepancy for Sulaimani population with class II malocclusion

Authors: Trefa M. Ali
Pages: 144-148

Background The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between anterior and overall tooth size
discrepancies for Class II (division 1 and division 2) malocclusion in Sulaimani population, assessing the mesiodistal
width of 12 permanent teeth upper and lower from right first permanentmolar to the other and explore the possible
significant gender differences.
Materials and Methods The sample was collected from patient attending orthodontic clinic in the college of
dentistry, Sulaimani University aged 14 – 25 years old, the materials consisted of stone casts of the dentition of 53
pateints (males and females) , 30 of them class II division 1 ( 15 male and 15 female) and the remaining 23 casts were
class II division 2 ( 12 male , 11 female) who presented with complete eruption of permanent mandibular incisors,
canines, premolars and first molars , as well as maxillary canines , premolars and first molars.
Results The overall and anterior ratios were consistently larger in males than in females but statistically non significant
also there were no significant differences in comparison between class II div.1 and class II div.2 concerning both
overall and anterior ratios.
Conclusion Intermaxillary tooth size ratios may vary in different malocclusion types and may, to some degree,
contribute to the severity of a malocclusion and an appropriate relationship of the mesiodistal widths of the maxillary
and mandibular teeth favors optimal post-treatment results. So these results improved that the Bolton analysis is
important and should be considered when diagnosing, planning, and predicting prognosis in clinical orthodontics.
Key Words: Tooth size discrepancy, Bolton ratio, Sulaimani population. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 144-148).

أن هدف الدراسةُ الحاليةُ هو لَتحري الإرتباط بين تناقضات حجمِ الأسنان الأماميه والخلفيه للصنف الثّاني من الأطباق بقسميه الاول والثاني في سكانِ محافظة السليمانيه، يقيم
لبيان النسبة الاماميه والخلفيه و بيان إختلافا َ ت الجنسِ الها  مة المحتملة، العينة جمع ْ ت م  ن Bolton ratio عرض 12 سن دائمِ من الفكين العلوي و السفلي و أعتماد معادلة
25 سنه من الذين استوفوا المواصفات المطلوب - المرضى الذين يراجعون عياد َة تقويم الأسنان في كلية طبِ الأسنان، جامعة السليمانيه حيث تم اختيار 53 مريض بعمرِ 14
12 ذكر، 11 أنثى)، و قياس ابعاد الاسنان قد ) 15 ذكر و 15 أنثى) والقوالب الباقية ال 23 كَان ْ ت صن َ ف الّثاني قسم 2 ) للدراسة (ذكور وإناث ، 30 منهم صنف الثّاني قسم 1
بعد جمع البيانات تم تحليلها بواسطة الحاسوب (Bolton ration تمت على تماذج دراسية باستعمال مقياس سني الكتروني و نسبة قياس الاسنان حللت باستعمال ( 1958
المبرمج احصائيا و كانت نتائج النسب الأماميه و الخلفيه أكبر بثبات في الذكورِ م  ن الإناث و هناك أيضا إختلافا َ ت ها  م َ ة بالمقارنة بين الصنفين الاول والثاني.


The characteristic features of skeletal class III in Iraqi adult orthodontic patient

Authors: Nagham Al-Mothaffar --- Wurood KH. Al-lehaibi
Pages: 149-155

Background: Skeletal class III malocclusion is one of the dentofacial anomalies which associated with deviation in
the sagittal relationship of maxilla and mandible. This study performed to determine the characteristic features of
skeletal class III compared with skeletal class I.
Materials and methods: Skeletal class III sample included 100 pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs
(18-29) years which selected on the basis of Beta angle [> 35°] and divided into five groups according to location of
maxilla and mandible in relation to the anterior cranial base (SNA and SNB angles). Another 45 radiographs were
selected as control group (normal SNA, SNB angles, Beta angle 27°-35°). Fourteen angular and eight linear
measurements digitized and recorded using AutoCAD 2010 computer program.
Results and Conclusions: In comparison with skeletal class I, skeletal class III had: Shorter anterior cranial base length,
more obtuse gonial angle, no significant difference in the articular angle and upper anterior facial height. Labially
proclined upper incisor and lingually retroclined lower incisor. The prognathism of both jaws was formed 43% of the
sample with the most horizontal growth pattern and protruded profile, the retrognathism of both jaws formed 20%
with the most vertical growth pattern and retruded profile. 17% of the sample had normal positioned maxilla and
protruded mandible and displayed horizontal growth pattern with protruded profile. Pure retruded maxilla formed
12% of the sample and the least type was the combined maxillary retrognathism and mandibular prognathism (8%);
both showed vertical growth pattern with protruded profile but extremely obvious in the latest one.
Key words: Skeletal class III, Characteristic features. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(3): 149-155).


A cephalometric lips analysis and its relation to other cephalometric measurements in Iraqi adult individuals

Authors: Yasir R. Al-Labban
Pages: 156-159

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the effect and behavior of the upper and lower lips
in class I Iraqi subjects.
Material and methods: True lateral cephalometric radiograph of the sample that comprises 60 females and 50 males
aged18-25 years and they possess class I skeletally and dentally. All the data have been analyzed by mean of
AutoCAD computer programs where 9 cephalometric angles have been analyzed.
Results: In males the mean value of lower lip inclination, the upper lip inclination, and interlabial angle have no
significant difference with that in females, so the mean values are 81.03, 84.2, and 158 respectively. The lower lip is
correlated with F. man., upper lip inclination, interlabial angle, interincisal angle, upper and lower incisor inclination.
The upper lip inclination is correlated with SGn. FH., F. man., interlabial angle, interincisal angle and lower lip
inclination. Interlabial angle is correlated with upper lip inclination, interincisal angle, lower lip inclination, and upper
central incisor inclination.
Kewords: upper and lower lip inclination, interlabial angle, soft tissue cephalometric. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2011;23(3): 156-159).


Soft-tissue cephalometric norms for a sample of Iraqi adults with class I normal occlusion in natural head position

Authors: Mushriq F. Al-Janabi --- ZainabM. Kadhom
Pages: 160-166

Background: The purposes of this study were to establish the cephalometric norms for Iraqi adults with normal
occlusion and well-balanced faces for both genders using Arnett et al. (1) analysis, to establish the mean values of
(the dentoskeletal factor, the soft tissues structures, the facial length, true vertical line (TVL) projection and the
harmony values measurements) and to verify the existence of gender difference
Materials & methods: 60 Iraqi adult subjects (30 males and 30 females) with an age ranged between 18-25 years
having normal occlusion and well-balanced face were chosen for this study. Each individual was subjected to
clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric X-ray in the natural head position which is mirror position in
which the patient looking straight into his eyes into the mirror mounted on the stand. The radiographs were analyzed
using AutoCAD program 2007 to measure the distances and angles used in the Soft Tissue Cephalometric Analysis.
Descriptive statistics was obtained for the measured variables for both genders and independent- samples t-test was
performed to evaluate the genders difference.
Results &conclusions: The results indicated that: females have high mean value of the angle between the maxillary
occlusal plane and TVL, increase in upper lip angle more than males. The males have thicker upper & lower lips,
more soft tissue chin thicknesses, higher mean value of the facial height, lower third of the face height, upper & lower
lip length, mandibular height, the projection of the maxillary & mandibular central incisor crown tip, soft tissue B & A,
nasal tip projection on the TVL and backward position of point Pog΄ and point B΄ than female.
Key words: Soft-tissue cephalometric analysis, class I normal occlusion, natural head position. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2011;23(3): 160-166).


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