Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2013 volume:14 issue:2

Article
The Effect of Promoters on the Activity of Prepared Zeolite Catalyst in FCC Process

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Abstract

Faujasite type NaY zeolite catalyst was prepared from locally available kaolin, then the prepared NaY zeolite have been modified by exchanging of sodium ion with ammonium to produce NH4Y zeolite. NH4Y zeolite was converted to HY zeolite by ion exchanging with oxalic acid. Zinc and nickel promoters have been added to the prepared HY zeolite catalyst, and the effect of these promoters on the catalytic activity of the prepared HY catalyst was studied in fluid catalytic cracking process using light gas oil as a feedstock. The experimental results show that the promoted catalyst gives higher gas oil conversion and gasoline yield than HY zeolite catalyst at the same reaction temperature and WHSV. It was also found that the promoted catalyst gives gasoline with lesser olefin content and higher aromatics compared with the gasoline produced by HY catalyst.


Article
Extraction of Oil from Eucalyptus Camadulensis Using Water Distillation Method

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Abstract

This work was conducted to study the extraction of eucalyptus oil from natural plants (Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves) using water distillation method by Clevenger apparatus. The effects of main operating parameters were studied: time to reach equilibrium, temperature (70 to100°C), solvent to solid ratio (4:1 to 8:1 (v/w)), agitation speed (0 to 900 rpm), and particle size (0.5 to 2.5 cm) of the fresh leaves, to find the best processing conditions for achieving maximum oil yield. The results showed that the agitation speed of 900 rpm, temperature 100° C, with solvent to solid ratio 5:1 (v/w) of particle size 0.5 cm for 160 minute give the highest percentage of oil (46.25 wt.%). The extracted oil was examined by HPLC.


Article
Kinetic Study and Simulation of Oleic Acid Esterification in Different Type of Reactors

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Abstract

Esterification reaction is most important reaction in biodiesel production. In this study, oleic acid was used as a suggested feedstock to study and simulate production of biodiesel. Batch esterification of oleic acid was carried out at operating conditions; temperature from 40 to 70 °C, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio from 1/1 to 6/1, H2SO4 as the catalyst 1 and 5% wt of oleic acid, reaction time up to 180 min. The optimum conditions for the esterification reaction were molar ratio of ethanol/oleic acid 6/1, 5%wt H2SO4 relative to oleic acid, 70 °C, 90 min and conversion of oleic 0.92. The activation energy for the suggested model was 26625 J/mole for forward reaction and 42189 J/mole for equilibrium constant. The obtained results simulated to other types of reactors with different operating conditions using reactop cascade package. The conversion of oleic acid of simulation results at optimum operating conditions was 0.97 for isothermal batch and plug flow reactors, 0.67 for isothermal CSTR, while the conversions of oleic acid in the adiabatic mode were 0.82, 0.40, 0.74 for batch, CSTR, PFR reactors respectively.


Article
The Application of Microwave Technology in Demulsification of Water-in-Oil Emulsion for Missan Oil Fields

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Abstract

A series of batch demulsification runs were carried out to evaluate the final emulsified water content of emulsion samples after the exposure to microwave. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a set of operating variables on the demulsification performance. Several microwave irradiation demulsification runs were carried out at different irradiation powers (700, 800, and 900 watt), using water-in-oil emulsion samples containing different water contents (20-80%, 30-70%, and 50-50%) and salt contents (10000, 20000, and 30000 ppm). It was found that the best separation efficiency was obtained at 900watt, 50% water content and 160 s of irradiation time. Experimental results showed that microwave radiation method can enhance the demulsification of water -in- oil emulsions in very short time compared to the conventional methods.


Article
Studying the Factors Affecting the Drag Coefficient in Non-Newtonian Fluids

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the factors affecting drag coefficient (C ) in non-Newtonian fluids which are the rheological properties ,concentrations of non-Newtonian fluids, particle shape, size and the density difference between particle and fluid .Also this study shows drag coefficient (C ) and particle Reynolds' number (Re ) relationship and the effect of rheological properties on this relationship. An experimental apparatus was designed and built, which consists of Perspex pipe of length of 160 cm. and inside diameter of 7.8 cm. to calculate the settling velocity, also electronic circuit was designed to calculate the falling time of particles through fluid. Two types of solid particles were used; glass spheres and crushed rocks as irregularly shaped particles with different diameters and compared with each other. The concept of equivalent spherical diameter (D ) was used to calculate the diameters of irregularly shaped particles. The flow behavior for Non-Newtonian fluids was represented by Power-Law model. Two types of polymers were used, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose CMC with concentrations of (3.71, 5, 15 and 17.5) g/l and polyacrylamide with concentrations of (2, 4 and 6) g/l. The results showed that the drag coefficient decreased with increasing settling velocity and particle diameters and sizes; and increased as fluid become far from Newtonian behavior and concentrations and the density difference between particle and fluid. The results also showed that the rheological properties of Non-Newtonian fluids have a great effect on the drag coefficient and particle Reynolds number relationship, especially in laminar-slip regime and decreases or vanishes at transition and turbulent-slip regimes. New correlations were obtained which relates drag coefficient with concentrations of polymers and with flow behavior indices for spherical and irregular shaped particles in Carboxy Methyl Cellulose CMC and polyacrylamide solutions.

Keywords

Fluid flow --- Drag --- Settling


Article
Zinc Element Traces to Inhibit Scale Formation on Cooling Tower and Air Cooler Systems

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Abstract

Calcium carbonate is predominantly present in aqueous systems, which is commonly used in industrial processes. It has inverse solubility characteristics resulting in the deposition of scale on heat transfer surface. This paper focuses on developing methods for inhibition of calcium carbonate scale formation in cooling tower and air cooler system where scaling can cause serious problems, ZnCl and ZnI has been investigated as scale inhibitor on AISI 316 and 304. ZnCl were more effective than ZnI in both systems, and AISI 316 show more receptivity to the chlorides salt compared to AISI 304. The inhibitors were more effective in cooling tower than air cooler system. AISI 316 show more constant inhibition efficiency in cooling tower with maximum of 95% with ZnCl and 83% with ZnI .


Article
Reverse Osmosis Polyamide Membrane for the Removal of Blue and Yellow Dye from Waste Water

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Abstract

The present work aims to study the removal of dyes from wastewater by reverse osmosis process. Two dyes were used direct blue 6, and direct yellow. Experiments were performed with feed concentration (75 – 450 ppm), operation temperature (30 – 50 oC) and time (0.2 – 2.0 h). The membrane used is thin film composite membrane (TFC). It was found that modal permeate concentration decreases with increasing feed concentration and time operating, while permeate concentration increases with increasing feed temperature. Also it was found that product rate increase with increasing temperature, but it decrease with increasing feed concentration and time. The concentration of reject solution showed an increase with increasing feed concentration of dyes and feed temperature, while decreases with increasing time operating of reverse osmosis unit. The maximum rejection for direct blue 6 and direct yellow are 98.89% and 98.30% respectively. The maximum recovery percentage for direct blue 6 and direct yellow are 17.84% and 18.20% respectively. The maximum concentration factor of direct blue 6 is 1.227 and for direct yellow is 1.272.

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