Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access


A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Contact info

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Table of content: 2011 volume:23 issue:2

The effect of four different cooling procedures on the dimensional stability of microwave-activated acrylic resin at different time intervals

Authors: Aseel M. Al- Khafaji
Pages: 1-5

Background: Acrylic denture bases are commonly made of poly methyl methacrylate with different processing
methods such procedure deliver denture with acceptable mechanical properties and certain unavoidable
dimensional changes. Several factors may affect final adaptation of the dentures as the type of the acrylic resin, the
cooling procedures of the flasks and the water uptake. This study was design to investigate the effect of four
different flask cooling procedure (running water at room temperature for 15 minutes, bench cooling for one hour,
bench cooling for four hours and bench cooling for 24 hours) on the dimensional stability of microwave acrylic resin
at four different time intervals (immediately, two days, seven days, 30 days) after deflasking.
Materials and methods: Microwave-activated acrylic resin (Acron TM MCGC 2AB) was used to prepare (20) acrylic
specimens. Then after curing procedure different ways of flask cooling was applied for cooling the flasks (rapid
cooling for 15 minutes, bench cooling for one hour, bench cooling for four hours and bench cooling for 24 hours)
then measurement of the distances where achieved between the centers of selected marks in (mm) after
computerized scanning of the acrylic specimens at different time intervals (immediately, two days, seven days, 30
days) after deflasking for the 4 different methods of flask cooling.
Results: The statistical analysis of the results using t test showed that the samples of one hour and four hours bench
cooling groups were insignificant difference from the metal pattern at different time intervals. The quenching group
was significant difference from the metal pattern at all time intervals. And the result of 24 hour bench cooling group
show a significant difference from the metal pattern at immediate and 2days after deflasking when compared with
the metal pattern while it show insignificant difference from the metal pattern at 7 and 30 days after deflasking.
Conclusion: In this study we suggest kept of the microwave acrylic resin in the flask for 1hour and 4hour after
processing to obtain accurate and more dimensionally stable dentures.
Key words: Dimensional stabilit microwave-activated acrylic resin, flask cooling. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(2):1-5).


Evaluation of the effects of different mechanical surface treatments on surface roughness to improve repair bond strength of aged composite restoration

Authors: Firas J. M. Al-Dabbagh
Pages: 6-12

Background: Some clinical situation may require the repair of aged composite. The higher degree of resin conversion
rate may prove to be disadvantages if a repair procedure based on covalent bonding from unreacted
methacrylate group is attempted. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of different mechanical surface treatments
(ST) on surface roughness measurement (SRM) to improve repair shear bond strength (SBS) of aged composite
restoration and determine the mode of bond failure.
Materials and methods: Forty composite (Dyract® EXRTRA)samples for SBS test & twelve samples for SRM were
constructed & aged for 6 months in DD water at 37°C & randomly allocated into 4 groups(Gp) according to
mechanical ST; Gp-I(control):no mechanical ST. Gp-II: pumice polishing. Gp-III: Soflex disc polishing. Gp-IV: Diamond
disc roughening. After that all samples etched by H3PO4, SRM were measured, then intermediate adhesive (Prime &
Bond® NT) were applied, followed by repair composite material (Dyract® EXRTRA).After 24hr. storage &
thermocycling, the repair joint subjected to SBS test and the failure sites were examined to determine the mode of
failure. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and LSD - tests. Chi-square(X²) was used to test
the difference in the failure site. Statistical significance was accepted if p-value < 0.05.
Results: one-way ANOVA indicated that SRM values varied significantly (P<0.05).LSD-test showed that
significantly(P<0.001) superior mean SRM was obtained by Gp-IV(diamond) (0.38 ±0.06 μm), followed by Gp-II(
pumicing)(0.16 ±0.01 μm) that had significantly(P<0.05) higher mean SRM than Gp-I (control)(0.11 ±0.04 μm), but
there are no significant difference (P=0.074) between Gp-II(pumicing)(0.16±0.01μm) and Gp-III(Soflex)(0.12±0.2
μm)and between Gp-I(control)&Gp-III(Soflex) (P=0.582). Also one-way ANOVA revealed that ST had a significant
(P<0.05) influence on repair SBS.LSD-test showed that both Gp-III(Soflex) & Gp-IV(diamond) resulted in repair
SBS(19.40±2.90Mpa and18.57±2.17Mpa, respectively) that were significantly (P<0.05) superior to both GP-I(control)
and Gp-II(pumicing) (13.14±1.91Mpa and15.14±2.07Mpa, respectively), while there are no significant difference
(P=0.059) between Gp-I(control) & Gp-II(pumicing) and also between Gp-III(Soflex) & Gp-IV(Diamond)(P=0.423).
Conclusion: Surface treatments of aged composite are important for adhesion of new composite restorations.
Roughening the composite adhesion area with diamond disc or polishing with Soflex disc can provide statistically
significant increase in SBS. Pumice polishing ST although it provides significant increase in SRM, but did not reveal
significant changes in repair SBS.
Key Words: Composite; Repair; Surface treatment; Surface roughness; Bond strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


The effect of certain disinfectant agents on alginate impression material

Authors: Ibrahim Kb. Ibrahim --- Hanan A Al-Harby
Pages: 13-16

Back ground: Dental impressions must be considered the potential to transmit the serious diseases to all dental
personal who routinely handle them; it is therefore recommended to disinfect dental impressions for all patients.
Materials and methods: Five alginate impressions were made of bronze model with a complex surface of small
pyramids and flat surface in the middle part using perforated acrylic resin trays. These impressions were treated
separately with selected disinfecting agent [ Hexyl tiethyl ammonium chloride salt, Tetra butyl ammonium iodide salt,
Iodophor, Ethanol and 2-propanol]. Dimensional accuracy, surface detail reproduction, setting time was
investigated after disinfection of alginate. The data was analyzed by a computerized statistical program.
Results: The results showed that the dimensional change was statistically in significant for most of the dimensions at 5
percent level except some measurement show slight significant difference related to dimensional accuracy.
Regarding reproduction of surface details, the results showed insignificant difference of the mean scores of
experimental groups among the three evaluators. It was found that treating the alginate with the selected
disinfecting agents will accelerate the setting time of the material.
Conclusion: The testing disinfecting agents can be used safely regarding dimensional accuracy and surface detail
reproduction, although setting time will be influenced compared to control alginate.
Key words: Alginate, disinfection, dimensional changes, surface detail, setting time. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


The effect of surface treatment on tensile bond strength between soft liner and acrylic denture base and the effect of Pepsi solution on this bond with and without surface treatment


Background: One of the major serious problems with the soft denture liners is adhesion failure between the soft liner
material and denture base. Bond failures create a potential surface for bacterial growth, plaque accumulation, and
calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of surface treatment of acrylic denture base
material (sandblast, retentive grooves) on the tensile bond strength between soft liner and acrylic denture base and
to investigate the effect of Pepsi solution on tensile bond strength with and without surface treatment of the acrylic
denture base material.
Materials and methods: Sixty heat cure acrylic resin specimens consisting of two blocks measuring (10*10*30mm)
were prepared and divided into 3 major groups. Group (P) had no surface treatment group( S) the acrylic surface
were treated with sandblast group(G) the acrylic surface were treated with retentive grooves. Each group contains
20 specimens, 10 specimens stored in distilled water and 10 stored in Pepsi for 24 hours before testing. After acrylic
specimens were prepared and treated Vertex base soft liner was applied in the space between the two blocks of
acrylic. A micro computer controlled electronic universal testing machine was used to measure the tensile bond
strength after storage in distilled water and Pepsi for 24 hours.
Results: the results revealed that there was no significant difference in tensile bond strength mean values for all test
specimens (Polished,Sandblasted,Grooved)stored in water while there was highly significant difference in tensile
bond strength mean values for the test specimens stored in Pepsi. In addition there was a highly significant difference
in tensile bond strength values between the tested specimens which stored in water when compared with those
which stored in Pepsi.
Conclusion: surface treatment by sandblasting and retentive grooves had no effect on tensile bond strength
between soft liner and acrylic denture base for the specimens stored in water while for the specimens stored in Pepsi
the tensile bond strength had decreased for the sandblasted and grooved specimens.
Key words: surface treatment, tensile bond strength, sandblast, retentive grooves, soft liner, acrylic- resin. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2011;23(2):17-21).


The effect of root canal instrumentation technique on sealing ability of soft core obturation system

Authors: Mervet M.Al-Bakry
Pages: 22-25

Background: The aim of this study is to compare the apical sealing ability of three different instrumentation
techniques using dye penetration.
Materials and methods: Thirty extracted human single straight canals were collected and these teeth were randomly
divided into three groups.
There were 10 teeth in each group. The teeth were instrumented as follows: group A with hand P.T, group B with
Rotary P.T. and group C with step –back technique then obturation with soft core was done. Endofill root canal
sealer was employed as the common sealant.
Results: The least apical microleakage was seen in hand P.T while the highest apical microleakagewas seen in stepback
There was no statistically significant difference between group A and group B (P> 0.05) while there was statistically
significant difference between group A and group C which is (P=o.o12) and between group B and group C which is
P= 0.019.
Conclusion: The highest apical microleakage was seen in step-back technique while least apical microleakagewas
seen in hand ProTaper technique followed by rotary ProTaper technique with no statistical significant difference
between hand and rotary ProTaper.
Keywords: Apical seal, soft core, hand ProTaper, Rotary ProTaper, step-back technique. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


Evaluation the biological effect of two types of denture base materials reinforced with silanated glass fiber

Authors: Aseel A. A. Radhi. --- Raghdaa K. Jassim.
Pages: 26-30

Background: Many attempts to improve the mechanical properties of acrylic denture base materials by adding filler
such as silanated glass fiber (SGF). This new product (acrylic resin +SGF) need to evaluate its biocompatibility
because of its application in direct contact with the living tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Biological
Effect of two types of denture base materials (heat-cured, light-cured) reinforced with randomly oriented short (SGF)
at four different times.
Materials and Methods: Specimens of heat and light cured denture base materials reinforced with (2mm length, 2wt
%) (SGF) was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue at the back of the Newsland rabbits. Biopsies for histopathological
observation were taken after (3days, 7days, 14days, and 30days).
Results: Histopathological observation showed mild to moderate inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of the
rabbits, and tissue acceptance improved over times.
Conclusion: It was noted that silanated glass fiber is a biocompatible material when added to heat-cured and lightcured
resins. Both resins demonstrated good level of biocompatibility within the connective tissue of the rabbit.
Key word: Biological Effect, Denture Base Materials, silanated glass fiber. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(2):26-30).


Comparison of the effect of stannous fluoride and sodiumfluoride on surface roughness of Silorane andmethacrylate based restorative material using lightpolarizing microscope

Authors: Rasha H. Jehad
Pages: 31-35

Background: Long-term fluoride application on the teeth of patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck
tumors results in excessive roughening of composite restorations. This in vitro study confirmed to compare the surface
roughness and surface morphology of two different fluoride treatments on two dental composites containing
different resin matrix by simulating one year of clinical exposure for 10 minutes per day.
Material and methods: Forty specimens of Filtek™ P90 (3M ESPE, USA) and Filtek™ Supreme XT (3M ESPE, USA) of
(12mm diameter and 3mm height) were prepared..All specimens were polished with Sof-Lex disks(3M ESPE, USA). All
specimens were brushed for 3 minutes with a soft-bristle tooth brush and mild dentifrice (control group).Each
composite specimens were immersed in one of the two fluoride gels 0.4% SnF2, or 1.1% NaF (Alpha-dent,USA) for 10
days, 10 minutes per day (n=10). All specimens were subjected to surface roughness test before and after fluoride
application by profilometer and evaluated using light polarizing microscope.ANOVA and Student t-test were used to
analyze the surface roughness value.
Results: The Feltik™ supreme XT specimens showed significantly higher surface roughness value (Ra) than Feltik™P90
before fluoride treatment (P<0.05). After both fluoride treatments composite disks of both types exhibited significantly
higher surface roughness values (P<0.01). Both composite specimens presented significantly higher surface roughness
when treated with 0.4% SnF2 as compared to NaF (P<0.05)
Conclusions:Topically applied fluorides induced adverse effects on the morphologic characteristics and composition
of flat, polished composite surfaces. Daily application of 0.4% SnF2 could be alternated with courses of 1.1% NaF
which appears to be less damaging. Zirconium-containing products are sensitive to stannous fluoride. Compared to
methacrylate-based restorative materials, the new Silorane-based material had better topographical performance.
Keywords: Silorane, surface roughness, SnF2, NaF, light polarizing microscope. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(31-36).


Evaluation of some properties of four silicon based soft denture reliner materials

Authors: Khadija S. Hassen --- Salah A. Mohammed.
Pages: 36-42

Background: lining materials have been widely used for prosthodontics rehabilitation. One unresolved problem is the
easy adherence of Candida to these materials because roughness of porous surface, inadequate adhesion of
silicon to acrylic denture base is the most problem of the silicone soft liner material. Although silicone soft liner
materials have more stability when compared with acrylic based type of soft liner material but they still show several
disadvantages like the material have susceptibility to water absorbed of solvents and particular water and loss of
soluble components and this lead to effect the strength of bond and change visicoelasticity of material. The
purpose of this study was to compare among four silicone based soft liner materials (permaflex and Molloplast, Ufi
Gel SC and permafix) in invitro investigations properties shear bond, water sorption and solubility and surface
roughness test.
Materials and methods: Seventy two specimens of 4 silicon based soft lining material, 24 for each material, 6 for each
test, the specimens of shear bond strength test were subjected to tension in instron machine with speed rate was 0.5
mm/minute to measure shear bond strength by N/mm . The surface roughness samples were measured by using
profilometer device. The final test of this study was water sorption and solubility according to ADA specification No.
12 (1999) All data were collected and analyzed by ANOVA and LSD tests, the finding showed the permaflex had
high shear bond strength followed by Molloplast, Permafix respectively and the least bond strength was for Ufi Gel
Results: of surface roughness test showed the same mean value among most of the materials. For water sorption
and solubility test the permaflex had the lowest value and followed by Molloplast and was not significant change
between permafix and Ufi Gel SC.
Conclusions: indicated that permaflex shows better properties when compared with other soft liner materials and
that hot cure polymerizing soft liner material showed proper properties when compared with auto polymerizing soft
liner material.
Keywords: Denture liner, silicon based. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(36-42).


The effect of insertion rate on the adaptability of Gutta- Percha and the apical extrusion of thermoplasticized gutta percha obturation techniques

Authors: Samer A. Th. Al-Shimari.
Pages: 43-45

Background: In the Thermafil system little is known about the effect that varying rates of insertion have on the
adaptability of thermoplasticized GP and the amount of apical extrusion.
Materials and methods: thirty simulated root canals were obturated with thermafil obturators and Apexit Plus sealer
at three different insertion rates. The obturated canals were sectioned at three different levels, the sealer average
film thickness for each section was calculated and the amount of apical extrusion for each canal was conducted.
Results: the higher adaptability was seen with the faster insertion rate while the slower insertion rate showed fewer
tendencies to cause apical extrusion.
Conclusions: the intermediate insertion rate had the best results between the other two rates for both adaptability
and apical extrusion.
Key words: insertion rate, adaptability, apical extrusion. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(43-45).


Salivary and plasma analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers in end stage renal failure patients


Background: End Stage renal disease represents a clinical state or condition in which there has been an irreversible
loss of endogenous renal function. To evaluate role of oxidative stress & anti oxidant in chronic renal failure patients
by measuring malondialdehyde & uric acid in their plasma and saliva in comparison with apparently healthy control
Materials &methods: The study was conducted on 60 Chronic renal failure patients at Al-Hussein teaching hospital,
Karbala (Iraq) & 30 apparently healthy control group. Laboratory measurements of salivary &plasma levels of
oxidants ,antioxidants markers (MDA, uric acid) was done on hemodialysis patients compared to age & sex matched
apparently healthy control group.
Results: Salivary & plasma (malondialdehyde , uric acid ) showed highly significant differences between chronic
renal failure patients & apparently healthy control groups. This study was the first study that measure salivary MDA in
end stage renal failure patients.
Conclusion: Higher salivary, plasma oxidants & antioxidants concentrations of end stage renal failure patients with
increase salivary components disturbances in comparison with apparently healthy control group.
Key wards: Hemodialysis, Malondialdehyde, Uric acid. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(46-50).


Immunohistochemical Expression of Actin and S100 in Pleomorphic Adenoma and Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

Authors: Ahlam H. Majeed. --- Farah S. Rasheed
Pages: 51-55

Background: Tumors of the salivary glands constitute an important area in the field of oral and maxillofacial
pathology. These tumors have a special status in human neoplasia and probably the most complex histopathologic
features of the body organs and being heterogeneous. Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign;
and mucoepidermoid carcinoma(MEC) is the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. Many investigations
have showed that myoepithelial cells play a major role in the histogenesis of PA and may be important in many
MECs. The aims of the study are to determine the presence and distribution of myoepithelial cell related
immunomarkers Actin and S100 in PA and MEC and to explore the histogenesis of these tumors in relation to the
above mentioned markers.
Materials and methods: Seventeen formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of PA, and other fifteen tissue
blocks of MEC were included in the study. Diagnostic confirmation was performed through examination of
hematoxylin and eosin sections. Both tumors were immunohistochemically analyzed for the presence of actin and
S100 protein.
Results: There was a positive immunoreactivity for the expression of actin in PA (100%) with different score values,
while for MEC, actin was negatively expressed in all of the cases (except in one case). There was a highly statistical
significant difference in the actin immunoexpression between the two tumors (p=0.000).
There was a positive immunoreactivity for S100 protein expression in all of the cases of PA and MEC (100%) with
different score values; however, there was no statistically significant difference in the S100 immunoexpression
between them (p=0.545).
Conclusion: The myoepithelial cells are associated with the histogenesis of salivary PA, and the negative expression
of actin in squamous, intermediate and mucous cells of MEC can be explained by the non-involvement of the
myoepithelial cells in the histogenesis of this tumor.
Key words: Pleomorphic Adenoma, Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma, Actin, S100. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(51-55).


Oral manifestations, microbial study and enzyme analysis in patients with peptic ulcer

Authors: Fawaz D. Abdul-Razaq --- Hayder M. Idan,
Pages: 56-60

Background: Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most common diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. It causes
inflammatory injuries in the gastric or duodenal mucosa, with extension beyond the submucosa into the muscularis
mucosa (1).The aims of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in the peptic ulcer patients,
isolate and identify different microorganism (aerobic, anaerobic and fungi), from oral micro flora from patients with
peptic ulcer and detect the enzymes level in saliva including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total salivary protein (TSP)
and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in relation to peptic ulcer and comparison with healthy control.
Subjects, materials and method: The study included 35 patients with peptic ulcer (21male and 14 female) and group
of 20 healthy control (7 male and 13 female).
Results: The most frequent oral manifestations in the patients with peptic ulcer, in our study was burning mouth
syndrome, tooth erosion and aphthous ulcer, while angular chelitis, bad odor and white coated tongue, were fairly
frequent. The most frequent microorganisms in the patients with peptic ulcer, in our study was Staphylococcus aureus
and Candida albicans. A significant relationship of TSP and LDH enzymes in patients with peptic ulcer as compared
to healthy control. However, slightly increased levels of ALP in peptic ulcer patients as compared to healthy control,
but no statistically relationship were established.
Conclusions: The most frequent oral manifestations in peptic ulcer patients were burning mouth syndrome, then
tooth erosion and aphthous ulcer. The prevalence of the oral manifestation in peptic ulcer patients increased within
age. High levels of total salivary protein and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in patients with peptic ulcer than healthy
control. Low level of saliva LDH enzyme in patients with peptic ulcer than healthy control.The frequent study showed
a difference in oral microbial isolation between patients with peptic ulcer and healthy control; therefore, frequent
oral examination of patients with peptic ulcer is mandatory.
Key words: oral manifestations, microbial study, enzyme analysis, peptic ulcer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(56-60).


The role of occlusal splints (soft and hard) in the management of Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome


Background: The term temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a collective term embracing a number of clinical
problems that involve the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and associated structures, or
both. The TMDs can be broadly divided into masticatory muscle disorders (TMJ dysfunction syndrome) and TMJ
disorders. Dysfunction of the masticatory muscles or myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) is relatively
common. The occlusal interferences theory and psychophysiological theory are the major causes of MPDS. The soft
and hard occlusal splints (OSs) used in the management of MPDS had been controversial.
The aim of study was to test the role of OSs as a treatment modality for myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome of TMJ
caused by spasm of masseter and temporalis muscles by the use of surface electromyography (EMG) and Helkimo
index criteria, and to compare between the efficacy of soft and hard occlusal splints in the management of
myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.
Patients and methods: This study was carried out through clinical examinations for a sample of sixty patients with
MPDS, by use of Helkimo index criteria. The ages ranged from 20 to 53 years, the gender distributed as 20 males and
40 females. The patients divided into group A and group B, subjected to soft OS and hard OS respectively. Each
patient subjected to three visits of measurements by EMG for superficial masseter and temporalis muscles and
Helkimo index criteria records. The primary visit was for diagnosis and impression taking, then the first visit called
pretreatment visit, then two weeks, and four weeks after insertion of OS.
Results and discussion of this study showed that the clinical dysfunction index (type 2 Helkimo index) which was more
reliable index in the assessment of TMJ dysfunction syndrome that related to masticatory muscles, since 1974 to
nowadays. This study gave this index its reliability and accuracy by approximately coincidence between the EMG
and Helkimo index results, this fact encourage by the reliability of the use of EMG in the researches of TMDs and
MPDS. This study also showed that the records of Helkimo index criteria for patients managed with soft OS had more
significant differences from patients managed with hard OS in the second visit after treatment, while the differences
were not significant in the third visit after treatment. The results of EMG measurements of masseter muscle are of
highly significant differences in soft OS group compared with the hard OS group in third visit after treatment, but no
significant differences in the second visit after treatment. The results of EMG records for temporalis muscle were highly
significant differences in the soft OS group comparing with hard OS group in the third visit after treatment, but it was
significant in the second visit after treatment.
Conclusion: The OS play a major role in the management of MPDS by reducing the symptoms associated with this
syndrome which are pain, muscle spasm, TMJ sounds, and limitation of mandibular movements in different degrees.
The use of soft OS was more effective than hard OS in the management of MPDS.
Key words: MPDS - Soft and Hard OSs - Surface EMG - Helkimo index - Masseter muscle - Temporalis muscle –
Parafunctions – Malocclusion. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(61-69).


The diagnostic accuracy of the digital panoramic imaging system in pre and post surgical dental implant Insertion

Authors: Lamia H. AL-Nakib, --- Maisaa Q. Al-Ubaidy,
Pages: 70-73

Background: The success of dental implant treatment depends on careful preoperative planning .The aim of this
study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of digital panoramic image in determination of bone height available
in maxilla and mandible prior to implant treatment and to find the effect of possible multivariate factors (age,
gender, type of jaw, jaw sectors and dental presence) on the precision of panoramic image as a radiographic tool
used in pre- implant treatment planning.
Subjects, materials and method: Sixty fixtures were inserted surgically in thirty patients in different areas in maxilla and
mandible and they were examined radiographically pre and post implant surgery by digital panoramic imaging (OPG)
for the measurements of vertical bone height in five areas in each jaw and for the evaluation of bone height available
at the implant site pre and post implant treatment. The areas of measurements are upper and lower anterior, premolar,
and molar, missing and non missing areas.
Results: The bone height increased in mandible than maxilla in all jaw sectors of missing and non missing teeth areas
except in premolar sector of missing teeth areas. Age had significant effect on bone height in missing teeth areas
while no significantly affect the bone height in non missing areas, where as gender significantly affect bone height in
non missing areas. All the multivariate included had no significant effect on panoramic precision and the panoramic
image was underestimated in predicting the safety margin above the anatomical landmarks.
Conclusions: Digital Panoramic image provide a great understanding about bone height in different sites of Maxilla
and Mandible giving an idea about the most important information related to implant site pre and post dental
implant insertion.
Key words: vertical alveolar bone height, OPG, dental implant. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(70-73).


Immunohistochemical Expression of Caspase 7 and Annexin V as Apoptosis Markers in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (A clinicopathological study)

Authors: Riyadh O. Alkaisi --- Shatha A. Jabur
Pages: 74-77

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive and lethal malignancy .It is an epithelial
malignancy with morphologic features of squamous cell differentiation without additional features suggestive of
other differentiated tissues. Caspase 7 is a caspase involved in execution phase of apoptosis. The genetic alteration
of caspase 7 might be involved in the development of human cancer. Annexin V belongs to a family of
phospholipids binding proteins. It binds in the presence of Ca+2 ions with high affinity to negatively charged
phospholipids like phosphatidylserine(PS) exposed on cell surface during apoptosis.
Materials and Methods: The study is a prospective one in which twenty cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and
eleven retrospective of paraffin embedded formalin fixed of oral squamous cell carcinoma blocks. H&E stain was
done for each block for reassessment of histological examination. An immunohistochemical staining done by using
monoclonal antibodies for caspase-7 and annexin V. The aim of the study: The aim of the study is to evaluate the
immunohistochemical expression of caspase 7 and Annexin V as apoptosis markers in correlation with various
clinicopathological parameters in oral squamous cell carcinoma
Results: The results of 31 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases included in this Study. Age group of studying samples
was more than 50 years. Immunohistochimical expressions were as follows in all cases of oral squamous cell
carcinoma for caspase 7 and Annexin V tumor markers: The expression of caspase-7 was weak positive in 12 cases
(38%), strong positive in 11 cases (35%) and 8 (25%) cases were negative. The expression of Annexin V was weak
positive 16 cases (51%), strong positive 10 cases (32%) and 5 cases (16%) were negative.
Statistical result for caspase 7 and AnnexinV with clinlinicopathological parameters was no significant correlation
between them.
Conclusions: Immunohisto chemical expression were observed in studying samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma
of both annexin V and caspase 7, however, statistically non significant correlation with all clinicopathological
findings were found and between both markers.
Key words: oral squamous cell carcinoma, apoptosis, caspase 7, annexin V. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(74-77).


Clinical evaluation of Er: YAG laser in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in comparison with that of hand and ultrasonic treatment

Authors: Khulood Al Safi --- Fahad Al Dabbagh
Pages: 78-83

Background: The use of lasers for treatment of periodontal diseases has become a topic of much interest in
periodontal therapy, based on its various characteristics, such as tissue ablation, homeostasis and sterilization effect.
Materials and methods:A total of 72 periodontal pockets were selected and randomly grouped into three groups;
treated by Er:YAG laser (160mJ – 15Hz), ultrasonic scaling device and hand instruments respectively. Clinical
periodontal assessments (PI, BOP, PPD and RAL) were performed before starting treatment and after three months.
Numerical rating scale was used to evaluate pain level that the patient experience during each type of treatment.
Results: The results show statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all periodontal clinical parameters at the second
visit in all groups, but the group treated by Er:YAG laser shows most significant improvement when compared with
other two groups, also less pain was felt during treatment by Er:YAG laser with a mean of (1.166), followed by
ultrasonic instrument (mean = 4.916), while treatment by hand instruments are regarded as the most painful one with
a mean of (8.166).
Conclusion:It was concluded that Er:YAG laser (of 160mJ energy at 15Hz pulse repetition rate) could be used as an
alternative to conventional non surgical periodontal treatment (ultrasonic and hand instruments).
Key words: chronic periodontitis, Er:YAG laser, hand instruments, ultrasonic instruments. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry


The effect of chlorhexidine mouth washes on the incidence of dry socket following teeth extraction

Authors: Jabbar J. Sabur,
Pages: 84-86

Background: Dry socket is the most common complication in the healing of wounds following the extraction of teeth,
this studywas performed to reduce the incidence of this complication.
Material and methods: 150 patients were involved in this study; they were divided into two groups, an experimental
group in which the patient's mouth was rinsed with chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% preoperativelyand postoperatively,
and a control group in which the patient's mouth was rinsed with a normal saline.
Results: It had shown that the incidence was reduced from 4% in the control group to 1.3% in the experimental
Conclusion: Although the incidence of dry socket in this study was reduced to 1.3%, but complete prevention was
difficult to obtain due to the fact that there are several factors play a role in the development of this condition.
Key words: Dry socket, prevention, chlorhexidine. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(84-86).


A clinical investigation of low level laser irradiation on hypersensitive dentine treatment (comparative study)


Background: Cervical dentine hypersensitivity is the most frequent complaint among reported odontalgias. This study
evaluated the effectiveness of two types of lasers (904nm wavelength red, and 830 nm wavelength infrared) as
dentine desensitizers, aswell as both the immediate and late therapeutic effects in individuals 25 to 45 yearsof age.
Materials & methods: A total of 40 teeth with cervical exposure were treated in 4 sessions. Theywere divided into 2
groups according to treatment. A 904 nm wavelength red diodelaser and an 830 nm wavelength infrared diode
laser were used. Dentine sensitivityto cold nociceptive stimulus was evaluated by means of a pain numeric scale
from zero to 10 before each treatment session, at 15 and 30 min after irradiation, and ina follow-up period of 15, 30
and 60 days after the end of treatment.
Results: Significantlevels of dentinal desensitization were only found in patients ranging in age from 25to 35 years. The
904 nm red diode laser was more effective than the 830 nminfrared laser and a higher level of desensitization was
observed at the 15 and 30minute post-irradiation examinations.
Conclusion: The immediate and late therapeutic effects ofthe 904 nm red diode laser were more evident in 25-35-
year-old patients' comparedwith those of the 830 nm infrared diode laser, in terms of the different age groups.
Key words: Diodelaser, dentine hypersensitivity, dentine pain. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(87-92).


Evaluation of non surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis by assessment the enzymatic activity

Authors: Hayder S. Baker, --- Maha Shukri,
Pages: 93-96

Background: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes that are released by
stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells into saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. There are important enzymes
associated with cell injury and cell death like: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), gama glutamyl transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in
the gingiva and periodontium in inflammation.
To assess the difference in the activity of LDH, GGT and ALP enzymes in the saliva of male patients with chronic
periodontitis before and after treatment, to test the effectiveness of treatment and to evaluate the correlation
between these enzymes and the clinical parameters used for evaluation of periodontal tissues.
Materials and Methods: Measurements of plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing
pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were taken from ten subjects before treatment and one
month after treatment; Only male were included and saliva was collected for biochemical analysis of the enzymes
alkaline phosphatase ALP, lactate dehydrogenase LDH, and gamma glutamyle transferase GGT.
Results: Obtained results have shown that after conventional periodontal therapy, the activity of all salivary enzymes
was significantly decreased. However there was no correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the
clinical periodontal parameters except between LDH with bleeding on probing and clinical attachment level.
Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be assumed that activity of these enzymes in saliva, as biochemical
markers for periodontal tissue damage, may be useful in the diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of periodontal
Key words: Saliva, enzymes, periodontal disease. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(93-96).


clinical study evaluating the effect of 0.4%stannous fluoride gel in controlling plaque and gingivitis

Authors: Suzan Ali Salman
Pages: 97-100

Background: Stannous fluoride is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. It has been incorporated into dentifrice
formulations and shown to be effective in the prevention and reduction of gingivitis (17, 18, 20). The aim of this study was
to determine whether conventional tooth brushing and twice daily use of a brush on 0.4% stannous fluoride (SnF2) gel
would be more effective for controlling plaque accumulation and gingivitis than conventional tooth brushing alone.
Materials and Methods: A randomized, six month, examiner blind. Gingivitis study conducted according to the guide
lines for evaluating chemotherapeutic products for the control of gingivitis. Stannous fluoride gel (0.4 %) was tested
against a commercially available negative control dentifrice (Crest Complete, KSA). The sample of the study
included two groups, the first; control group (N=30) used tooth brushing with standard fluoride tooth paste( Crest
Complete ,KSA),while the second; study group (N=30) used tooth brushing with the same tooth paste,
supplemented with a 0.4% stannous fluoride gel used twice daily for the entire six month-study period. Clinical
assessment involved plaque index(1) gingival index(2) and bleeding on probing index(3) were performed at base line,
three and six months post-treatment.
Results: The stannous fluoride gel (SnF2) group had significant lower scores for plaque index (PL.I, p< 0.05), gingival
index (GI, p< 0.05) and bleeding tendency at all examinations than did the control group. For the study group, mean
baseline PL.I score was 1.83, at three months it was reduced to 0.84and after six months it was 0.54. For the GI. Mean
baseline GI. was 1.60, at three months it was 0.82 and after six months it was reduced to 0.57.For Bop, score (1) was
recorded in (29.11%) for the study group at base line. After three months, score (1) was reduced to 16.2%, the
difference is significant (p< 0.01) in comparison with the control group. After six months, the percentage was 13.76%.
The difference between the two groups significant (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: It is concluded that the use of 0.4% SnF2 gel is an effective adjunct to mechanical tooth cleaning in
decreasing plaque and gingivitis.
Key words: Stannous fluoride, plaque, gingivitis. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(97-100).


Facial profile, occlusal features and treatment need for a sample of Karbalaa governorate students aged 14 years

Authors: Fakhri A. Al-Fatlawi --- Akram S. Al-Yessary
Pages: 101-104

Background: Study of the facial profile plays an important part in the assessment of individual cases as well as in
treatment planning. The importance of the profile lies in its ready analysis and comparison with 'normal' faces. It is
always true that good profile is an important aim of treatment and that bad profile is a potent cause of patient
dissatisfaction. The aim of this oral health survey was to determine the distribution, prevalence and the severity of
malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in relation to gender in Karbalaa, Iraq.
Materials and Methods: A clinical examination was made of a random sample of 2248 intermediate school students
aged 14 years.
Results: In summary the following results were obtained: Normal profile was found in 76.6%, convex profile in 12.94%
and concave profile in 10.5%. Class I Angle class was found in 73.88%, class II in 20.92% and class III in 5.20%.
Crowding was more concentrated in the lower anterior segment while the spacing cases were higher and more
concentrated in the upper anterior segment. The competent lips were the most frequent type. The treatment need
according to IOTN show the subject who need no treatment were about 46.84%, then 27.14% need little treatment,
then 12.01% need moderate treatment, then 10.14% great treatment need and lastly 3.87% very greatly treatment
Conclusion: The statistical analysis shows there was a significant correlation at 0.01 level between facial profile types
in relation to Angle`s classes of molar relation. There was no significant difference between males and females in the
occlusal feature and treatment need.
Key words: Occlusal features, facial profile, treatment need. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(101-104).


The relation between overbite and facial, maxillary and mandibular dimensions

Authors: Ali M. Al-Attar
Pages: 105-109

Background: Overbite value is important in treatment of various malocclusions; the aim of this study was to
investigate the relation between the overbite and facial, maxillary and mandibular dimensions.
Materials and methods: The sample of this study included 80 pre-treatment digital true lateral cephalometric
radiographs of Iraqi subjects aged 18-25 years, collected from the files of the subjects attending the Orthodontic
Department in the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. The 80 radiographs were divided into four groups (20
radiographs each) according to overbite value. Three angular, fifteen linear measurements and two ratios were
Results: There were significant differences in most vertical linear measurements, while no significant differences in
horizontal linear measurements between over bite groups also there were strong negative correlation between over
bite and SN-MP, PP-MP, gonial angles.
Conclusions: There were significant correlation between over bite and facial, maxillary and mandibular dimensions.
Patients in open bite group showed longer lower facial height, maxillary and mandibular alveolar and basal heights,
symphyseal height and tendency toward backward rotation of the mandible than other overbite groups patients.
Key words: Overbite, facial dimensions. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(105-109).


Effect of water Clove extract on the microhardness and microscopic features of initial caries-like lesion of permanent teeth, compared to fluoridated agent

Authors: Wael S. Al-Alousi --- Alyaa H. Kattoof Al-lami
Pages: 110-113

Background: Clove has a long traditional in use as a popular mouthwash, breath freshener and food flavoring, in
addition to its medical benefits. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of water extract of clove on the
microhardness of artificially initiated carious lesion of the outer enamel surface compared with sodium fluoride and
de-ionized water.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-one teeth of upper first premolars extracted from 11- 14 year old patients, referred from
Orthodontic Department, College of Dentistry, Baghdad University. They were randomly divided to four study groups
and one control group. After production of initial carious like lesion of outer enamel surface, the teeth were
immersed, for four minutes of selected agents which were water clove extract (1%, 5% and 10%), sodium fluoride
0.05% and de-ionized water. Then each tooth was rinsed and storage with de-ionized water. This procedure was
repeated daily for one week. Teeth were subjected to Vicker’s microhardness and microscopic examination before
and after the pH cycle and following the treatment with the selected solutions.
Results: water clove extract and sodium fluoride were successful in elevation of the microhardness values of
demineralized enamel surface, this was statistically highly significant for clove extract at (1%, 5% and 10%), and
sodium fluoride 0.05%, while the microscopic examination of enamel ground section under light microscope
revealed that zone of remineralization in enamel was seen after treatment with all concentrations (1%,5% and10%) of
water clove extract, and sodium fluoride, but it revealed more with 0.05% sodium fluoride and 5% clove extract
Conclusions: The three concentrations of water clove extract were effective in remineralization of the outer enamelsurface;
which was reflected by increase in enamel microhardness values.
Key Words: Clove, Microhardness, Enamel caries. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(110-113).


Prediction of mesio-distal width of maxillary canines depending on mesio-distal width of mandibular canines by using regression equation

Authors: Dhia'a J. Al-Dabagh
Pages: 114-118

Background: Permanent canines considered to be very important teeth from aesthetic and functional point of view,
space deficiency leading to malposition of maxillary canines considered as one of the most common malocclusions.
The aim of this research is to predict mesio-distal width of maxillary canines in a valid practical way depending on
mesio-distal width of mandibular canines.
Materials and methods: 113 dental cast sets related to patients attended orthodontic department of college of
dentistry (61 females and 51 males) their ages were above 14 years, measurement of mesio-distal width of
permanent maxillary and mandibular canines bilaterally was done by digital vernier to a nearest 0.1 mm.
Results and discussion: Highly positive correlation was found between mesio-distal width of maxillary and mandibular
canines with an establishment of valid clinical prediction of mesio-distal width of maxillary permanent canines
depending on their corresponding mandibular canines in each gender.
Conclusions: Mandibular canines can be used as a valid predictor to the mesio-distal width of maxillary canines
before their eruption to prevent them from being either impacted or malposed.
Key words: Prediction, maxillary canines and regression. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(114-118).


Effects of Menthol crystals aqueous extracts on salivary Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci in comparison to Chlorhexidine Gluconate (In vivo study)

Authors: Mohammed AL-Casey --- Farah A. Al-Bazaz
Pages: 119-123

Background: Menthol is a chemical compound derived from mint family; it has been applied as a medicinal
remedy for many conditions for more than 3 thousands years ago, including skin infections and burns, localized
pain, and in oral hygiene products and bad breath remedies like mouth wash and tooth paste. The aim of this study
was to test the effects of menthol crystals aqueous extract on the viable count of Salivary Streptococci and Mutans
Streptococci and on salivary flow rate and pH in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and de-ionized water
in vivo.
Materials and method: Menthol crystals aqueous extracts was prepared and estimated in mg/ ml, in which 1 ml of
alcohol was used to dissolve the specific amount of crystals, and then 99 ml of deionized water was added to form
a solution of 100ml where as chlorhexidine gluconate used in this study as a control positive, de-ionized water was
used as a control negative. Stimulated salivary samples were collected from 15 volunteers (20-24 years) for five time
intervals (before rinsing, 1 minute, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 1 hour after rinsing), they were divided into three
groups each group rinse with one of the tested agents for one minute). Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA) media was used
for isolation of Streptococci and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin Agar (MSBA) media was used for isolation of Mutans
Streptococci. Colonies were counted using colony counter. Salivary pH was measured using digital pH meter and
volume of saliva was measured also.
Results: Counts of bacteria were recorded at different time points. Results showed a reduction in the viability counts
of Salivary Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci one minute immediately after rinsing which continue to decrease
after one hour. The reduction in the viable count of Streptococci was found to be statistically significant after 15 and
30 minutes of rinsing and highly significant after 1 hour, while for Mutans Streptococci, a significant reduction was
found after 30 minutes of rinsing and highly significant after 1 hour. Salivary flow rates and pH were measured for the
three test and control groups of volunteers before and after rinsing for five time intervals. There was an increase in
the salivary flow rates and PH immediately after rinsing, and continue to increase after 30 minutes of rinsing, then
decrease after 1 hour to approximate the base line.
Conclusion: Menthol proved to posses antimicrobial activities against salivary Streptococci and Mutans
Streptococci, and reduces their viable counts.
Keyword: Mutans Streptococci, Menthol extracts, Chlorhexidine. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(119-123).


Selected salivary constituents among 16-18 years patients with β thalassemia major in relation to oral diseases

Authors: Mohammed Al-Casey --- Hanaa S Al-Jobouri
Pages: 124-127

Background: Thalassemias constitute a form of anemia that has clear problems in relation to oral health.The purpose
of this study was to investigate the occurrence and severity of dental caries among patients with beta-thalassemia
major in relation to salivary physicochemical characteristic and to compare results with healthy subjects.
Materials and Method: 41 β-thalassemia major patients (31 male, 10 female) and 41 healthy control subjects
matching in age and gender the β-thalassemia patients were examined using the decayed, missing, and filled
surfaces (DMFS) index. Oral health status was recorded by application of plaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI) and
calculus index (Cal I). Stimulated salivary samples were collected for the determination of salivary flow rate and pH
of saliva in addition to the determination of concentration of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.
Results: results showed that β-thalassemia group had higher (DMFS), plaque, gingival, calculus, and phosphorus
values as compared to control group, while β-thalassemia group had lower salivary flow rate, pH, calcium and
magnesium values compared to control group with statistically highly significant differences. A negative significant
correlation was found between DMFS with salivary pH and flow rate (p<0.05). A negative highly significant correlation
was found between salivary constituents (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and DMFS (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Patients with β- thalassemia major showed highly significant differences in dental and periodontal
diseases as compared to control group and therefore a special preventive program needed for this target group.
Key words: β-thalassemia, salivary constituents, dental diseases. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(124-127).


Caries experience among children 6-12 years with betathalassemia major syndrome in comparison to healthy control in Baghdad-Iraq

Authors: Haraa Kh. Al-Hadithi
Pages: 128-132

Background: Thalassemia syndromes are characterized by various degrees of ineffective hematopoiesis and
increased hemolysis. This study was conducted to determine whether beta-thalassemia major (βtm) is associated
with an increased risk of dental caries.
Materials and methods: A total sample of 50 patients were examined, who were attending the thalassemia center in
Al-Karama Hospital with an age range (6-12) years. A similar number of healthy controls matching with age and
gender were involved. Decayed, missing, filled teeth / surfaces Indices were used for detection of caries experience
in permanent and primary teeth according to the criteria described by World Health Organization (1987).
Results: Mean values of decayed, missing and filled teeth/ surfaces for primary dentition and standard deviation for
βtm patients were (4.64±2.86/ 12.8 ±10.42) respectively, while in control groups were found equal to (3.24 ±2.95/ 7.98
±8.63) respectively with statistical significant difference in mean value of dmft/ dmfs. Total males and females
demonstrated higher dmft/ dmfs values (4.45± 2.81, 4.73 ±2.96/12.91 ±11.33, 12.69± 9.72) in βtm compared to healthy
control (3.42±2.63, 3.04± 3.30/8.34± 7.99, 7.58 ±9.44) with statistical not significant difference. Data analysis showed no
statistical significant differences between both groups at age 6-8 years while significant at age 9-12 years. For the
permanent dentition the DMFT/ DMFS mean values and standard deviation for βtm patients were (3.38±2.75/ 4.08
±4.22) respectively, while in control groups were found equal to (2.20 ±1.32/ 3.16 ±2.56) respectively with statistical not
significant difference in mean value of DMFT, while highly significant for DMFS. No statistical significant differences
was found in the mean values of DMFT/ DMFS between βtm and control groups concerning total males and females
(p>0.05). No statistical significant differences in DMFT/ DMFS mean values were recorded between both groups at all
ages (p>0.05), except at age 9-12 year for DMFT it was found highly significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Thalassemia is associated with higher dental caries experience so efforts should be made to ensure
access to preventive care.
Keywords: Beta -thalassemia major Syndrome, Dental caries. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(128-132).


An in vitro evaluation of shear bond strength of chemical and light-cured bonding materials with stainless steel, ceramic, and sapphire brackets


Background: This study was intended to compare shear bond strength of chemical and light-cured bonding
materials with stainless steel, ceramic, and sapphire brackets, and to measure adhesive remnant index after
Materials and method: Sixty non-carious, free of cracks upper first premolar teeth, which have been extracted from
18-25 years old Iraqi patients seeking orthodontic treatment were selected. Three types of orthodontic brackets were
used in this study: stainless-steel, ceramic, and sapphire brackets. All bracket types used were of standard edgewise
system. The teeth were divided into two groups of 30 teeth each. One group was used for testing the chemicallycured
primer-activated resin of no-mix type, while the other was used for testing of the light-cured resin. The
chemically and light-cured groups were further subdivided according to bracket type into three groups of 10 teeth
each. The samples were tested for bond strength using an Instron universal testing machine, while for adhesive
remnant index the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were inspected under magnifying lens (20X) of a
Results: The highest shear bond strength values were found in sapphire brackets followed by stainless steel and
ceramic brackets respectively, both in no-mix and light-cured groups as revealed by ANOVA test. T-test showed that
the shear strength values were higher for all light-cured groups as compared to no-mix groups.
Conclusions: Sapphire brackets have the highest shear bond strength as compared to stainless-steel and ceramic
brackets. Light-cured resin has better bonding properties than no-mix resin.
Key words: Shear bond strength, stainless steel, ceramic, sapphire. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(133-138).


The dentoalveolar compensation in different skeletal patterns of Iraqi adults

Authors: Shaymaa Sh. Taha
Pages: 139-145

Background: For different skeletal discrepancies, the maxillary and mandibular incisors were inclined in normal incisor
relationships as a result of dentoalveolar compensatory mechanism. The aims of this study were to compare the
dentoalveolar compensation among skeletal class I, skeletal class II, and skeletal class III jaw patterns, and to
determine the gender difference in each class.
Materials and Methods: The patients’ history, clinical examination and Lateral cephalometric radiographs were
taken for 85 adult subjects. According to ANB angle the sample classified into: 30 adult subjects skeletal class I
(control samples), 30 adult subjects skeletal class II and 25 adult subjects skeletal class III (study samples), the
cephalometric radiographs are analyzed by using AutoCAD 2008 program.
Results and Conclusion: Sagittal jaw parameters show classes difference (by using ANOVA and LSD test) among
different skeletal classes, vertical and dental parameters show gender and classes differences, while linear
measurements show gender difference (by using independent t-test). Dentoalveolar compensation is affected by
lower incisors in skeletal class II and by upper and lower incisors in skeletal class III.
Key words: Dentoalveolar compensation, different skeletal patterns. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(139-145).


The antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of peppermint and Bay leaf against Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Luma M. Al-Hadi
Pages: 146-150

Background: Microbial resistance to antibiotics especially among Staphylococcal strains is a major threat to public
health. Therefore plant extract are alternatives now to treat resistant organisms.
Materials and Method: The effect of different concentration of two a aqueous extracts (peppermint and bay leaf)
against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using the agar diffusion method and determination of minimum
bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of peppermint and bay leaf were also done in this study.
Results: The results of this study demonstrated that peppermint extract exhibit more activity than bay leaf on
Staphylococcus aureus but both of them were found to have inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureu. The
minimum bactericidal concentration was shown that 25% was the MBC for peppermint and 35% was the MBC for
bay leaf.
Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that peppermint and bay leaf may be used as antibacterial agent against
Staphylococcus aureus.
Key words: Antibacterial activity, peppermint, bay leaf, Staphylococcus aureus. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2011;23(146-


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