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Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884/26180707
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2013 volume:14 issue:3

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Overbased Magnesium Fatty Acids Detergent for Medium Lubricating Oil

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Abstract

A series of overbased magnesium fatty acids such as caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate and oleate) were synthesized by the reaction of the fatty acids with active – 60 magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas at 60 oC in the presence of ammonia solution as catalyst, toluene / ethanol solvent mixture (9:1vol/vol) was added. The prepared detergent additives were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and evaluated by blending each additive in various concentrations with medium lubricant oil fraction (60 stock) supplied by Iraqi Midland Refineries Company. The total base number (TBN, mg of KOH/g) was determined, and the results of TBN were treated by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. It was found that the number of carbons in the fatty acid (C8-C18) used for overbased detergent preparation had slight effect on the TBN of the oil, while detergent concentrations (1-5% wt/wt) had a significant effect on the TBN of the blended oil. The oxidation stability of the oil blends with 2% of overbased magnesium palmitate and overbased magnesium stearate detergents was evaluated, and the results showed that these blends gave higher oxidation stability compared with the blends with standard antioxidant supplied by Midland Refineries Company.


Article
المعالجة الاحيائية للزيوت المتواجدة في مياه مخلفات مصفى الدورة باستخدام نوعين من الفطريات Trichoderma harzianum و Pencillium griseofulvum

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Abstract

استخدم نوعين من الفطريات المعزولة من مياه الصرف الصحي Trichoderma harzianum وPencillium griseofulvum في خفض تراكيز الزيوت المتواجدة في احواض المعالجة لمياه مخلفات مصفى الدورة حيث تم جلب عينات من الحوض الميكانيكي وحوض التعويم وبقياس تراكيز الزيوت فيها قبل وبعد المعالجة الاحيائية باستعمال نوعين من الفطريات. سجل الفطر P. griseofulvum أعلى نسب خفض %98.11، %98.19 لتراكيز الزيوت لحوضي التعويم والميكانيكي مقارنة بنسب الخفض %91.56، 92.66% للفطرT. harzianum خلال فصل الشتاء واظهرالفطرP. griseofulvum كذلك نفس الكفاءة في الخفض مما للنوع الاخرخلال فصل الربيع. تراجعت كفاءة النوعين الفطريين T. harzianum و P. griseofulvum لخفض تراكيز الزيوت خلال فصلي الصيف والخريف ويعود هذا الى ان درجة الحرارة المرتفعة تؤثر على عملية المعالجة والتحطيم المايكروبي للملوثات وعلى الفعل الانزيمي الفطري فضلا عن تاثيرها على معدلات النمو. بينت النتائج قدرة النوعين من الفطريات على تحطيم الزيوت اذ سجلت اعلى كتلة حيوية للفطر T. harzianum 350, 364.5 ملغم خلال فصل الشتاء لحوضي المعالجة الميكانيكي والتعويم على التوالي مقارنة بالفصول الاخرى في حين سجل الفطر P. griseofulvumأعلى كتلة حيوية وخلال الفصل الشتاء 355 و367 ملغم مقارنة بفصل الصيف حيث كانت الكتلة الحيوية 59 و 57.5 ملغم ولحوضي المعالجة الميكانيكي والتعويم على التوالي.


Article
Effect of Additives on the Properties of Different Types of Greases

Authors: Muhannad A.R. Mohammed
Pages: 11-21
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Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the influence of additives on the properties of soap greases, such as lithium, calcium, sodium, lithium-calcium grease, by adding varies additives, such as graphite, molybdenum disulfide, carbon black, corrosion inhibitor, and extreme pressure. These additives have been added to grease to obtain the best percentages that improve the properties of grease such as load carrying, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, drop point, and penetration. The results showed the best weight percentages to all types of grease which give good properties are 1.5% extreme pressure additive, 3% graphite, 1% molybdenum disulfide, 2.5% carbon black. The other hand, the best weight percentage for corrosion inhibitor is 1% to lithium-calcium grease, 2% to lithium grease, and 3% to sodium grease. It was concluded that there is no need to add corrosion inhibitor to calcium grease


Article
Removal of Phenol Compounds from Aqueous Solution Using Coated Sand Filter Media

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Abstract

Coated sand (CS) filter media was investigated to remove phenol and 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions in batch experiments. Local sand was subjected to surface modification as impregnated with iron. The influence of process variables represented by solution pH value, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on removal efficiency of phenol and 4-nitrophenol onto CS was studied. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the adsorption process, and it was found that the Langmuir isotherm effectively fits the experimental data for the adsorbates better than the Freundlich model with the CS highest adsorption capacity of 0.45 mg/g for 4-nitrophenol and 0.25 mg/g for phenol. The CS was found to adsorb 85% of 4-nitrophenol and 65% for phenol at an initial concentration of 25 mg/ℓ


Article
Optimal Design of Cylinderical Ectrode Using Neural Network Modeling for Electrochemical Finishing

Authors: Nadhim M. Faleh
Pages: 33-47
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Abstract

The finishing operation of the electrochemical finishing technology (ECF) for tube of steel was investigated In this study. Experimental procedures included qualitative and quantitative analyses for surface roughness and material removal. Qualitative analyses utilized finishing optimization of a specific specimen in various design and operating conditions; value of gap from 0.2 to 10mm, flow rate of electrolytes from 5 to 15liter/min, finishing time from 1 to 4min and the applied voltage from 6 to 12v, to find out the value of surface roughness and material removal at each electrochemical state. From the measured material removal for each process state was used to verify the relationship with finishing time of work piece. Electrochemical finishing proves an effective method to reduce the surface roughness (Ra) from 1.6µm to 0.1µm in 4 min. Finally, the observed relationships were used to predicate the diameter of blank, tool diameter and flow rate by neural network modeling ANN which has inputs defined by the finished hole diameter, surface roughness, and finishing time. Three of hidden layers and their neurons were found by an integration procedure. The design charts observed from this study utilize the designers in predication of diameter for blank and design of electrode.


Article
Permeability Prediction in Carbonate Reservoir Rock Using FZI

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Abstract

Knowledge of permeability, which is the ability of rocks to transmit the fluid, is important for understanding the flow mechanisms in oil and gas reservoirs. Permeability is best measured in the laboratory on cored rock taken from the reservoir. Coring is expensive and time-consuming in comparison to the elec¬tronic survey techniques most commonly used to gain in¬formation about permeability. Yamama formation was chosen, to predict the permeability by using FZI method. Yamama Formation is the main lower cretaceous carbonate reservoir in southern of Iraq. This formation is made up mainly of limestone. Yamama formation was deposited on a gradually rising basin floor. The digenesis of Yamama sediments is very important due to its direct relation to the porosity and permeability. In this study permeability has been predicated by using the Flow zone indicator methods.This method attempts to identify the flow zone indicator in un-cored wells using log records. Once the flow zone indicator is calculated from the core data, a relationship between this FZI value and the well logs can be obtained.

Keywords

Permeability --- FZI


Article
Removal of Phenolic Compounds from Aqueous Solution by Using Agricultural Waste (Al-Khriet)

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Abstract

Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove organics pollutants from waste water particularly, when using low cost adsorbent available in Iraq. Al-Khriet powder which was found in legs of Typha Domingensis is used as bio sorbent for removing phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. The influence of adsorbent dosage and contact time on removal percentage and adsorb ate amount of phenol and 4- nitro phenol onto Al-Khriet were studied. The highest adsorption capacity was for 4-nitrophenol 91.5% than for phenol 82% with 50 mg/L concentration, 0.5 gm. dosage of adsorbent and pH 6 under a batch condition. The experimental data were tested using different isotherm models. The results show that Freundlich model resulted in the best fit also the kinetic study make it clear that the adsorption process proceeded according to the pseudo second order model

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