Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2013 volume:25 issue:2

Article
Effects of time delay and tension system application after final flask closure on the vertical displacement of acrylic and porcelain teeth in maxillary complete dentures

Authors: Ali N.A. Hussein علي نعمة
Pages: 1-7
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Background: The displacement of artificial teeth during complete denture construction presents major processing errors in the occlusal vertical dimension which were verified at the previous trial denture stage. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of delay in processing after final flask closure and tension application on the vertical acrylic and porcelain teeth displacement of complete dentures constructed from heat cured acrylic and the results were compared with the conventional processing method. Materials and methods: forty samples of identical maxillary complete dentures were constructed from heat polymerized acrylic resin. These samples were subdivided into the following experimental subgroups in which each subgroup contains 5 samples for both acrylic and porcelain teeth and as follows: 1. Conventional flasking technique and immediate processing. 2. Conventional flasking technique and 6 hours delay in processing. 3. flasking technique with tension system and immediate processing. 4. flasking technique with tension system and 6 hours delay in processing. Reference metal pins were attached to the middle of the buccal surface of the upper right canine and center of the buccal groove of the left first molar. And according to these reference points on the teeth another metallic Reference pins were fixed on the denture vestibules and at a distance of 7.5mm by straight lines and 6.5mm where placed between the metal pins and the vestibules in order to standardize the measurement. The distance between the right and left metal pins on the canine and molars and the corresponding metal pins on the buccal vestibules were measured during the wax up stage and after processing by using an optical travelling microscope with an accuracy of 0.0005 mm. Means in (mm) were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and the comparative T-test and least significance test (LSD). Results: Significant reduction in vertical displacement of the teeth occurred in groups when 6 hours delay in processing were applied, but a significant improvement was also observed in groups with tension system application when compared with control group. On the other hand, there were a high significant reduction in the vertical displacement in groups with tension system and 6 hours delay in processing combination. While for the type of artificial teeth data showed significant difference in the amount of vertical displacement of the teeth in groups with acrylic teeth when compared with porcelain teeth. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that 6 hours delay in processing and tension system application were effective in reducing the vertical displacement of the artificial teeth during flasking. The maximum reduction in the displacement was observed in dentures constructed from acrylic teeth. On the other hand, significant decrease in vertical displacement of the teeth was detected in dentures constructed from porcelain teeth.


Article
The effect of SOLO and sodium hypochlorite disinfectant on some properties of different types of dental stone

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Background: Dental casts come into direct contact with impression materials and other items that are contaminated by saliva and blood from a patient's mouth, leaving the casts susceptible to cross-contamination. The disinfectant solutions of the impression materials cause various adverse reactions. Therefore, disinfection of dental casts may be effective in preventing cross infection. This study was carried out to evaluate the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details and surface porosity of type III, type IV and type IV extra hard dental stone after immersion in and spray by using SOLO and Sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solutions. Materials and methods: 240 Stone samples were prepared in rubber rings, A total of 60 test block were prepared for each test (surface hardness, dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details and surface porosity).the samples were divided into three groups (20 for each type of stone) type (III, IV, IV extra hard); SOLO and Sodium hypochlorite disinfectant by 2 methods (immersion and spray) were used in each test. Results: the results of dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details, surface hardness and surface porosity revealed no significant difference for all types of tested stone samples after immersion or spraying in SOLO and NaOCl except the surface hardness of type IV extra hard showed significant difference after spray with SOLO and the surface porosity of type IV extra hard showed significant difference after immersed in both SOLO and NaOCl solutions. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study immersion in and spray by using SOLO and NaOCl disinfectant solutions produced no adverse effect on dimensional accuracy, reproduction of details, surface hardness and surface porosity for type III, type IV dental stone and for type IV extra hard dental stone except for the surface hardness for type IV extra hard when sprayed with SOLO and the surface porosity when type IV extra hard stone immersed in the SOLO and NaOCl solutions


Article
The effect of anti-oxidant agents as neutralizers of bleaching agents on dentin bond strength

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Background: Reduction in bond strength when bonding was done immediately after intracoronal bleaching procedure has been recognized. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of antioxidants (10% sodium ascorbate (SA), 0.1M thiourea and7% sodium bicarbonate (SB)) on reversing bonding strength of composite resin to bleached dentin. Materials and method: Sixty upper 1st premolar teeth, were selected, the crowns of the teeth were embedded in acrylic resin blocks exposing a flat dentin from the buccal surface, then divided into 6 groups (10 samples each). Bleaching for the experimental groups was performed using 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel (pola–office).Group A (Negative control group; dentin samples immediately bonded with composite without bleaching)Group B (Positive control group; dentin samples bleached and immediately bonded with composite). Group C (Dentin samples bleached and stored for 14 days in DDW then bonded with composite). Group D (Dentin samples bleached and treated with 10% (SA) then immediately bonded with composite). Group E (Dentin samples bleached and treated with 0.1M thiourea then immediately bonded with composite). Group F (Dentin samples bleached and treated with 7% SB then immediately bonded with composite).The shear bond strength was determine using instron testing machine. Results: Bleaching the dentin with 35 % hydrogen peroxide gel for 24 minutes resulted in reduction in bond strength of the bleached teeth when bonding was performed immediately after bleaching. Delayed bonding of composite to the bleached dentin for 14 days will result in a highly significant increase in the shear bond strength. Conclusion: Treating the bleached dentin with 10% (SA) in water base showed a highly significant increase in the shear bond strength of the composite to dentin and reversing the bond strength value to the level of the unbleached dentin. Treating the bleached dentin with 0.1M thiourea significantly increased the shear bond strength of the composite to dentin


Article
The effect of different finishing and polishing systems on surface roughness of new low polymerized composite materials (An in vitro study)

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Background: Adequate finishing and polishing of resin composites is a prerequisite for high-quality esthetics and enhanced longevity of resin-based restorations. Finishing and polishing of resin composites are important procedures in restorative dentistry. Finishing refers to gross contouring of a restoration to obtain the desired contour. However, polishing refers to smoothness as well as to reduction of the scratches created by the finishing instruments. Materials and methods: Four types of composite materials where used in this study, FiltekP90 (3M ESPE, St.paul, U.S.A), Tetric Evoceram (Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), FiltekZ250 (3M ESPE, St.paul, U.S.A), FiltekP60 (3M ESPE, St.paul, U.S.A), also two polishing systems which are: Optrapol (Ivoclar Vivadent) and Enhance (Dentsply) and one Silicone carbide finishing paper. A total number of 160 disc shaped specimens were produced in a circular steel molds with a circular hole in its center , with a diameter of (10×3mm), specimens where divided into four groups of 40 specimens each (10 samples from each composite type) according to the finishing/ polishing protocol used as follows Group A: control without finishing and polishing. Group B: polishing using optrapol polishing system. Group C: polishing with Enhance polishing system. Group D: finishing only with silicone carbide finishing paper(600 grit). Except for the control group Specimens first are finished using silicone carbide paper 600 grit for obtaining a baseline surface roughness before the application of polishing systems, the At the completion of the finishing and polishing instrumentation, the specimens were ultrasonically cleaned in an ultrasonic unit with distilled water for two minute. The surface roughness was measured by using a portable surface roughness tester (SRT 6210). Results: The result showed that all the composite materials under control group that cured using mylar strip exhibited the least surface roughness values (best smoothness). All the composite materials produced smoother surface when polished with optrapol system than with Enhance system. For the silicone carbide finishing paper we found that all the materials produced high surface roughness values than with other finishing and polishing systems and there was no significant difference between the composite materials. Conclusion: FiltekP90 exhibited the smoothest surface finish compared to the other composite materials used in this study while FiltekP60 exhibited the roughest surface finish compared to the other composite materials used in this study.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of root canal preparation size and flaring on the depth of irrigant penetration (In vitro study)

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Background: Cleaning and shaping of root canals successfully requires high volumes of irrigation solutions that can only be applied to the apical third of root canal after enlargement with instrument, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the efficiency of Maxi-I-probe (side-vented needle), in the amount of root canal irrigant penetration for five different master apical file sizes (MAF) and four different degrees of coronal and middle thirds flaring. Materials and Methods: Two hundred resin blocks with simulated root canals were used in this study and divided into 5 major groups (40 for each) based on the size of master apical files (#20, #25, #30, #35, and #40). Each major group was subdivided into 4 subgroups depending on different sizes and depth of flaring (10 for each).The instrumentation and flaring techniques were used as following: 1. without flaring group, root canal shape resembles shape of the master apical K-file, 2. flaring I group, flaring done with Gates Glidden I for 2 mm coronally, 3. flaring II group, flaring was done with Gates Glidden I for 4 mm coronally, Gates Glidden II for 2 mm, 4. flaring III group, flaring was done with Gates Glidden I for 6mm,Gates Glidden II 4mm and Gates Glidden III for 2 mm coronally. Irrigation was done with Max-i-probe gauge 28. Results: By comparing the five different master apical file sizes at four different degrees of flaring, there was an increase in the amount of irrigant penetration with increase MAF size, taper had more effect in small canals size and decreased with further enlargement of master apical file size until no benefit was achieved in large canals size. Conclusions: It was shown that, Max-i-probe had a limited amount of irrigant entrance. Flaring was more effective in small canals than the larger canals in an amount of irrigant entrance; increasing MAF size was effective in an increase amount of irrigant entrance


Article
Surface area measurements of upper dental cast with different final impressions

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Background : surface area anatomy is a proportional point to the retention of complete denture, in past there was no quantitative method to evaluate the surface area, nowadays the size and shape of maxillary arch is measured by different electronically and mathematical devices. A study was therefore, undertaken to measure surface area of upper dental cast that was taken by different final impressions. Materials and methods: twenty patients were examined. All of them had a healthy palate with no singe of injury, trauma, or deformity. Casts were taken by three different final impressions; zinc oxide, additional silicon, and poly ether. And two different devices were used; the computerized one and the Aluminum foil measure. Age, sex, and shape of upper dental arch were also evaluated. Results: the results of this study showed that the use of different methods to measure the surface area of upper dental cast had a significant difference between the two different measurements, while there was no difference in the measurements between the different final materials. Age variable showed more significant difference between the first and second method than sex variable. Conclusion: data collected in the present investigation showed a highly significant difference in measurements between the computerized method and the direct foil method. Zinc oxide, silicon and poly ether materials showed no significant differences in readings


Article
Comparative study of retention of fiber-reinforced post at middle and cervical one thirds of root canal cemented by polycarboxylate and zinc phosphate cements measured at different storage times

Authors: Saad Zabar سعد زبار
Pages: 41-46
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Background: The purpose of this study was to compare regional bond strength at middle and cervical thirds of the root canal among glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) endodontic posts cemented with different cements, using the push-out test to compare the performance (retention) of two types of luting cements; polycarboxylate cement and Zinc phosphate cement used to cement translucent fiber post and to compare the result of the push-out test at different storage times;1 week ,1month and 2 months. Materials and methods: Ninety caries-free, recently extracted single-rooted human teeth with straight root canals was used in this study, The root canals were endodontically instrumented at a working length of 0.5 mm from the apex by means of conventional instruments for hand use (Dentsply, Switzerland) up to size 35.then root canal filling was performed followed by post space preparation up to 8mm including cervical and middle one third of root canal then the fiber post was cemented into canal post space then the root was sectioned to get cervical (4 mm in length) and middle (4 mm in length) thirds ,these thirds were examined by push out test to get values of retention of fiber post inside these canal thirds . Results and Conclusions: The results of this study has been showed that there was no significant differences between push out bond strength between fiber post and root at cervical third as compared with middle third when using polycarboxylate cement or Zinc phosphate cement to cement the fiber post to the canal walls and the results showed that there was no significant differences in push out bond strength for polycarboxylate or Zinc phosphate cement after one and two months but there was highly significantly increase in push out bond strength for resin cements used to cement the fiber post to the root canal after one and two months


Article
Immunohistochemical study of CD34 in tooth eruption by using amniotic stem cells

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Background: Tooth eruption is a more general process, however, which includes certain posteruptive tooth movements. There are two fundamental requirements for both tooth eruption to occur: (1) Require soft tissue, intervening between tooth structure and alveolar bone, which plays an important role in regulating the remodeling of adjacent tissues. (2) Require bone turnover that is temporally and spatially regulated to facilitate specific translocations of teeth through alveolar bone These amniotic stem cells are multipotent and able to differentiate into various tissues, which may be useful for human application and recently it used in many medical branches. CD34 is an endothelial marker that is extensively used in immunohistochemistry and most vascular endothelial cells. Expression of the stem cell antigen CD34 is a defining hallmark of hemopoietic stem cells and progenitors. This study aimed to study the expression of CD34 by dental cells involved in tooth eruption after administration of amniotic stem cell Materials and Methods: forty eight albino Swiss mice of one day old age injected with isolated amniotic stem cells in the anterior region of maxilla (incisors area) other 16 mice injected with saline represents control. Sacrifice 4 mice for each period (4, 7, 10, and 13) day old age. The result were studied histologically and immunohistochemistry. Results: Immunohistochemical result revealed positive expression of CD34 in pulp (Vascular, Paravascular), Mesenchymal cell and in the Dental sac of different groups. Coincidence test of expression marker CD34 in various studied group shows that Chorion application affected on CD34 expression in pulp while Amniotic fluid affected on dental sac. Conclusion Immunohistochemical study of expression marker CD34 in various studied groups show that chorion application affected on CD34 in pulp .While amniotic fluid affected on dental follicle


Article
The value of lateral cephalometric image in sex identification

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Background: Determination of sex and estimation of stature from the skeleton is vital to medicolegal investigations. Skull is composed of hard tissue and is the best preserved part of skeleton after death, hence, in many cases it is the only available part for forensic examination. Lateral cephalogram is ideal for the skull examination as it gives details of various anatomical points in a single radiograph. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of digital cephalometric system as quick, easy and reproducible supplement tool in sex determination in Iraqi samples in different age range using certain linear and angular craniofacial measurements in predicting sex. Materials and Method The sample consisted of 113of true lateral cephalometric radiographs for adults with age range from 22-43 years old (51 males, 62 females), using certain linear and angular craniofacial measurements with the aid of computer program “AutoCAD 2007” Results: The eleven parameters measured for males and females when compared are statistically significantly different. All cranio-cephalometric measurements gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determination by discriminant analysis (86.7%). The stepwise selection method gave overall predictive accuracy of sex determination by discriminant analysis (85.8%). Age showed no statistical difference among the studied age range except for the distance from Mastoid to Frankfort plane. Conclusion: The lateral cephalometric measurements of craniofacial bones are useful to support sex determination of Iraqi population in forensic radiographic medicine


Article
Oral signs and symptoms and hyperglycemic status of type II diabetic patients in relation to cytomorphometric findings of gingival and buccal cytobrush smears

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Background: Brush cytology is an accepted technique that gets renewed interest. It is now used as an aid for the diagnosis and observation of possible epithelial changes that could be associated with oral mucosal diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the cytomorphometric changes in gingiva and buccal mucosa of type II diabetics and to assess their relation to oral symptoms and glycemic status. Materials and methods: Cytological Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from cheek and gingiva of 20 non treated cases, 20 treated diabetics and 20 healthy persons of both sex after measuring their HbA1c and recording their oral symptoms. Hundred unfolded epithelial cells were evaluated qualitatively using MCID software to measure nuclear and cytoplasmic areas, ratio, perimeters, and form factors. Different statistical analyses were used to determine relations between studied parameters. Results: Diabetics smears showed large nucleus, small cytoplasm, and small cytoplasm/nucleus ratio compared with healthy persons with no sex variation. Xerostomia and burning sensation were significantly correlated with nuclear parameters, while HbA1c was significantly correlated with both cytoplasmic and nuclear parameters. Well-controlled patients showed reduction in nuclear area, but nucleus and cytoplasm form factors were unlike normal. Conclusions: Oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphometric changes that is better demonstrated in buccal than gingival mucosa and tend to return partially to their normal values in wellcontrolled patients, with no sex variation. NA seems to be the main parameter that changed during hyperglycemia and xerostomia, while both NA and CA were related to burning sensation


Article
Localization of transforming growth factor-beta expression in the peri-implant tissues of dental implants coated with placental collagen

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Back ground : The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis. The interaction between implant material and surrounding tissues is believed to play a fundamental role in implant success and illustrates different expression of growth factors by different cells that involved in the formation of periimplant tissue. The aim of this study was to localize expression of TGF B by newly formed bone tissue around surface-conditioned implants with placental collagen at different time intervals: 3 ,7,14,28, and 56 days . Materials and Methods: Commercially pure Titanium (CPTi) implants coated with collagen protein were placed in the tibia of 20 new Zealand rabbits . Immunohistochemical study for localization of TGF B in peri –implant tissue for interval periods 3 ,7,14,28, and 56 days was performed under light microscope.. Results: Positive expression of Transforming growth factor B can be detected in osteoblast, osteocyte, newly deposited matrix includes collagenous tissue and non mineralized osteoid tissue. Endothelial cells line blood vessel showed positivity too. Minerlized bone trabeculae and mature bone illustrate negative expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that placental collagen, coated Ti implant illustrates positive expression of transforming growth factor B by osteoblast and endothelial cell that enhanced bone formation


Article
Histomorphometric analysis of bone deposition at Ti implant surface dip-coated with hydroxyapatite (In vivo study)

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Background: Synthetic hydroxyapatite,(Ca10(PO4)6(OH2) can directly bond to bones without infection and fibrous encapsulation, thus is regarded as bioactive and biocompatible. The aim of the study was the estimation of microarchitecture bone parameters include bone mass (gm/cm2) cortical bone width (mm), thread width (mm), marrow space star volume analysis (V*m) and osteoblast, osteocyte cell number. Materials and methods: Ninety-six (96) commercially pure titanium CpTi) used in this study, (48) implants were coated with HA by dipping coating and (48) implants were used as control. They were inserted in (32) Newzland white rabbits and followed for 2 & 6 weeks. Mechanical torque removal test and histomorphometric analysis of bone microarchiteture were performed for evaluation of osseointegration. Results: Results revealed, Torque values were increased with advancing time for coated and uncoated groups. And specifically dip coated implant showed high value in comparison to control. Histomorphometric analysis for bone parameters showed highly significant difference in overall contrasted groups of implant in 2nd and 6th week interval. Conclusion: Dip coating method is an alternative coating technique for dental implant to enhance better bone implant contact and improve osseointegration


Article
Expression of Ki67 and p53 as proliferation and apoptosis markers in adenoid cystic carcinoma

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Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) constitutes about 4% of salivary epithelial tumors and is the second common malignant epithelial salivary gland tumor involving both the major and minor salivary glands. Aims of the study is to evaluate immunohistochemical expression of Ki67 and p53 proteins in ACC. Materials and Methods: immunohistochemical analyses of fifteen cases of formalin – fixed paraffin – embedded tissues blocks of ACC of salivary glands using ki67 and p53 antibodies. Results: ki67 was expressed in 6 of 15 ACC (40%) while p53 aberration was demonstrated in 11 of tumor (73.3%). There was a statistically significant difference between the expression of ki67 and p53 proteins in ACC cases (p value = 0.041). Pearson’s correlation test demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the numbers of percentage of ki67 and p53 positive cells in ACC cases (r = 0.042). Conclusions: This study suggests that ki67 positive actively proliferating cells and p53 aberrations may play a role in ACC development and progression


Article
Enhancement of tooth eruption by using amniotic stem cells (Immunohistochemical study of VEGF marker)

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Background: Tooth eruption is a localized process in the jaws which exhibits precise timing and bilateral symmetry. Develop within the jaws and their eruption is a complex infancy process during which they move through bone to their functional positions within the oral cavity. For species with more than one set of teeth, eruption of the second set also accomplishes. The key to the successful clinical management of tooth eruption consists of understanding that this process consists largely of the local regulation of alveolar bone metabolism to produce bone resorption in the direction of eruption and shift and formation of bone at the opposite side.The amniotic sac contains a considerable quantity of stem cells. These amniotic stem cells are able to differentiate into various tissues, which used in many field. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenic factor reported to induce migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, enhance vascular permeability, and modulate thrombogenicity. VEGF expression in cultured cells (smooth muscle cells, macrophages, endothelial cells) is controlled by growth factors and cytokines. The aim of this study was to study the administration of cell molecules of (Chorion, Amnion and Amniotic fluid) around developing mouse tooth and studying the expression of VEGF marker. Materials and Methods: forty eight albino Swiss mice of one day old age injected with isolated amniotic stem cells in the anterior region of maxilla (incisors area) other 16 mice injected with saline represents control. Sacrifice 4 mice for each period (4, 7, 10, and 13) day old age. The result were studied histologically and immunohistochemistry. Results: VEGF marker localized and identified in 3 areas; pulp, P.D.L, and Bone. In pulp. The mean value of positive VEGF expression showed to be highest in Amnion group in comparison to the other studied groups. The marginal mean value of all periods reported to be highest in Amnion groups followed by Chorion group. The period 10 day showed highest marginal means value for positive VEGF expression for all groups. In P.D.L. area Amniotic fluid records the highest mean and marginal mean value specifically at day-10 in comparison to other studied groups. In Bone area Amniotic fluid records the highest mean and marginal mean value among the studied groups followed by Chorion group. Period 7-day and 10-day shows high mean value for VEGF expression. Coincidence test for VEGF marker illustrates to be affected by Amniotic fluid application in P.D.L. and in bone area while Amnion and Chorion application showed to be concerned with pulp. Conclusion. It reported that amniotic fluid application affected on expression of VEGF in P.D.L and bone while amnion and chorion showed to affect on expression of VEGF in pulp.The present study highlighted on clinical and researcher application of Amniotic fluid and Chorion for supplement of stem cell in dental tissue engineering or even in other body tissues.


Article
Oral manifestations, biochemical, and IL-6 analysis of saliva in major depressive disorder patients under treatment

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Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The aims of the study: were to determine the prevalence of oral manifestation among patients with major depressive disorder receiving antidepressant drugs, and detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total Salivary proteins (TSP), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in relation to MDD patients under treatment and to compare with healthy controls. Materials and method: (50) MDD patients; between the ages of 20 years and 60 years.The depression patients are divided into (25) patients under treatment with fluoxetine (Prozac), and (25) patients under treatment with imipramine (Tofranil).The depression patients are diagnosed according to Hamilton depression scale used in the department of psychiatry in Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital by a psychiatric specialist. Results: The most frequent oral manifestations in the patients with MDD, in this study were burning mouth syndrome (72%), and dry mouth (70%), while metallic taste (48%) was fairly frequent, males more effected than females.Burning mouth syndrome, and metallic taste were more frequent in patients with Prozac treatment, while dry mouth was more frequent in patients with Tofranil treatment. increased levels of IL-6, TSP, and ALP in MDD patients receiving treatment as compared to healthy control Conclusion: frequent oral examination of patients with MDD is mandatory, and these patients should be a major concern in dental practice


Article
Sonographic assessment of normal cervical lymph nodes in a sample of Syrian population

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Background: Sonographic examination is an important tool in assessment of normal and abnormal cervical lymph nodes. The aim of the study is to assess the distribution and the characteristic features of normal cervical lymph nodes in a sample of Syrian population. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy Syrian subjects (25 men and 25 women) with an age of 20 -60years old, who had their cervical lymph nodes examined by ultrasound. Three hundred and two lymph nodes were detected. Lymph nodes were evaluated for their number, size, site, echogenic hilus, shape, as well as for the border sharpness. The subjects were categorized by age into four groups, (20 -30, 31 - 40 , 41 - 50 , 51- 60 years ). Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS software (version 11.5), and analytical one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in mean number of nodes between different age groups. All lymph nodes were hypoechoic; majority of them possessed an echogenic hilus, with transverse diameter of 8 mm or less. All lymph nodes were oval except for submandibular and parotid nodes which appeared round. Conclusions: This study provides a sonographic appearance of normal cervical lymph nodes in relation to their site, size, shape, numbers, border sharpness, and echogenic hilum, in a sample of Syrian population


Article
Clinicopathological analysis of common oral lesions

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Background: Oral health is important to the quality of life of all individuals. Oral lesions can cause discomfort or pain that interferes with mastication, swallowing, and speech. Oral disease is a health problem that is not only a matter of oral hygiene and local condition, but can also be a precursor to other dangerous and potentially life threatening illnesses. The present study was designed to analyze the main clinicopathological aspects of most common oral lesions in patients who visit the Oral Diagnosis Clinic of the College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Patients and methods: This prospective study was performed on 3144 patients from July 2009-July 2010. In this study a total of 3144 patients were examined. Of these 1507 (47.93%) were males and 1637 (52.06%) females. The patients' age ranged between 10 to 79 years. An interview was conducted to collect information using a structured questionnaire which was completed by each patient. The lesions that could not be diagnosed by clinical examinations alone were analyzed histopathologically. Results: Among 3144 patients, only 799 patients (25.41%) had oral lesions. Females constituted 49.81% (n=398) and males 50.18 (n=401). The age range of the patients was between 10-79 years with a mean age of 33.75 years. Anatomic changes and developmental anomalies were considered as linea alba (16.68%), Fordyce's granules (12.37%), torus mandibularis (0.66%), torus palatinus (0.55%). Common oral lesions after those considered being anatomic changes and developmental anomalies were fissure tongue (18.23%), cheek biting (12.15%), hairy tongue (6.51%), and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (5.85%) , ankyloglossia (3.75%) , lingual varicosities (2.87%) , frictional (traumatic) keratosis (2.87%) , denture stomatitis (2.54%), recurrent herpes simplex virus infection (2.43%), traumatic ulcer (2.43%), geographic tongue (1.98%), fibroepithelial hyperplasia (1.32%), denture induced fibrous hyperplasia (1.21%) , angular cheilitis (0.99%) , oral lichen planus (0.88%) , median rhomboid glossitis (0.88%) , peripheral giant cell granuloma (0.22%) , and gingival hyperplasia (0.33%) . Conclusion: Routine examinations of oral cavities are valuable in identifying several oral lesions and this will help to establish early diagnosis and treatment and better prognosis particularly early precancerous and other oral lesions


Article
The role of low level laser therapy on the expression of IL_1 beta in wound healing

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Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been extensively applied to improve wound healing due to some biostimulatory properties presented by laser arrays apparently able to accelerate the repair of soft tissue injuries. However, the role of proinflammatory interlukines not been studied yet. IL_1 β represent one of the most important poroinflammatory interlukines that involved in wound healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of 790-805nm diode laser on the expression of IL_1 β during wound healing in mice. Materials and Methods: Standard-sized wounds (1.5cm) were carried out in the face of 96 white albino mice. Half of them underwent LLLT treatment (360 J/cm 2) at 790-805 nm delivered immediately after wound procedure. The repairing area was removed and stained with immunohistochemistry technique to detect the expression of IL_1 β. Results it had been found that LLLT was able to increase the expression of the IL_1 β in early phases of healing as well as to enhance epithelization remodeling process at both 7 th and 14 th days of wound healing. Conclusions : The LLLT protocol tested in this study resulted in increased the expression of IL_1 β in the lased group significantly at day 7 of healing period which affect wound healing


Article
CBCT analysis of impacted maxillary canines

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Background: This study designed to shade light on the important role of CBCT in accurate localization of the impacted maxillary canines. Materials and method: Fifty two unilateral and bilateral impacted maxillary canines from 30 patients (24 females and 6 males) were evaluated by a volumetric 3D images obtained from cone beam CT. All samples attended to the specialist health center of dentistry in Al-Sadder City referred to CBCT by oral surgeons or orthodontists to detect the exact position of impacted upper canine in cases when there was no bulging buccally or palatally which aids to detect the exact position. Results: Mesio-palatal angulations had the highest rate (63.5%) followed by mesio-labial (19.2%), vertical (labial) (9.6%), disto-palatal (5.8%) and disto-labial (1.9%). The relation between impacted canine and the adjacent teeth regarding to the attachment was significant only with lateral incisor. No cases of root resorption of the adjacent teeth were recorded. Bilateral impacted teeth were found in 22 patients which is highly significant (especially in females), while unilateral impaction was found only in 8 patients especially in females. Impacted canine was more prominent in female whether unilateral or bilateral. Conclusions: CBCT imaging of impacted canines can show the following: presence or absence of the canine, angulations of the long axis of the tooth, relative labial and palatal positions and proximity to adjacent teeth. In short, CBCT imaging is clearly advantageous in imaging and management of impacted canines


Article
Evaluation the antioxidant effect of α-L- Fucose injection into rabbit periodontium

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Background: α-L-Fucose is a methyl pentose sugar similar to L-galactose except for the loss of alcohol group on carbon number 6. The objective of this study is to evaluate the biochemical and antioxidant effect of intracrevicular injection of fucose into rabbits periodontium, throughout measuring the levels of total protein (TP), total fucose (TF), protein bound fucose PBF) , Malondialdehyde (MDA) , and vitamin C in sera of fucose injected rabbit groups.( Materials and Methods: The existing study was carried out on 55 male rabbits and were divided randomly into three groups ; first group was injected with 50μl of 150mM fucose solution into gingival sulcus ; second group was injected with 50 μl of normal saline ; while the third group was not received any injection ( normal group) .Blood samples were collected from injected groups at time intervals of 1, 3 ,24 ,72, and 168 hours after injection, for measuring of serum TP, TF, , PBF , MDA, and vitamin C and compared with normal group. Results: The results showed a significant increase in the mean concentration of TF and PBF reaching its maximum value 3hrs after injection, then it decline until reached its normal value 168 hours after injection, whereas serum total protein increased significantly only 3 hours after injection. Also serum MDA level did not change after injection, while serum vitamin C increased immediately after fucose injection, even 72 hours after injection. Conclusion: Intracrevicular injection of α-L- Fucose has an observable effect on TF and PBF this may give an indication about its effect on periodontal tissue and has a role in the body defence against oxidative stress, throughout increasing the production of vitamin C.


Article
The effect of intracrevicular injection of fucose on serum interlukine -1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha

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Background: α-L-Fucose is a methyl pentose sugar, had the ability to kill bacteria, controlling infection and normalize immune function. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of sulcular injection of fucose on rabbits periodontium , throughout measuring the level of some proinflammatory cytokine ; interlukine 1beta ( IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor ( TNF-alpha) in sera of rabbits before fucose injection and at 3 days after fucose injection. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on using ( 20 ) male rabbits of the same species weighted (1-1.5 kg ) , the blood samples were collected from hearts of 20 rabbits before fucose injection and consider as( non injected group) , and after 3 days of fucose injection and consider as (fucose injected group) and analyzed for determination of the concentration of IL-1ß and TNF-α. Results: The results showed a highly significant decrease in the mean concentration of TNF-α in sera of fucose injected group(19.05± 1.166) pg ⁄ml when compared to its mean concentration in non injected group (27.25±7.371) pg ⁄ml ,also a highly significant decrease in the mean concentration of IL-1ß in sera of fucose injected group(34.19 ± 3.1)pg ⁄ml as compared to its mean concentration in sera of non injected group (38.86 ±4.565)pg⁄ml. Conclusion: both proinflammatory cytokines were influenced and inhibited by local fucose injection


Article
Evaluation of Andrews' six keys of normal occlusion in a sample of Iraqi adults in Baghdad city

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Abstract

Background: The Andrews’ six keys of normal occlusion contribute individually and collectively to the total scheme of occlusion and, therefore, are viewed as essential to successful orthodontic treatment. The present research aims to evaluate the presence of the parameters of the Andrews’ Six Keys of normal occlusion in a sample of 100 Iraqi adults with complete permanent dentition and clinically acceptable normal occlusion (Angle’s Class I) in Baghdad city. Their age range 18-25 years (60 males and 40 females). Materials and methods: Each patient was subjected to clinical examination and then study cast models were made, with their occlusal records. The measuring tools that have been used involved: Three-dimensional goniometer to measure crown angulation and inclination, Interlandi template to measure tooth rotation and digital calliper to measure curve of Spee. Results: The results that were obtained showed that the distribution of Andrews’ six key was achieved as follow: the Interarch relationship (key I) which is composed of seven items was achieved in most of models (72%); the Angulation (key II) was achieved in 67%; the Inclination (key III) was showed in less than half of the sample (41%); the Rotation (key IV) was achieved in 62%; the Interproximal contact (key V) was achieved in 57% and the Curve of Spee (key VI) was achieved in all models (100%). Conclusion: this study found that only 10% of the models presented with all six keys simultaneously. Whereas the higher percentage (34%) was found with four keys and only one model presented with one key (1%).


Article
Periodontal health and salivary Interleukin -6 among preterm postpartum women

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Background: Hormonal changes during pregnancy have been suggested to predispose women to gingivitis. Furthermore, advance periodontal infection in pregnant women may pose a threat to the placenta and uterus and may increase the like hood of preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salivary interleukin -6 (IL-6) level and periodontal health among preterm postpartum women. Materials and Methods: Salivary samples were taken from 33 preterm postpartum women (study group) and 33 full term postpartum women (control group). The supernatant salivary samples were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plaque, calculus and gingival indices were used for recording the oral hygiene and gingivitis also probing pocket depth was recorded. Results: The mean values of plaque index, calculus index probing pocket depth were higher among study group than control group with no statistically significant difference, but a highly significant difference was observed in the mean value of GI between the two groups. The full term women had a higher mean value of salivary IL-6 than study group with no statistically significant difference, weak positive correlation was found between salivary IL-6 and probing pocket depth in control group. On the other hand, weak negative correlations were noticed between salivary IL-6 among study group with Plaque index, Gingival index, Calculus index and probing pocket depth, also between salivary IL-6 with PlI, GI and CalI among control group. However, statistically all correlations were not significant. Conclusion: It is concluded that pregnant women during pregnancy required preventive programs directed for improvement of oral health and especially periodontal disease to prevent any pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery


Article
The effect of different oral hygiene regimens on the quantity of cariogenic plaque on orthodontic bands with different attachments (A clinical photographic study)

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Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances impede the maintenance of oral hygiene and result in plaque accumulation leads to enamel demineralization caused by acids produced by bacteria. Studies on plaque control strategies in orthodontic populations are limited. This might be caused by difficulties in the quantitative evaluation of dental plaque because the teeth have various levels of bracket coverage, and different tooth sizes and malocclusions, making the traditional categorical indices complex. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different hygiene protocols on plaque quantity on bands with different attachments. Materials and method: Twenty patients had four bands within the orthodontic appliance. Then randomly divided into four groups of hygiene regimens where group A used chlorhexidine dentifrice, group B used fluoridated dentifrice, group C used chlorhexidine mouthwash along with chlorhexidine dentifrice and group D used chlorhexidine mouthwash in addition to the fluoride dentifrice. Bands were removed four weeks after the appliance been in place, cut out carefully into 2 pieces from the center of the mesial and distal contact areas, biochemical test (clinprocario L-pop) was applied then 80 digital photographs were obtained. Four areas of interest were estimated which are mesially and distally to each attachment (2 mm) in width each. Percentage of plaque in these areas was calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Side difference revealed that the plaque accumulated on the right sided bands more than the left, however the difference was not significant. It was also found that the lower bands had insignificantly higher amount of plaque than the upper ones. Conclusions: The four groups of oral hygiene regimens have no significant different effects on the plaque amount. Moreover, the oral hygiene maintenance is more difficult in the right side than the left side but the difference was not significant. The lower arch accumulated insignificantly more plaque than the upper. Also, difference in attachments has no influence on plaque amount


Article
Vertical analysis of patients with late lower arch crowding

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Background: Because of many factors play a role in the developing of late lower arch crowding, therefore the objective of the current study is to do vertical analysis for subjects with late lower dental arch crowding. The conducted study is the first attempt to do vertical analysis for Iraqi subjects with late lower arch crowding to see if there is a vertical discrepancy in such patients. Subjects and methods: Eighty subjects were selected according to certain inclusion criteria from patients attending the Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry, Baghdad University, patients ranged between 18-25 years old. The 80 patients were divided into two groups (crowding and normal), 40 patients each (20 males and 20 females). A study cast of lower dental arch was obtained, and then Nance's space analysis made for each cast, Cephalometric radiographs were also taken for each patient involved in the current study and digitization was done to calculate nine vertical linear and twelve angular measurements. Results: Most of linear measurements showed higher mean values in crowding than normal subjects except S-Go, Ar- Go, and PFH/AFH, also subjects with crowding had significantly higher (P<0.05) anterior facial height (ANS-Me) than normal subjects, and that difference occurred only in the lower part of the face, the Jaraback Ratio (PFH/AFH) was also low in crowding subjects, also higher mean values of LADH, UADH and UPDH in crowding group, may be due to compensatory over eruption of teeth as a result a bite opening occurred, indicating that patients with crowding have tendency toward posterior rotation. Regarding the angular measurements, subjects (total males and females) with crowding had larger mean values than normal. There were no interactions between total mean values of normal and crowding subjects for any outcome angular parameter, except four of the twelve angular measurements (SN-MP, Occ-MP, PP-MP, and sum S.A.G angles) showed an interaction, with females in both normal and crowding groups exhibited higher mean values than males. Conclusions: Subjects with late lower arch crowding can have and/or affect on the vertical dimension, and the vertical discrepancy in late lower arch crowding should be considered during diagnosis and treatment plane of orthodontic cases, active treatment, and retention phase, in order to have stable end result in long term prognosis in orthodontics.


Article
The frontal sinus dimensions in mouth and nasal breathers in Iraqi adult subjects

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Background: The frontal sinus area can be used as a diagnostic aid to recognize mouth breather subjects. The aims of this study were to determine the gender difference in each group, to compare the frontal sinus area between mouth breather and nasal breather group, and to verify the presence of correlation between the frontal sinus area and the cephalometric skeletal measurements used in this study. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs were taken for 60 adults (30 mouth breathers and 30 nasal breathers) age range (18-25), for each group 15 males and 15 females, in the orthodontic clinic in the college of Dentistry at Baghdad University. The control group (nasal breather) with skeletal class I and ANB angle ranged between 2-4º, and have clinically class I occlusion. The cephalometric measurement for each group were taken, the cephalometric radiographs were analyzed by using AutoCAD 2007 program. Results and Conclusions: In comparison to nasal breather the mouth breather has larger Gonial angle giving a tendency to posterior rotation with growth of the mandible. The mouth breather has less maxillary length than the nasal breather. No effect of gender in mouth breather on gonial, SNA and SNB angles, no effect of gender in nasal breather on gonial angle, while the other cephalometric measurements were higher in males than females in each group. The mouth breather showed more anteroposterior extent of anterior cranial base; also the mouth breather show an increase in all facial height than the nasal breathers, the frontal sinus area is smaller in mouth breather than in nasal breather. The frontal sinus area showed correlation for both groups (Mouth and nasal breather) with maxillary Length, mandibular length, ramal length, S-N length, TAFH, UAFH, LAFH, TPFH, LPFH, and UPFH. There is only correlation of frontal sinus with the SNA and SNB angles in nasal breather and no significant correlation for both groups with the gonial angle


Article
Photogrammetric analysis of facial soft tissue profile of Iraqi adults sample with Class I normal occlusion: (A cross sectional study)

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Background: The purposes of this study were to determine the photogrammetric soft tissue facial profile measurements for Iraqi adults sample with class I normal occlusion using Standardized photographic techniques and to verify the existence of possible gender differences. Materials and methods: Eighty Iraqi adult subjects (40 males and 40 females) with an age ranged between 18-25 years having class I normal occlusion were chosen for this study. Each individual was subjected to clinical examination and digital standardized right side photographic records were taken in the natural head position which is mirror position which the patient looking straight into his eyes into the mirror mounted on the stand. The photographs were analyzed using AutoCAD program 2011 to measure the distances and angles used in the Soft Tissue Photogrammetric Analysis. Descriptive statistics was obtained for the measured variables for both genders and independent- samples t-test was performed to evaluate the genders difference. Results and conclusions: The results indicated that: males had greater facial heights and lengths as well as greater prominences. The mean values of all angular variables were higher in males than females except in the following angular measurements: nasofrontal, mentolabial, angle of the middle facial third; and angle of the head position, with larger male dimensions in all linear measurements of the facial, labial, nasal, and chin areas except Canut’s nasal prominence in nasal area. The nasofrontal, vertical nasal, nasal dorsum, cervicomental, middle facial third and facial convexity angles showed statistically significant gender differences, in which the male dimensions were larger than females while the nasolabial, the mentolabial, nasal, the inferior facial third, the head position and total facial convexity angles showed statistically non significant gender differences


Article
Dental anomalies associated with malocclusion among 13 year old Kurdish students

Authors: Tara A. Rasheed تارا رشيد
Pages: 173-178
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Background: The aim of this national oral health survey was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions due to some anomalies in the dentition among the 13 years old Kurdish students in sulaimani intermediate school. Materials and methods: The total sample was 950 (455 males and 495 females) which assessed by diagnostic set and special instrument. The clinical examination was mainly based on the definitions of Björk et al. Some variables were recorded as present or absent sometimes denoting the tooth or the teeth involved in malocclusion and their distribution according to the whole sample. Results: The results showed that 1)The most common extracted tooth was the mandibular first molar (2.9%). 2) At this age group the most common partially erupted tooth was the maxillary canine (4.2%). 3) The most common unerupted tooth was the maxillary second molars. 4) The most common retained deciduous tooth was the maxillary canine (6.8%), then the maxillary second molars (5.4%).5) Hypodontia as judged clinically was found in 2.1% of the sample affecting one or more permanent teeth. The most common congenitally missing tooth was the maxillary lateral incisor (0.9%), mandibular second premolars (0.4%), and then maxillary second premolar (0.2%). 6) 29.2 % of the sample had one or more rotated teeth. The most common rotated tooth was the mandibular second premolars (5.3%). 7). The sample showed 30.4% with one or more displaced teeth. The most common displaced tooth was the maxillary lateral incisor (8.8%), then the maxillary canine (7.2%). Conclusion: At the age of 13 both males and females show large range of dental anomalies that are better to be controlled.


Article
Effect of ginger extract on Mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate

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Background: The rhizome of ginger is used in cooking and for medicinal purposes such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The aims of the study were to test the effect of ethanolic extract of ginger on growth, adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and de-ionized water. Materials and methods: From saliva often volunteers (dental students 20-22 years); mutans streptococci was isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic and biochemical tests. Ginger was powdered and extracted, different concentrations of ginger extract were prepared. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% used as a control positive; while de-ionized water was used as a control negative. In this study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. In vitro experiment, agar well technique was used to study the sensitivity of mutans streptococci to different concentrations of ginger extract and other control agents; also effect of ginger extract on the viable count of mutans streptococci, the adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci were studied.In vivo experiment, the volunteers couldn’t tolerate the extract. Results: Mutans streptococci was sensitive to different concentrations of ethanolic ginger extract, but they were more sensitive to chlorhexidine gluconate than the extract. The effect of ginger extract on the viable count of mutans streptococci at concentrations (30%, 35% and 40%) showed highly significant reduction in the count of the bacteria but less than chlorhexidine effect. In the effect of the extract on the adherence of mutans streptococci, the concentrations (30%, 35%, 40%) were used and only 40% and chlorhexidine prevent the plaque formation. But in the acidogenicity of mutans streptococci procedure 35%, 40% of the extract and chlorhexidine showed effectiveness in reducing acid formation. Conclusion: Ginger extract was effective against mutans streptococci, chlorhexidine is more effective than other agents.


Article
Antimicrobial activity of different types of mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans (In vitro study)

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Background: Recently increasing number of people are using mouthwashes for general and oral care while the primary appeal of a mouthwash is an aid to breath freshness and cleansing the mouth, the majority of mouthwashes also claim to have antiseptic properties. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of eight types of mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in vitro. Materials and methods: Agar diffusion technique was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of eight types of mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavities of patients attending dental clinics at college of dentistry - Baghdad University. Results: Al-Mansour mouthwash emerged as the most effective mouthwash giving the maximum mean diameter of inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus (26 mm), Candida albicans (25 mm) and Streptococcus mutans (20 mm) followed by corsodyl mouthwash, emoform mouthwash and zac mouthwash all of them had excellent levels of antimicrobial activity also Breath, close up, sensodyne and aquafresh had good antimicrobial activity Conclusion: All the mouthwashes used revealed antimicrobial activity against the three microorganisms used even when these mouthwashes were diluted but the concentrated mouthwash had the strongest antimicrobial activity. Al-Mansour mouthwash an Iraqi mouthwash was the best one according to the results of this study.

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