Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2013 volume:25 issue:special issue 1

Article
Evaluation of transverse and tensile bond strength of repaired nylon denture base material by heat, cold and visible light cure acrylic resin

Authors: Firas A.F. --- Ghazwan A.A. --- Ali A.M.
Pages: 1-5
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Background: Denture fracture is one of the most common problems encountered by the patients and prosthodontists. The objective of present study was to evaluate the transverse strength of nylon denture base resin repaired by using conventional heat polymerized, autopolymerized and visible light cure {VLC} resins, surface treatment that used for repair and adjustment of insufficient nylon denture bases and in case of addition of artificial teeth. As these corrective procedures are common chair side procedures in dental clinic. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty nylon specimens were prepared by using metal patterns with dimension of (65x10x2.5 mm) length, width, and thickness respectively for transverse strength test while for tensile bond strength a dumbbell-shaped with measurement (65x12.5x25mm) length, width, and thickness respectively were flasked with stone. The nylon specimens were molded by reflasked with dental stone that used as an index for these specimens in the repair procedure and repaired with 45 degree bevel joint by using metal holding device. The two parts of nylon specimen to be repaired were realigned in its repair index and adhere with special adhesive material to stabilize the combination during repair procedure. The dough of heat and cold cure resin was packed into the joint and then cured. The specimen repaired with cold cure resin was placed in the Ivomat containing water at (40°C) and pressure (30IB/inch²) for 15 minutes. The specimen repaired with {VLC} was placed in the light cure unit for 4 minutes following manufacturer’s instruction. The fractured nylon specimens were divided according to the type of repaired materials into (40) specimens received heat cure acrylic and the (40) specimens received cold cure acrylic and the other 40 specimens received {VLCR}. Each 40 specimens were subdivided according to the type of surface treatment received into 20 specimens were treated with coarse stone bur (control), 20 specimens were treated with combination of coarse stone bur and monomer of the heat cure acrylic. After that the specimens were subjected to transverse {Tr} and tensile bond {TB} strength tests. For each test 10 specimens. Results and conclusions: This study showed that specimens treated with combination of coarse stone bur and monomer of the acrylic (heat, cold or VL cure) had the highest transverse and tensile strength values, followed by the specimens treated with coarse stone bur. The results showed that the specimens repaired with heat cure acrylic had transverse and tensile strength values higher than the specimens repaired with cold and VL cure acrylic when compared between subgroups of heat, cold and VL cure acrylic that received the same treatments


Article
Effect of plasma treatment of acrylic denture teeth and thermocycling on the bonding strength to heat cured acrylic denture base material

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Background: Acrylic resin polymer s used in prosthodontic treatment as a denture base material for several decades. Separation and debonding of artificial teeth from denture bases present a laboratory and clinical problem affect patient and dentist. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oxygen plasma and argon plasma treatment of acrylic teeth and thermocycling on bonding strength to hot cured acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and Methods: Sixty denture teeth (right maxillary central incisor) are selected. The denture teeth are waxed onto the beveled surface of rectangular wax block according to Japanese standard for artificial teeth. The control group consisted of 20 denture teeth specimen without any treatment. The oxygen plasma group consisted of 20 denture teeth specimen treated with oxygen plasma for two minutes exposure time at plasma apparatus. The argon plasma group consisted of 20 denture teeth treated with argon plasma for two minuets exposure time. All the specimens are undergone flasking and wax elimination procedure in the conventional way. All specimens stored in distilled water for 7 days at 37°C, then half of the specimens of all groups undergoes thermocycling between 5°C - 55°C in 60 seconds cycles for three days and tested for shear bond strength using universal testing machine the data was collected and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and independent sample t-test. Results: The plasma treated groups showed the higher mean force required to fracture the acrylic teeth from their heat cured acrylic resin denture bases, as compared to control group, and the oxygen plasma treatment group showed higher shear bond value than the argon plasma treatment. The thermocycling had a deleterious effect on bonding strength for control group while the plasma treated group showed an increase in bond strength following thermocycling. Conclusion: Plasma treatment method was an effective approach for increasing the shear bond strength as a result of surface oxidation and chemical etching effect of oxygen plasma and micromechanical interlocking effect of argon plasma


Article
The effect of thermocycling and different pH of artificial saliva on the impact and transverse strength of heat cure resin reinforced with silanated ZrO2 nano-fillers

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermo cycling and different pH of artificial saliva (neutral, acidic, basic) on impact and transverse strength of heat cure acrylic resin reinforced of with 5% silanated ZrO2 nano fillers. Materials and methods: 120 samples were prepared, 60 samples for impact strength test and another 60 samples for transverse strength test, for each test, samples were divided into two major groups (before and after thermo cycling), then each of these major groups were further subdivided into 3 subgroups according to the pH of prepared artificial saliva (neutral, acidic, basic). Charpy impact device was used for impact strength test and Flexural device was used for transverse strength test. Result: There was a non-significant difference between the two major groups (before and after thermo cycling). Also results showed that there was a non-significant difference between the subgroups for each major group in reference to pH of artificial saliva. These results were found in both impact and transverse strength. Conclusion Transverse strength and impact strength of heat cure acrylic resin reinforced with silanated ZrO2 nanofillers was not affected by thermocycling and different PH of artificial saliva suggesting improvement in the mechanical properties


Article
Radiopacity of modified microhybrid composite resin: (An in vitro study)

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Background: The aim of this study was to measure the radiopacity (RO) of modified microhybrid composite resins by adding 2 types of nanofillers (Zinc Oxide and Calcium Carbonate) in two concentrations 3% and 5% and comparing them to unmodified microhybrid composite resins and to nanofilled composite resin. Materials and Methods: Two types of composite resin were used (Microhybrid composite MH Quadrent anterior shine and Nanofilled composite resin Filtek Z350 XT), for each tested group five disk-shaped specimens (1-mm-thick and 15 mm diameter) were fabricated. The material samples were radiographed together with the aluminum step wedge. The density of the specimens was determined with a transmission densitometer and was expressed in term of equivalent thickness of aluminum. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The radiopacity (RO) values of the tested group ranged between (0.9293- 2.6242 Eq. Al thickness) and there were significant differences among them. Nanofilled composite resin Filtek Z350 XT showed the highest value of RO while unmodified Microhybrid composite MH Quadrent anterior shine showed the lowest value of RO. Conclusion: The addition of 3% of both the ZnO and CaCO3 nanofillers fillers to microhybrid composite significantly increased the RO, while the addition of 5% of CaCO3 and ZnO nanofillers to microhybrid composite showed nonsignificant increase in the RO of the composite.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of addition of polyester fiber on some mechanical properties of heat cure acrylic resin

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect addition of polyester fibers on the some mechanical properties of heat cured acrylic resin (implant strength, flexural strength and hardness) Materials and methods: Ninety specimens were used in the study. Thirty specimens were used for impact strength measurements (80mm X 10mm X 4mm) length, width and thickness respectively. The specimens divided into three test groups (n=10), first group formed from heat cure acrylic resin without fiber reinforcement. Second group was formed from heat cure acrylic resin was reinforced with 2 mm length polyester fiber and third group was formed from heat cure acrylic resin reinforced with 4mm length polyester fiber, impact strength measured by impact testing device. 30 specimens with (65 mm X 10mm 2.5mm) length, width and thickness respectively were used in 3 groups (n=10) flexural strength test. The flexural strength was measured by using flexural testing device. 30 specimens with (65mm X 10m X 2.5mm) length width and thickness respectively were used for hardness test. The specimens were divided into 3 group (n=10) as in impact strength and flexural strength. Hardness measured by using (shore D hardness tester TH210). Results: revealed statistically significant increase on impact strength especially on 4mm length when compared to control group. Significant decreases in flexural strength of PMMP. When compared to control group with 4mm length fiber reinforcement. Non significant decrease when compared control group with 2mm length fiber reinforced PMMA. Significant decrease in hardness of PMMA resin after reinforcement with 2mm, 4mm lengths polyester fibers. Conclusions: Strengthening with the polyester fiber decreased the flexural strength and hardness of the resin, but increased impact strength. Thus when high impact acrylic resins are needed, fiber reinforced resins may be the material of choice


Article
Computed tomographic localization of infraorbital foramen position and correlation with the age and gender of Iraqi subjects

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Background: The Infraorbital foramen is an anatomical structure with an important location in the maxilla, position of foramen in maxillofacial area is necessary in clinical situation requiring regional nerve blocks that are performed in children undergoing facial surgeries to avoid injury to corresponding nerve. The aim of study was to determine the position of the Infraorbital foramen and to correlate Infraorbital foramen position with age and gender using computed tomography. Subjects, Materials, and Methods: The sample consist of prospective study for 50 Iraqi subjects (21 male and 29 female) with age ranged from (5-17) years. The examination was performed on Multi – Slice Spiral Tomography scanner in Al-Karakh General Hospital. Using sagittal and coronal sections including right and left sides and the following measurements were done: 1. The distance from crista galli to the midpoint of fusion of hard palate(Midline of the patient) in the coronal section. 2. The distance from mid line to the infraorbital foramen, in the coronal section for both sides right and left. 3. The distance from sella turcica to the infraorbital foramen, in sagittal section for both sides right and left. 4. The distance from nasion to the infraorbital foramen, in coronal section for both sides right and left. Results: The partial regression coefficient for each year increase in age the linear measurements (midline-infraorbital foramen) (nasion-infraorbital foramen) and (vertical distance from nasion meeting the horizontal line from infraorbital foramen to midline) are expected to significantly increase after adjusting for confounding effect of gender. From multiple linear regression model designed in this study two mathematical formulae were derived for correlation of infraorbital foramen position with the age and gender:- Y1 [Linear measurement (Midline-Infraorbital foramen) mm] = 19.56 + (1.02 x gender) + (0.53x age in years). Y2 [Linear measurement (vertical distance from nasion meeting the horizontal line from Infraorbital foramen to midline)] = 28.42 + (2.5 x gender) + (0.30 x age in years). Conclusions: Computed tomography scan information facilitates the localization of infraorbital foramen position for successful access of the needle in infraorbital nerve block in children of different age and gender


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and CD44 adhesion molecules in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer world wide. Despite greater emphasis on multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, advanced stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma continues to have poor 5-year survival rates (0-40%) that have not significantly improved in the last (30) years. To improve outcomes for this deadly disease , It is required a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth, metastasis, and treatment resistance. This study evaluates the Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and CD44 adhesion molecules in OSCC and to correlate the expression of either marker with each other, with lymph node metastasis and with tumor grade. Materials and methods: Thirty blocks of OSCC were included in this study. An immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti E-cadherinand anti CD44 monoclonal antibodies. Results: Negative immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin was found in(66.7%)of the cases and only (33.3%)revealed positive immunoexpression. Positive CD44 immunoreaction was seen in(86.7%)of the cases. There was no statistically significant correlation regarding either marker with respect to the tumor stage, grade and lymph node matastasis. Moreover anon-significant correlation was found between the expression of both markers. Conclusions: this study revealed negative E-cadherin expression in two thirds of the cases, while positive CD44 was illustrated in most of them. Non- significant correlation was found regarding the expression of both markers with tumor stage, grade and lymph node status. Inverse significant correlation was found regarding CD44 expression with the clinical presentation of the study sample. In addition, non significant correlation was found between the E-cadherin and CD44 immunoexpression


Article
Assessment of microvessels density and inflammatory status in oral lichen planus

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Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with an autoimmune inflammatory pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of OLP, using CD34 stain to highlight the blood vessels for measuring the microvessel density (MVD) as well as to evaluate the relation of this marker with the degree of inflammation Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining technique was used to evaluate angiogenesis using CD34 in 46 paraffin blocks 10 of them obtained from normal mucosa and 36 from cases diagnosed as lichen planus , 20 of them diagnosed as Reticular type while 16 as erosive type. Severity of inflammation was divided into mild, moderate and severe according to the number of mononuclear cell infiltrate. Results: The mean MVD as determined by the mean number of CD34 positive vessels in hot areas for OLP group was higher 39.2 (31.9 for reticular group & 48.375 for erosive group), whereas the mean MVD for control group 19.5 so that there was statistically significant difference between OLP group and the control group (p value<0.001). Regarding the severity of inflammation mean MVD was significantly increased as the degree of inflammation increased ( p value<0.001). Conclusion: Angiogenesis may be an integral component associated with the development of the OLP


Article
Irradiation effect of 780-805nm diode laser on wound healing in mice

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Background: Wound healing is a complicated, interactive, integrative process involving cellular and chemotactic activity, the release of chemical mediators and associated vascular response which includes number of phases: inflammatory phase, proliferative phase and remodeling phase. Low level laser therapy can be more effective in the three overlapping phases of wound healing. Biostimulation appears to have an effect on the cellular level, by increasing cellular function and stimulating various cells. The aim of present study was to evaluate histologically the effect of 780-805 diode laser the intensity of inflammation and pattern of epithelization in mice model. Material and methods: The experimental study was performed on ninety six white albino mice. An incision of 1.5cm length was done on the face side of each mouse. Then the animals were divided into two main groups; control group which didn’t receive laser irradiation while the other group was the lased group which exposed to single dose of 360J/cm of 780-805nm diode laser. Animals were subdivided into four subgroups according to healing periods. Histological specimens were taken at 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day for microscopical examination concerning inflammatory cells infiltration and epithelial cell layer thickness. Results: Results show obvious reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration and more epithelization in laser treated wounds compared with control wounds. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Low level diode laser (790-805nm) has beneficial effects in enhancement of soft tissue wound healing process histologically.


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of D2-40, VEGF and PCNA as biological markers of lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis and proliferation in pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland origin

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Background: Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor and shows a pronounced morphological complexity and diversity; for this The immunoprofiles and clinical course of PA differed according to cellular differentiation. Therefore, it is important to assess potential biomarkers in diagnostic and therapeutic trials. This study evaluates the immunohistochemical expression of D2-40, VEGF and PCNA as markers of lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis and proliferation of PA and their correlation with clinicpathological parameters and with each other. Materials and Methods: Twenty five formalin – fixed, paraffin – embedded tissue blocks were included in this study. After histopathological reassessment of haematoxylin & eosin stained sections for each block, an immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti D2-40, anti VEGF and anti PCNA monoclonal antibodies. Results: Positive immunohistochemical of D2-40, VEGF and PCNA was found in (100%), (92%) and (88%) of the cases respectively. No statistically significant correlation neither among the markers immunoexpression nor with the clinicopathological finding, except a statistical significant correlation was found between (D2-40andVEGF) expression with the histopathological presentation of the cases. Conclusion: D2-40, VEGF and PCNA immunoexpression showed significant correlation with respect to the histopathological presentation of the cases. While no significant correlation seen regarding the expression of aforementioned markers with each other, suggests that each marker might affect on tumor behavior independently

Keywords

Pleomorphic adenoma --- D2-40 --- VEGF --- PCNA


Article
The value of ultrasound and color doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of periapical lesions in comparison to histopathological and/or surgical findings

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Background: Imaging techniques play a very important role in the specialty of endodontic. The ultrasonographic technique is non-expensive procedure, safe, and reproducible. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasonography in evaluation of periapical lesions (cyst, granuloma, mixed lesion “cyst within graulomas mass”, and abscess. Subject, Material and method: The sample consists of prospective study for 64 Iraqi participants who attended Karbalaa Specialized Center for Dentistry (males & females). Those patients were diagnosed clinically and radiographically as having periapical lesions of dental origin. They were examined by real time ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasonography with echographic predilection about the type of the lesion based on three parameters measured by ultrasound including: content, outline, and the vascularity. The echographic diagnosis was compared to the final histopathological and /or surgical findings obtained from the periapical surgeries. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis were respectively as follow: for periapical cyst, they were 92.3%, 96.1%, and 95.3%. While for periapical granulomam, they were 87.0%, 92.7%, and 90.6%. For mixed lesions, they were 66.7%, 98.4%, and 96.9% and lastly for periapical abscess, they were 92.0%, 97.4%, and 95.3%. The ultrasound diagnosis in our study had an overall agreement of 89% between ultrasound diagnosis and final diagnosis based on histopathological and/ or surgical findings. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a non- invasive, low cost, and complementary method for examination and diagnosis of periapical lesions and there is correlation of ultrasonographic findings with histopathological and /or surgical findings for final diagnosis.


Article
The study of tempromandibular joint disorders and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in serum and saliva of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that affects mainly the synovial membranes and articular structures and is characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation involving multiple joints.Being a synovial joint, the Temporomandibular Joint is subject to the same disorders affecting other synovial joints, including RA.Beside it was considered as a specific serological marker for diagnosing RA disease ,antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide have proven to be associated with joints destruction, though; it may play a potential role in the prediction of the disease severity. Materials and Methods: Sixty nine individuals (69) were enrolled in this study, forty nine (49) were patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis, and twenty (20) were healthy control subjects. Blood and saliva samples were taken from each subject for immunological analysis of Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptides antibodies by ELISA. Each patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis disease was examined by means of Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temromandibular Disorders for the assessment of tempromandibularjoint involvement. Results: Frequency of positive serum Anti-CCP antibodies was higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.000).Tempromandibular joint clinical findings were bilaterally involved except joint sounds, sometimes; it was unilateral. Chronic rheumatoid arthritis patients associated with higher prevalence of tempromandibular joint disorders than newly diagnosed RA, except limited mouth opening which were prevalent in newly diagnosed RA patients, (p=0.012) was significant.Positive serum Anti-CCP rheumatoid arthritis patients were associated with higher frequency of tempromandibular joint disorderscompared with RA patients with negative serum Anti-CCP, a non-significant difference was found. Conclusions:Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide antibodies are considered as a biomarker of inflammation and disease activity. Tempromandibular joint disorders are frequently involved in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatoid arthritis patients with positive serum Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptides antibodies associated with higher frequency of tempromandibular joint disorders


Article
The role of 3-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography in the diagnosis of Eagle’s syndrome and correlation with severe headache and migraine (Iraqi study)

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Background: The styloid process is a cylindrical bone (protrusion). It situated above the common carotid artery between the external and internal branches immediately proximal to the internal jugular vein and facial nerves. The styloid process varies in length also it may be absent as well as elongated. Classically, an elongated styloid process and calcified of stylohyoid ligament causes Eagle’s syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the styloid process using 3 dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D-MDCT) to detect the presence of Eagle’s syndrome that causes severe headache and migraine. Materials and methods: One hundred patients with severe headache and migraine were exposed to 3D- multidetector CT with special brain CT in Al-Karkh general hospital to examine the styloid process. By elongated the field of the brain CT multi-detector downward and using facial volume, the morphological alterations of styloid process and stylohyoid ligament can be discovered. Results: Thirty four patients (25 females and 9 males) had a problem in the styloid process. Seven of them were suffered from elongation of styloid process while 27 patients had fractured styloid process unilaterally or bilaterally Conclusion: Eagle’s syndrome is one of the important causes of severe headache and craniofacial pain which is detected by special field of brain 3D CT - multi-detector


Article
The effects of bisphosphonate administration on teeth development and growth of the jaw bones in neonatal rats (histological and immunohistochemical study)

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Background: Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis, and osteogenesis imperfecta in children. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that Bisphosphonates delay or inhibit tooth eruption. This study tries to focus on the effect of bisphosphonate on teeth development and jaw bones growth. Materials and methods: The present study includes 65 neonatal rats during lactation period from 15 Albino Wister rats mother. Alendronate (one type of Bisphosphonates) was administrated orally (15 mg/kg) into 10 pregnant rats two times a week, while other 5 rats regard as control. Then the neonatal rats sacrificed in I, 6, 11, 16 and 21 days. The lower first molar were examined histologically and immunohistochemical for amelogenin expression. Biochemical serum analysis for calcium and alkaline phosphatase level were down for 11, 16 and 21days group. All histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical results are compare with their controls. Results: The histological results illustrate retardation in tooth and root development, impairment in maturation of enamel and retardation in tooth eruption of the first molar tooth germ in alendronate treated neonatal rats than their controls. Also immunoreactivity for amelogenin at early stages of tooth development was somewhat more intense in experimental group than that in their controls .Moreover, calcium and alkaline phosphatase serum levels in experimental rats are less than that of their controls. Conclusion: This study concludes that treatment with alendronate during tooth development has the potential to inhibit tooth eruption, impair tooth formation, may induce some types of dental abnormalities, and increase the bone trabecule thickness by decreasing osteoclastic activity.


Article
Assessment of serum and salivary oxidant and total antioxidant status of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a sample of Basrah city

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Background: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most common painful oral mucosal disease, affecting approximately 20% of the population. RAS presents with a wide spectrum of severity ranging from a minor nuisance to complete debility. Many of factors thought to have been involved in its etiology; that might have at the same time a direct or indirect impact upon oxidant/antioxidant system and trigger free radicals production. The aim of this study was to determine the possible association of oxidant/total antioxidant status and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Subjects, materials and methods: The study consisted of thirty patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and thirty healthy controls from which saliva and blood samples were collected. Malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress biomarker and total antioxidant status were measured in serum and saliva. Results: Malondialdehyde in serum and saliva was significantly higher in recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients in comparison to healthy controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in total antioxidant status between recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients and control subjects (P>0.05). Conclusions: The changes in the oxidative stress in biological systems can be induced by the consumption of antioxidants and/or by an overload of oxidant species, so the antioxidant defense system become deficient that may be important in the inflammatory reactions observed in recurrent aphthous stomatitis


Article
The effect of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells with estimation of molecular events on tooth socket healing in diabetic rabbits (Immunohistochemical study)

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Background: Healing of a tooth extraction socket is a complex process involving tissue repair and regeneration. It involves chemotaxis of appropriate cells into the wound, Transformation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to osteoprogenitor cells, proliferation and differentiation of committed bone forming cells, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization of osteoid, maturation and remodeling of bone. These cellular events are precisely controlled and regulated by specific signaling molecules. Some of these like transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and insulin like growth factors (IGF) are well conserved proteins involved in the initial response to injury and repair in soft and hard tissue. Materials and Methods: 48 rabbits weighting an average of (2.5 - 3 kg) were used in this experimental study, and divided into 3 groups as follows; group A ( contains 16 healthy rabbits regarded as control group ) , Group B ( contains 16 diabetic rabbits not received treatment ), group C ( contains 16 controlled diabetic rabbits received insulin as a treatment ), the lower incisor for each rabbits was extracted, after 2, 10, 20 and 30 days of healing periods after scarification , the socket was analysed by immunohistochemical (IHC) estimation of growth factors : TGFbeta-3 , VEGF , IGF-1R , BMP-4 . Results: IHC findings revealed high positive expression of TGFbeta-3, BMP-4 on fibroblasts, osteoproginetor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes,high positive expression of VEGF on endothelial cells and high positive expression of IGF-1R on endothelial cells and moderate expression on osteoblasts. Conclusions: The inhibition of proliferation and migration of osteoblasts, or differentiation from progenitor cells, is implicated in the delay of teeth sockets healing. For this fact the results of the present study concluded that in the diabetic healing bone (rabbits of group B), the onset of cell proliferation and osteoblast differentiation were delayed and subsequently prolonged healing process when compared with the other groups (rabbits of group A,Cand D).


Article
Assessment of transforming growth factor beta one (TGF- β1) immunohistochemical (IHC) expression profile in the gingival tissue of patients with different forms of periodontal diseases

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Background: This study evaluate the immunohistochemical expression profile of transforming growth factor beta-1 in inflamed gingival tissue of patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects and, determine the correlation between this cytokine and the clinical periodontal parameters, intensity of inflammation and chronic periodontitis severity. Materials and methods: Gingival tissue specimens were taken from 23 chronic periodontitis patients, 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontally healthy subjects. The periodontal status was evaluated by dichotomous measurements of the clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD, CAL). The gingival specimens were fixed immediately in 10% formalin and processed routinely into paraffin blocks for further immunohistochemical analysis. Results: A highly significant statistical difference was observed between the study groups regarding the PLI ,GI ,the percentage of bleeding on probing sites and the intensity of inflammation .TGF-β1 expression profile statistical analysis showed a high statistical significant difference among the study groups , A highly significant statistical difference was found between the PPD Scores while a significant statistical difference was revealed among the CAL Scores when the expression profile of TGF-β1 was compared.TGF-β1 was positively correlated with the clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, and BOP) as well as with the intensity of inflammation in the three study groups. In chronic periodontitis group a highly significant positive linear correlation between the PPD and CAL with the TGF-β1 expression profile. Conclusions: TGF-β1 expression profile showed variations as the destructive character of the periodontal disease changed. Therefore, it could be proposed that TGF-β1 might contribute both to inflammatory regulation and remodeling events during periodontal disease


Article
Regulation of HbA1c of uncontrolled diabetic type II obese and normal weight patients by oral hygiene performance (Comparative study)

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Background: The association between periodontal diseases incidence and development and the metabolic diseases as Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity are recently have attract great deal of researchers attention and investigation. The periodontal health proved to reduce the systemic inflammatory reactions and positively improve the glycemic control of diabetes Type2 patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of oral hygiene control on the glycemic control of obese and normal weight moderately controlled Diabetic Type 2 patients, in addition to study the association of obesity with the gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study of three months duration. Included 30 moderately controlled diabetic type2 patients who attend the Specialist Center for Endocrine and Diabetes diseases Baghdad Al-Russafa administration / Iraqi Ministry of Health, were grouped into two groups, G1 of normal weight diabetics, and G2 obese diabetics according to their BMI level, the oral hygiene status measured by their PLI,GI,BBOP,PDI,CAL was conducted at each of the five visits of three weeks interval between each till the end of three months duration of the study and the level of their glycemic control measured by HbA1c level was conducted at the first and the fifth visit of the research duration , BMI was measured at the first and the fifth visit also. Paired t-test, ANOVA, Qui-square and Pearson correlation statistical analysis was used to investigate the significance of the improved glycemic control after oral hygiene control (OHC) of both G1 and G2. Results: periodontal parameters of both G1 and G2 were significantly improved after OHC with a significant reduction in HbA1c level of both normal weight and obese patients. Conclusion: The Oral Hygiene Control (OHC) is sufficient to improve reduction in Diabetes control level with or without overweight.OHC home care and professional measures could improve the gain in periodontal health in normal weight diabetics and overweight diabetics Obesity has an association with the presence of bleeding on probing as an indicator of the gingival inflammation in diabetic Type2 patients


Article
Cranial base morphology in different skeletal classes (A cross-sectional lateral cephalometric study)

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Background: It was stated in scientific literatures that the entire craniofacial complex is influenced by the growth of the cranial base structures. Nevertheless, many times this is not the case, and this point is subject to great controversy so the aim of this study is to evaluate the possible differences in cranial base shape and flexure between different skeletal classes for both genders and to investigate any possible correlation between cranial base variables and other skeletal base variables. Materials and Methods: The sample include 75 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi adults aged between 18-25 years (39 males, 36 females), collected from patients and undergraduate students in the orthodontic department of College of Dentistry-Baghdad University. The total sample was divided to three major categories depending on ANB angle and dental occlusion into class I control group (12 males, 13 females), class II group (13 males, 12 females) and class III group (14 males, 11 females). Results: The results revealed that no significant difference in all the angular measurements of both skeletal and cranial bases existed between genders, while all linear and area measurements were usually higher in males than females and there was no significant difference in all the skeletal and cranial bases angles existed between different skeletal classes in both genders meaning that there is no relationship between cranial base flexure and skeletal classes. The angles N-S-Ar, N-S-Ba and SN-FH were always correlated negatively with both the angles SNA and SNB in all skeletal classes for both genders, while the angle SBa-FH showed weaker correlation with the angles SNA and SNB than the angle SN-FHin all skeletal classes for both genders. Conclusion: Cranial base flexure is not the main cause of skeletal malocclusions


Article
Nutritional status in relation to oral health status among patients attending dental hospital

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Background: Good Nutrition is essential for oral and dental health in children. Good eating habits and food preferences are established early in childhood. Oral health problems can effect dietary quality and nutrient intake in another side increase the risk of several systemic diseases., The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation or the effect the of nutritional status in children at age of 5 to16 on the oral health status and dental caries . Materials and Methods: the total sample composed of 153 patients attending the Pedodontic and Preventive Department/College of Dentistry/University of Baghdad, the assessment of nutritional status was performed by using Body Mass Index specific for age and gender according to Chronic Disease and Prevention Center (CDC) growth chart (2000). Ramfjord index teeth were applied to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition, Dental plaque and Gingival health condition was assessed by using plaque index of Silness and Loe(1964),and gingival index of Loe and Silness( 1963), Calculus index assessment was according to Ramfjord criteria (1959). Dental caries measurement was according to World Health Organization criteria (1997). Results: this study showed no significance in the nutritional status (BMI) of children at 5-16 years of age and plaque index, gingival index, and calculus index, as well as the correlation of significant differences was not found between the nutritional status (BMI) and caries experience. Conclusion: this study reflected that the oral hygiene, gingival health and dental caries were not affected by nutritional status of children at age of 5-16years.


Article
Evaluation of en-masse retraction using microimplant versus conventional techniques: An in vitro study

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Background: The study aimed to investigate the effect of different techniques of en masse retraction on the vertical and sagittal position, axial inclination, rate of space closure, and type of movement of maxillary central incisor. Materials and methods: A typodont simulation system was used (CL II division 2 malocclusion). Three groups were used group 1(N=10, T-loop), group 2(N=10, Time-Saving loop), and group 3(N=10, Microimplant). Photographs were taken before and after retraction and measurements were made using Autodesk AutoCAD© software 2010. Kruskal- Wallis one-way analyses of variance and Mann-Whitney U test (p≤0.05) were used. Results: The rate of space closure showed no significant difference among the three groups (p≤0.05), while results regarding type of tooth movement showed a significant difference among the three groups (p≤0.05), where group 3(0.59±0.09) showed a more degree of controlled tipping than group1(0.33±0.19) while group 2(-0.50±0.09) showed an uncontrolled tipping movement. Conclusions: It is concluded that microimplant anchored sliding mechanics gives better control over the en masse retraction mechanics and greater retraction. Conventional techniques result in extrusion and move the teeth in less degree of translation movement


Article
Evaluation of frictional forces generated by different brackets and orthodontic wires

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Abstract

Background: Sliding mechanics is widely used during orthodontic treatment. One of the disadvantages of this mechanics is the friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface, which may reduce the amount of desired orthodontic movement obtained. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the static frictional forces produced by two passive self-ligating brackets stainless-steel and hybrid and two conventional brackets stainless-steel and monocrystal ligated with stainless-steel ligature wire at two degrees of torque(zero and twenty) under dry condition. Materials and method: One hundred and sixty brackets were used in this study divided into four groups each group consisted of forty brackets these are: Two self-ligating (stainless-steel and Hybrid) while the two conventional types are the (stainless-steel and monocrystal).twenty of each group examined with 0.016"x0.022"archwire, ten at 0˚ torque and ten at 20˚ torque while the other twenty of each group examined with 0.019"x0.025", ten at 0˚ torque and ten at 20˚ torque. Results: There was a significant different between all groups except in case when self-ligating brackets (both types) ligated to both wires at 0˚torque there was no significant difference. Conclusions: The self- ligating brackets produce significantly lower static friction than the conventional types at both degrees of torque. There was no significant different between both self-ligating brackets at0˚torque while at 20˚ torque the stainless- steel self –ligating produce lower static friction than the clear self-ligating type

Keywords

static --- friction --- self-ligating --- conventional --- torque


Article
The effect of tooth shape ratio on mandibular incisors arrangement in Iraqi adult subjects

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of tooth shape ratio on mandibular incisor arrangement. Materials and methods: The sample included dental casts of some dental students and orthodontic patients having Class I dental and skeletal patterns with normal occlusion and severe crowding. The sample was divided into two groups according to the severity of crowding into: group I had Class I normal occlusion with mild or no crowded mandibular dentition and group II had Class I malocclusion with severe crowded mandibular dentition. Each group comprising of 40 subjects (20 males and 20 females). The mesio-distal and facio-lingual crown diameters were measured manually for each cast using modified vernier caliper gauge. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the measurements for both genders; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender difference in each group and to evaluate the groups' difference in total sample. Results and Conclusions: The results showed that there is non-significant genders difference in both groups. Generally, the mesio-distal and facio-lingual dimensions were higher in severely crowded mandibular incisor group. Neither facio-lingual dimension nor the tooth shape ratio has significant influence of the mandibular incisor arrangement and the mesio-distal dimension is the most important factor


Article
Effect of chemotherapy on oral health status and salivary alkaline phosphatase among leukemic patients

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Background: Leukemia is a broad term given to a group of malignant diseases characterized by diffuse replacement of bone marrow with proliferating leukocyte precursors. Chemotherapy has been increasingly used to treat malignant conditions. The systemic sequelae as a result of these immunosuppressive techniques induce many oral and dental complications. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on oral health status and activity of salivary alkaline phosphates enzyme in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Materials and methods: The study groups included 28 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia; they were under chemotherapy, aged 20-25 year old. The control group includes healthy subjects matching with study group. Plaque, gingival, calculus and loss of attachment status were recorded. After oral examination, stimulated saliva samples were collected from the subjects (study & control groups) and performed under standard condition following instruction and chemically analyzed for the detection of salivary alkaline phosphates enzyme. Results The study showed higher mean values of plaque index, gingival index, attachment loss and concentration of salivary alkaline phosphates enzyme among leukemic group than control group with statistically high significant differences. Conclusions: It was concluded that patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia have poor oral hygiene and need intense oral hygiene program before, during and after chemotherapy


Article
Estimation of some salivary variables and oral health status of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia aged 45-55 years

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Abstract

Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. This study aimed to determine the effect of chronic myeloid leukemia on Dental caries and Oral health status including Gingivitis, Loss of attachment, Plaque index and Calculus index as well as evaluation of salivary flow rate and salivary interleukins-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Material and methods: Study group consisted of (75) subjects, (25) were newly diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia, (25) were taking medications (Glevic), and (25) were control subjects, all aged 45-55 years old. Collection of stimulated salivary samples was performed under standard conditions, then salivary flow rate and salivary cytokines estimation was done. Clinical examination and oral health assessment were carried out under the standardized conditions of oral health surveys of World Health organization. dental plaque was scored according to the criteria of plaque Index by Silness and Loe(1964), Dental calculus was scored following the criteria of calculus component of the periodontal Index (Ramfjord, 1959), assessment of gingival health done according to the criteria of gingival Index for Loe and Silness (1963) and loss of attachment done following the criteria of WHO (1997). Caries assessment was done according to the WHO modified Decayed-Missing-Filled Index (DMF) and examination was done with a plane mouth mirror and CPI probe. Results: DMFS index were higher in the newly diagnosed group followed by the control group and then the treated group but the LSD test showed that differences were statistically not significant between each two groups, Plaque index was higher in the newly diagnosed group, and the differences were statistically significant only between the newly and the control group (p<0.05), Calculus index was higher in the newly diagnosed group and the difference was statistically significant between the newly diagnosed group and the treated group. Gingival index was higher in the control group and the difference was statistically highly significant between the new and control groups (p<0.01) and also highly significant between control group and the treated group. Loss of attachment index was higher in the control group the LSD test show that the difference was statistically significant between the control group and each one of the other two groups. In regard to saliva, salivary flow rate was higher in the control group; the difference was significant between the control and the newly diagnosed group and highly significant between control and the treated group. Interleukin-6 level was higher in the newly diagnosed group then the treated group then the control group. LSD test show that the difference was statistically significant between the new and the treated group (p<0.05) and it was highly significant between the new and the control group (p<0.01) but it was not significant between the treated and control group. TNF-α level was higher in newly diagnosed group followed by the treated group then the control group and the difference was statistically significant with the treated group and highly significant with the control group, but the difference was not significant between the treated and the control group. Conclusion: Salivary Interluekine-6 and Tumor necrosis factor- α levels were higher in the newly diagnosed group. Saliva provides an ideal tool for the detection of pro-inflammatory markers. Salivary IL-6and TNF-α may play an important role as biomarkers for CMLand IL-6 is more predictable for the response to the treatment than TNF-α.


Article
The effects of different concentrations of Alum solutions on Mutans streptococci (in vitro study)

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Abstract

Background: Alum has been used as a treatment medication in cases of oral and gingival ulcers, and also as antiseptic mouthwash. This study aimed to examine the effects of different concentrations of Alum on inhibition zone, viability counts and adherence ability of Mutans streptococci compared with deionized water and chlorhexidine gluconate in vitro. Materials and methods: The study dealt with an in vitro study to establish a concentration of Alum mouthrinse that would have the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration. The second part evaluated the anti-adherence ability of the experimental agents. Results: This study found that the antibacterial effect of Alum increases with its concentration from 50 to 10000 PPM but still weaker than 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. Only concentrations of 5000 and 10000 PPM showed negative adherence of Mutans streptococci to the tooth surface. Conclusions: This study found that the antibacterial effect of Alum increases with its concentration from 50 to 10000 PPM but still weaker than 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. Only concentrations of 5000 and 10000 PPM showed negative adherence of Mutans streptococci to the tooth surface


Article
Oral health status, salivary physical properties and salivary Mutans Streptococci among a group of mouth breathing patients in comparison to nose breathing

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Abstract

Background: Mouth breathing can lead to introduce cold, dry unprepared air that insults the tissue of oral cavity, nasopharynx and lung, leading in turn to pathological changes in oronasal cavity, nasopharyngeal and other respiratory tissue, mouth breathing associated with nasal obstruction may lead to many health problems, in particular oral health problems such as inflammation of gingiva, oral dryness, change in oral environment that may decrease pH, salivary flow rate and increase bacteria and dental caries.Aims of the present study were to assess the oral health condition among mouth breather associated with nasal obstruction, including dental caries, oral cleanliness and gingival health condition as well as to evaluate the changes in salivary physical characteristics and salivary mutans streptococci counts, and their relation to oral variables in comparison to a control group. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with mouth breathing associated with nasal obstruction (15 females and 15 males) were selected as a study group with an age range (18-22) years old, all subjects were examined by ENT specialist to confirm mouth breathing. A 30 gender and age matched healthy looking subjects without nasal obstruction were selected as control. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was according to severity of dental caries lesion through the application of D1_4MFS(Manji et al., 1989). Plaque index of (Silness and Loe, 1964) was used for plaque assessment; gingival index of (Loe and Silness, 1963) was used for gingival health condition assessment. Stimulated salivary samples were collected according to (Tenovuo and Lagerlof, 1996) and the following variables were recorded: microbiological analysis included the salivary counts of mutans streptococci, salivary flow rate, salivary pH (potential of hydrogen) and then measurement of salivary viscosity by using Ostwald's viscometer. Results: Results of the present study showed that the mouth breathing group had statistically highly significant, higher plaque and gingival indices than nose breathing group (P<0.01) with a positive highly significant correlation between them in mouth breathing and nose breathing groups (r=0.56, r= 0.64, respectively).The salivary flow rate was lower among mouth breathing with highly significant difference than nose breathing (P<0.01), also salivary pH was lower among mouth breathing but with significant differencecompare to nose breathing (P<0.05); statistically a negative highly significant correlation was recorded among mouth breathing group between salivary flow rate with gingival index (r= -0.56). It has been found that salivary viscosity was not statistically significant difference between mouth breathing group and nose breathing group. The salivary viscosity was found to be inversely significantly correlated with salivary flow rate among mouth breathing group (r= -0.38). While it was positively not significantly correlated with plaque index, gingival index and counts of mutans streptococci among mouth breathing group. Data analysis of the present study showed that salivary mutans streptococci counts among mouth breathing group were higher than that among nose breathing group, difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Mouth breathing associated with nasal obstruction may have an effect on oral health status, leading to an increase in periodontal disease and changes in dental caries


Article
Corticotomy assisted orthodontic canine retraction

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Abstract

Background: Surgical injury to alveolar bone can temporarily accelerate tooth movement by increasing the remodeling rate of alveolar bone. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate maxillary canine retraction acceleration with corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics, and its effect on vitality of pulp and gingival sulcus depth. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 12 adult patients (4 males, 8 females; mean age, 21.7 years) requiring the therapeutic extraction of the maxillary first premolars, with subsequent retraction of the maxillary canines. Surgical holes were done mesially and distally to the side with more space between canine and second premolar, and the other side served as the control. Canine retraction was done by power chain applying 200 g of force per side. Rate of canine movement and potential molar anchorage loss were measured after one month using study model and acrylic plug. Bleeding on probing, radiographical assessment, gingival sulcus depth, and vitality test have also been investigated throughout the study. Result: The surgical side showed a statistically higher retraction mean value as compared with the non-surgical side. In other words, the surgical side demonstrated 42.6% greater net canine distalization than the non-surgical side. Anchorage loss showed no significant difference between sides. There was no significant difference between the pre and post-surgery gingival sulcus depth and pulp vitality response values of surgical side. Conclusion: It has been concluded that surgical holes introduction is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and has no harmful effects on surrounding vital structures and/or pulp vitality


Article
Shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded to porcelain surface treated with 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel compared to hydro fluoric acid with silane coupling agent (In vitro comparative study)

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Abstract

Background: With the increasing demands for adult orthodontics, a growing need arises to bond attachments to porcelain surfaces. Optimal adhesion to porcelain surface should allow orthodontic treatment without bond failure but not jeopardize porcelain integrity after debonding.The present study was carried out to compare the shear bond strength of metal bracket bonded to porcelain surface prepared by two mechanical treatments and by using different etching systems (Hydrofluoric acid 9% and acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23%). Materials and Methods: The samples were comprised of 60 models (28mm *15mm*28mm) of metal fused to porcelain (feldspathic porcelain). They were divided as the following: group I (control): the porcelain surface left untreated and glazed, group II (Diamond bur group): the porcelain surface was treated with fine diamond bur at speed of 350000 rpm for 20 seconds, group III (Red stone bur): the porcelain surface was treated with coarse red stone bur at speed of 8500 rpm for 20 seconds. Each group consists of 20 samples, then each group subdivided into two subgroups; one treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23% and the other subgroup treated with Hydrofluoric acid 9 % with silane coupling agent. Results: The result of this study revealed that there was very high significant difference among all tested groups and the highest shear bond strength was for diamond bur group with HFA and Silane (8.67 MPa), the 2nd highest strength was for control group with HFA and Silane (7.52 MPa), the 3rd was (7.38 MPa) in red stone bur with HFA and Silane, the least shear bond strength values were obtained for subgroups treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel 1.23%. Conclusions: The most reliable procedure for bonding orthodontic brackets to the porcelain surfaces is through the surface treatment combinations of mechanical roughening by using diamond bur, 9% Hydrofluoric acid and Silane coupling agent application


Article
Dental caries and salivary Interleukin-6 among preterm postpartum women in relation to baby birth weight (Comparative study)

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Background: The physiologic, biochemical and anatomic changes that occur during pregnancy are extensive and may be systemic or local. However, most of these changes return to pre pregnancy status six weeks postpartum. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental caries among preterm postpartum women and it's relation to baby birth weight and salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6). Materials and methods: 66 postpartum women were examined, 33 preterm postpartum women (study group) and 33 full term postpartum women (control group). Dental caries was recorded using, decayed, missing and filled surfaces index, also assess the decayed lesion by severity. Salivary samples were taken from all subjects to estimate salivary IL- 6 levels. Babies' birth weight also was measured. Results: Data of the present study showed a higher caries severity among study group compared to control group, with no statistically significant difference (P> 0.05). For both groups, the initial decayed surface D2 was the lightest value for both groups. While the deep frank cavitations D4 was the lowest in study group with no data recording among control group. The result revealed highly significant difference in baby birth weight between the two groups. The correlation between DS and salivary IL-6 was highly significant, and a significant correlation noticed between D3 and salivary IL-6 in study group. In control group, a highly significant positive correlation was detected between baby birth weight and DMFS, and a significant correlation was obscured between baby birth weight with decayed surface, also a significant correlation was found between salivary IL-6 and decayed surface in the same group. Conclusion: During pregnancy, a woman may be particularly amenable to disease prevention and health promotion interventions that could enhance her oral health on that of her infant's, due to the potential associations between oral health and preterm delivery and baby birth weight

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