Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

Loading...
Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2013 volume:25 issue:3

Article
Effect of canal dryness and flaring on the accuracy of two electronic apex locators

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of canal dryness and flaring on the accuracy of two electronic apex locators for working length (WL) determination. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted teeth were used, after access opening was done, the occlusal surface was flattened to create stable reference point. The teeth were randomly divided into two equal main groups of flared and unflared group each one of 30 teeth. The flaring was done with Gates Glidden drills. The two main groups were further subdivided into two subgroups: dry canal and wet canal using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite groups, Electronic WL of each sample was determined using both Root ZX and i-Root apex locator. Consequently, histologic WL was determined by shaving the apical 4mm of the root longitudinally and the tip of # 15 K-file was adjusted to the apical constriction under stereomicroscope at a magnification 20X, then the file removed carefully and the length was recorded using digital caliper. The data had been collected from two independent examiners and statistically analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: The results showed differences between flared and unflared canal, wet and dry, Root ZX and i-Root apex locators, however the differences between them were statistically not significant, in which (P ≥ 0.5) for all situations. Conclusion: dryness of the canal, coronal flaring had little effect on the accuracy of electronic apex locators (EALs).


Article
Evaluation of Propolis from Kurdistan region as a new resinous sealer in root canal obturation-part I biocompatibility study

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Many materials were proposed as root canal obturating materials but the biocompatibility issue remains to be a critical one. Propolis has been used as a therapeutic agent since the time of Hippocrates. It is known that propolis exhibits some pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anti inflammatory activity. Materials and methods: Eighteen albino rats were used in the study and divided randomly into three groups of 6 animals for each group. Each group was scheduled to be sacrificed at different time periods, which were three days, one week and three weeks. Propolis and ZOE sealer implants of 4mm in diameter and 0.5 gm in weight were implanted in the dorsal side of the rats. At the end of the implantation, the rats were scarified and the histopathological picture was made to the implantation site. Results: Zinc oxide eugenol sealer showed severe inflammation after 3 days of implantation whci subsided after 7 days. After 21 days, moderate inflammatory reaction was evident. Propolis presented moderate reaction after 3 and 7 days but with presence of signs of collagen fiber formation. After 21 days, connective tissue capsule was present. Conclusion: Propolis presented better biocompatibility than zinc oxide eugenol sealer

Keywords

Propolis --- biocompatibility


Article
Comparison of fit among different types of post restorations luted with conventional cement

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: with the advent of new postmaterial in dentistry, it has become important to measure fitness of post restoration along the horizontal plane of the root space.This study aimed to measure and compare, the cement film thickness of conventional zinc phosphate cement in micrometer between the post and root dentin along horizontal plane at different post space regions (coronal, middle and apical) of four types of posts, by using stereomicroscopy. Material and methods: Thirty-two extracted human maxillary canines, mandibular canines and maxillary central incisors (n=32) were instrumented with ProTaper system files (hand use) and obturated with gutta-percha for ProTaper and AH26® root canal sealer. After 24hrs of incubation at 37ºC, post space was prepared using FRC Postec® plus drills no.3 and ER Cera reamer size 70, creating 10 mm deep post space. The prepared samples were then randomly divided into four main groups (8 samples each) according to the type of post used (Group A: fabricated cast metal post), (Group B: fabricated zirconia post), (Group C: prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post), (Group D: prefabricated zirconia post). After cementation and incubation period of 24hrs, each root was sectioned horizontally into 3 discs (2mm in thickness) at the coronal, middle and apical regions of the root space. The cement thickness between post and root dentine was measured (in μm) by using a stereomicroscope. Results: The results of this study showed that the lowest mean of cement thickness was in group C (35.28μm), followed by group A (78.12μm) and group D (81.9μm), and all three groups demonstrated acceptable cement thickness, while group B produced unacceptable cement thickness (127.34μm). One way ANOVA test revealed a statistically highly significant difference for the cement thickness among four post types used within each region of the root. Conclusions: the root region and type of post system have an effect on cement thickness along post space


Article
Comparison of regional bond strength of post space of fiber-reinforced post luted with two types of cements at different testing times

Authors: Haitham J. Al-Azzawi --- M.N.H.
Pages: 19-23
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Back ground: This in vitro study was carried out to investigate the effect of post space regions (coronal, middle and apical), Time and the mode of polymerization (dual, self-cured) of the cements used on the bond strength between translucent fiber post and root dentin by using push-out test. Materials and Methods: Forty eight extracted mandibular first premolars (single root) were instrumented with ProTaper Universal system files (for hand use) and obturated with gutta percha for ProTaper and AH26® root canal sealer following the manufacturer instructions, after 24 hours post space was prepared using FRC postec® plus drills no.3 creating 8 mm depth post space. The prepared samples were randomly divided into two main groups (24 samples each) according to the used cement (Group M, self-cure, Multilink N) and (Group R, dual cure, Relyx U100). Then each group was subdivided into three groups (each group contains 8 samples) according to the testing time after cementation. (g M1: push out test after 24 hour of cementation with Multilink N), (g M2: push out test after one week of cementation with Multilink N),(g M3: push out test after two weeks of cementation with Multilink N), (g R1: push out test after 24 hours of cementation with RelyxU100), (g R2: push-out test after one week of cementation with RelyxU100), (g R3: push out test after two weeks of cementation with RelyxU100). After cementation and incubation each root was sectioned horizontally into 3 slices (2 mm in thickness) represent the coronal, middle and apical regions of the post space. Push out bond strength test was performed and measured using a universal testing machine (Tinius-Olsen) at across head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: showed that regarding the root region, the bond strength values increased significantly apical to coronal region in both tested cements. For the effect of time, the bond strength values also significantly increased with time for both tested cements. For mode of polymerization, the self-cured resin cement Multilink N showed higher bond strength values. Conclusion: the retention of fiber post was affected by root region, mode of polymerization of the cements used and time elapsed after cementation of the post


Article
Effect of silica layer on bonding strength of thermoplastic nylon to cold cure acrylic resin

Authors: Israa M. Hummoudi
Pages: 24-27
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The combination of thermoplastic nylon resin materials and auto polymerizing resin is necessary in some situation for repair and adjustment. This study evaluated shear bond strength between thermoplastic nylon material (flexible) and auto polymerizing acrylic resin subjected to holes and silica coated layer. Materials and Method: Forty five (45) specimens were prepared from flexible acrylic bonded to auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and divided into three groups according to the surface treatments as follows: Group A: 15 specimens of flexible acrylic bonded with cold-cure acrylic by holes. Group B: 15 specimens of flexible acrylic bonded with cold-cure acrylic by silica coated layer. Group C: 15 specimens of flexible acrylic bonded with cold-cure acrylic by combination of holes and silica coated layer. All specimens were analyzed by using Instron testing machine. Results: The result of this study showed that high mean values were obtained from group C (combination) while low mean values were obtained from B (silica coated layer). Conclusion: It can be concluded that combination of mechanical surface treatment resulted in significant improvement in shear bond strength of flexible acrylic bonded with cold cure acrylic

Keywords

Thermoplastic nylon --- silica --- shear bond --- hole


Article
The effect of thermocycling on microleakage analysis of bulk filled base composite in comparison to incrementally placed nanohybrid composite in class II MOD restorations (An in vitro study)

Authors: Lena A. Hassan --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Pages: 28-34
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The study aim was to evaluate thermocycling effect on microleakage of occlusal and cervical margins of MOD cavity filled with bulk filled composites in comparison to incrementally placed nanohybrid composite and to evaluate the difference in microleakage between enamel and dentin margins for the three materials groups. Materials and method: Forty eight maxillary first premolars were prepared with MOD cavities. Samples were divided into three groups of sixteen teeth according to material used: Grandio: Grandio. SDR: SDR +Grandio. X-tra: X-tra base + Grandio. Each group was subdivided into two according to be thermocycled or not. After 24 hrs immersion in 2% methylene blue, samples weresectioned and microleakage was estimated. Results: Thermocycling significantly increased microleakage at occlusal margin in Grandio group compared to other groups. SDR composite use before and after thermocycling significantly reduced microleakage at occlusal and cervical enamel margins compared to other groups. Grandio group had non significant difference to X-tra group in microleakage before thermocycling at occlusal and cervical enamel margins while it had a significant increase after thermocycling. No material had significantly reduced dentin margin microleakage before or after thermocycling. Only SDR group before thermocycling, significantly reduced microleakage in enamel margin compared to dentin margin. Conclusion: Thermocycling did not increase microleakage in all the groups except for Grandio group in occlusal margin. SDR group showed reduced microleakage in occlusal and enamel margins in comparison to other groups.None of the materials reduced microleakage in dentin margin


Article
Marginal leakage of amalgam and modern composite materials related to restorative techniques in class II cavity (Comparative study)

Authors: Mohammad K. Sabah --- Luma M. Baban
Pages: 35-42
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Restoration of the gingival margin of Class II cavities with composite resin continues to be problematic, especially where no enamel exists for bonding to the gingival margin. The aim of study is to evaluate the marginal leakage at enamel and cementum margin of class II MOD cavities using amalgam restoration and modern composite restorations Filtek™ P90, Filtek™ Z250 XT (Nano Hybrid Universal Restorative) and SDR bulk fill with different restoratives techniques. Materials and method: Eighty sound maxillary first premolar teeth were collected and divided into two main groups, enamel group and cementum group (40 teeth) for each group. The enamel group was prepared with standardized Class II MOD cavity with gingival margin (1 mm above C.E.J) on both box sides. While the cementum group with the gingival margin (1 mm below C.E.J) on both sides. The enamel and cementum groups were then subdivided into eight subgroups for each (five teeth) with 10 boxes for each group. Subgroups within the main group named according to materials and techniques that were used with it as following: Amalgam subgroup (Permite, SDI), SDR subgroup (DENTSPLY) with bulk technique, Filtek™ P90 subgroup (3M ESPE) with three incremental techniques (Oblique, Horizontal and Centripetal technique), and Filtek™ Z250XT subgroup (3M ESPE) with three incremental techniques (Oblique, Horizontal and Centripetal technique).After specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling at (5° to 55 °C). Microleakage was evaluated by stereomicroscope (20 X). Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Result: All experimental groups showed leakage at cementum more than enamel groups. SDR bulk fill subgroup showed the highest marginal leakage among all experimental groups followed by Filtek™ Z250 XT subgroup with horizontal technique at both enamel and cementum groups. Silorane and Filtek™ Z250 XT subgroups with oblique technique showed the least marginal leakage followed by centripetal technique at both enamel and cementum groups. Amalgam restoration subgroup shows lesser leakage than SDR bulk fills subgroup significantly at both enamel and cementum groups. While it show higher leakage than Silorane subgroup with oblique technique significantly at enamel margin only. Conclusion: The limiting factors for marginal leakage are technique and material dependent


Article
Evaluation of antibacterial action of photosensitizer solution activated by diode lamp and three intracanal medicaments (in vitro study)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The elimination of the microorganisms from the root canal systems, an important step for the successful root canal treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of the photoactivated disinfection by using the toluidine blue O and a low- energy light emitting diode (LED) lamp . Materials and method: Sixty single rooted extracted teeth were decoronated, instrumented, irrigated, sealed at the apex and contaminated with endodontic anaerobic bacteria for 7 days to form biofilms in prepared root canals. Group I. Twelve teeth were medicated by photosensitizer (toluidine blue O) solution activated by diode lamp (FotoSan; CMS Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark).Group II. Twelve teeth were medicated by the tricresol formalin. Group III. Twelve teeth were medicated by the camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP). Group IV. Twelve teeth were medicated by calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) paste. Group V. Without the intracanal medication (control group). The bacterial swabs were taken before and after medication and following the photoactivated disinfection procedure immediately and after 7days. The canal contents were swabbed by paper points inserted to the root canals, serially diluted and cultured on blood agar. Survival fractions were calculated by counting colony-forming units. Result: Treatment of the root canals with PAD (fotosan) caused a high significant reduction of the bacterial count, resulting in a 96.39% elimination of root canal bacteria, followed by root canal treated by tricresol formalin (group II),then CMCP (group III) and Ca(OH)2 (group IV) respectively. Conclusion: Light activated disinfection possesses potent antibacterial action against the anaerobic bacteria cultivated in root canals


Article
Surface properties of heat treated with different durations of titanium alloy dental implants

Authors: Shorouq M. Abass
Pages: 49-56
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The surface properties of the titanium alloy plays a significant role in the bond of the dental implant with living bone and modification of the implant surface could enhance osseointegration. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of different durations of heat treatment on the surface properties of titanium alloy for dental implants. Materials and methods: Twenty disks of (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy were prepared. The sample was divided into four test groups to study the effect of different duration of heat treatment to the surface topography; surface chemistry, titanium oxide layer thickness, blood contact angle, & blood drop diameter of titanium alloy samples were investigated to evaluate the effect of different durations of heat treatment at a temperature of 750°C. Results: The surface topography, surface chemistry, titanium oxide layer thickness, blood contact angle, & blood drop diameter of titanium alloy samples improved highly significantly as the duration of heat treatment increased. Conclusions: The heat treatment of 750°C for 90 minutes showed the highest improvement in the surface properties which in turn will lead to enhancement in the osseointegration of the dental implant


Article
Clinical evaluations for the masticatory efficiency of heat cure resin and flexible types of denture base materials

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was for estimation and comparism of masticatory efficiency in patient wearing heat cured acrylic and flexible base partial denture, finding out the role of peanuts and carrots on the measurement of chewing efficiency, and to find out whether the types of P.D. (being single or two opposing each other) has any effect on the masticatory performance. Materials and methods: Twenty partially edentulous patients were selected. Five of these patients were selected having Kennedy class I with no modification against natural dentition, other 5patients having Cl.I against Cl.I . The other 5 patients having Cl.III against natural dentition and the last 5 patients were with Cl.III against Cl.III. several ways were used for measuring masticatory efficiency including: number of chewing strokes, number of swallows, the mastication time, and measure the masticatory performance by sieving method. Differences between the means of the four groups were analyzed with t-test. Results: The differences between the two denture base types in total number of strokes was significant at (p<0.001) in study group (2,3,4), the study group (4)have the highest mean value of the total number of strokes for acrylic denture during chewing carrots food types(47.6)strokes. The highest mean value of the total chewing time is for the fourth group with the acrylic denture during chewing carrots (35.2 sec.), and the highest masticatory performance index was for the flexible denture in all study groups during chewing the two tested food. Conclusion: The flexible partial denture provide better chewing efficiency than heat cure acrylic partial denture, the masticatory performance was higher for flexible partial denture than heat cure acrylic partial denture, there was significant differences between carrots and peanuts in both flexible and heat cure acrylic partial denture, and patient with single denture show better chewing efficiency than patient with paired denture


Article
X-ray diffraction and biocompatibility of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of synthetic hydroxyapatite

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This study was done to assist X-ray diffraction and biocompatability of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite. Materials and Methods: The powder of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite were used to get X-ray diffraction pattern by X-ray diffraction machine, While for biocompatibility test, A polyethylene tubes containing glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite were implanted on the dorsal submucosal site of Rabbit's tissues and histological slide were prepared for histopathological study. Results: X-ray diffraction test showed that all elements of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite were react with each other and all the final products none crystalline in nature with small amount of Hydroxyapatite present unreacted may be act as cores for final reacted elements. The histological test showed mild irritation to Rabbit's tissues by glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite, this irritation subsided with time. Conclusions: there is chemical reaction of all elements of glass ionomer cement reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite and new final products were results .Also glass ionomer cements reinforced by different ratios of Hydroxyapatite were biocompatible with Rabbit’s tissues


Article
Awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among final year undergraduate dental students in Baghdad-Iraq

Authors: Ameena R. Diajil
Pages: 69-79
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The incidence of oral cancers is increasing all over the world. Early detection ofthis important public health matter makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure.The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among final -year dental students in Iraq. Materials and methods: Questionnaires were delivered to 160 final–year dental students in the College of Dentistry in Baghdad. The questionnaire focused on the awareness/knowledge of oral cancer, earlyand common clinical signs and symptoms andassociated risk factors. Results: It was found that 87% of students were aware of oral cancer. The followings were recognized as signs and symptoms of oral cancer: persistent ulcer and lymphadenopathy (71 %, 70%), followed by presence of white patch (63%). A satisfactory knowledge was observed on; smoking (86%), family history (84%), old age (63%), sun light exposure (59%), smokeless tobacco (57%), alcohol consumption (55%) and Immunosuppression (54%).Considering dilatory risk-factors, a satisfactory knowledge was identified on hot and spicy food (57%), but not on the other factors. Although satisfactory knowledge of dental risk-factors including premalignant disorders (84%) and previous history of oral cancer (70%) was observed, inadequate knowledge about other factors was observed.91% of future dentists indicated that oral cancer can be cured when detected early. Conclusion: This study highlighted the need for more education in dental schools to enhance dental professionals’ awareness and knowledge of oral cancer, aiding in early diagnosis and treatment of patients


Article
Assessment of the relationship between maxillary sinus floor and maxillary posterior teeth root apices using spiral CT scan

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the roots of the maxillary posterior teeth and the maxillary sinus using spiral computed tomography, and measured the distances between the roots of the maxillary posterior teeth and the sinus floor. Materials and Methods: The sample of the present study was a total of 120 Iraqi subject (60 males & 60 females) aged (20-60) years old, who admitted to spiral Computed Tomography scan unit in AL-Zahraa hospital in AL-Kut city to have Computed Tomography scan of the brain and paranasal sinuses who had complaints of headaches or with suspicion of sinusitis but without pathological findings in maxillary sinuses. From November 2012 to April 2013, CT sagittal reconstructed images were used in this study, Images were classified according to the relation between the root apices and the maxillary sinus floor into type1: Root apices below the sinus floor, type 2: Root apices in cosines floor. Vertical distance were measured between the deepest point of the maxillary sinus floor and the root apices of the maxillary first and second premolars and first, second molar contact with the sinus floor) and type 3: Root apices penetrate or inside the r using built-in measurement tools. Means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values were calculated for all right and left premolars and molars. t-tests were used to compare measurements between left and right sides and between female and male patients. Results: The distance between sinus floor and root apex was longest for the first premolar palatal root apex and shortest for the second molar mesoibuccal root apex for both right and left sides. No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left side measurements or between females and males patients. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in vertical relation of maxillary posterior teeth to floor of maxillary sinus between male and female and between right and left side. The mesiobuccal root of the maxillary 2nd molar was closest to the maxillary sinus floor and palatal root of 1st premolar was farthest to the sinus floor


Article
Determination of the effect of stress on the salivary cortisol level among sample of university students having myofacial pain

Authors: Rana M. Hasan --- Jamal N. Ahmed
Pages: 87-90
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Psychological stress is considered the major etiological factor precipitating myofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders.It is known that stress induce various adaptational responses of physiologic systems. The process includes increase in the activity of the hypothalamic -pituitary-adrenal axis which promotes cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels.The use of salivary biomarkers has gained increased popularity since collecting samples is non-invasive and painless. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the level of cortisol in saliva among sample of university students having myofacial pain, during the final exam period and whether this finding could have a significant value as a symptomatic psychobiological marker. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight (98) university students were enrolled in this study. Fifty(50) were with myofacial pain (symptomatic) and forty eight (48) were without myofacial pain (asymptomatic) as a control group.Each student with myofacial pain was examined according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Saliva sample were collected from each subject before final examination and three months later for biochemical analysis of cortisolusing ELISA test. Results: A highly significant difference in salivary cortisol level between the two periods for both the study and control groups, and a non-significant difference between the two groups in before examination period. A negative association has been observed between the level of salivary cortisol and severity of pain and a highly significant improvement of pain between the final examination periods and three months later. Conclusions: Dental students perceived a higher level of stress prior to the final exam was associated with raised salivary cortisol levels which could be considered as a useful non-invasive biomarker for measuring acute stress

Keywords

Stress --- Cortisol --- Myofacial pain


Article
Periodontal health status and salivary enzymes level in smokers and non-smokers (comparative, cross sectional study)

Authors: Ban Karem --- Leka'a M. Ibrahim
Pages: 91-96
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Smoking is considering a major risk factor for development and progression of periodontal disease. Investigations regarding the association between smoking and periodontal disease have consistently demonstrated negative periodontal effects and greater probabilities of established periodontal disease among smokers in comparison with non smokers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of smoking on periodontal health status and on the salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK), and to correlate the clinical parameters of periodontal health with the biochemical findings in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva sample was collected from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers for biochemical analysis of salivary enzymes. Periodontal parameters including: plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. Results: statistical analysis revealed that ALP in saliva was significantly higher in smoker than the non smoker group and there was a highly significant difference in the salivary LDH and CK levels between smokers and non-smokers groups. Plaque index (PLI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were higher in smokers compared with non smokers, while there was decrease in the number of bleeding sites. Conclusions: smokers group revealed more periodontal tissue destruction than non-smokers group represented by deeper pockets and more clinical attachment level. Salivary enzymes (ALP, LDH and CK) are considered as good biochemical markers of periodontal tissue destruction and can be used to evaluate the effect of smoking on periodontal health status


Article
Periodontal health status of heavy and light smokers and its correlation with salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme (A comparative study)

Authors: Banaz J. Ali --- Leka'a M. Ibrahim --- Ali Y. Majid
Pages: 97-102
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gingiva and bone supporting the teeth. Smoking, which is an important risk factor for periodontitis, induce oxidative stress in the body and cause an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on periodontal health status by estimating the levels of salivary SOD level in non-smokers (controls) and light and heavy smokers and to test the correlation between the SOD enzyme level and the clinical periodontal parameters in each group. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 75 male, with age ranged from 35 to 50 years. Clinically, the periodontal parameters used in this study were Plaque index (PLI). Gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), Bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL), unstimulated saliva sample were collected from all subjects and the levels of superoxide dismutase enzyme was analyzed for each group , and correlate the mean of salivary enzyme levels with the clinical periodontal parameters. Results: Highly significant differences in PLI between (non smokers/heavy smokers) and (light smokers/heavy smokers).On the other hand no significant difference in gingival index between groups. There were a high association between severity of smoking & probing pocket depth and there is association between severity of smoking and clinical attachment loss. There were a significant difference in the level of salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme between the (non smokers/light smokers) groups & between (heavy smokers/light smokers) &there were highly significant differences between (non smokers/heavy smokers) groups. There is no correlation between the activities of the salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme and the clinical periodontal parameters except in SOD with (BOP score 0 and PPD score 1&score 3) in heavy smokers group. Conclusions: Superoxide dismutase enzyme can be used as biomarker for estimating the level of oxidative stress on smoking habits.


Article
Evaluation of treatment of intra-bony defects with a mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate - hydroxyapatite granules and oily calcium hydroxide suspension

Authors: Raed A. Badiea
Pages: 103-109
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: An oily calcium hydroxide formulation proved over the last years to be highly efficient in promoting bone regeneration in closed defects as periapical lesions, cysts, or post-extraction defects. The aim of the present study is the assessment of the outcome of treatment of deep intrabony periodontal defects with an Open Flap Debridement) (OFD) + combination of {(30% Hydroxyapatite HAp + 70% β-Tricalcium Phosphate granules mixed with an Oily Calcium Hydroxide Suspension (OCHS )} and compare the results with {(OFD) alone)}. The combination of OCHS& TCP was used in humans with a sort of positive results, and more conduction of studies was recommended. Material and method: The sample of this study composed of sixteen patients; each had at least two intrabony defect teeth. For each patient, one tooth was treated by OFD only (control group 16 teeth) and the other teeth (study group 16 teeth) were treated with OFD + a mixture of (OSTEON II- Korea) granules comprise of (30% Hydroxyapatite HAp + 70% β-Tricalcium Phosphate) and OCHS (Osteoinductal®, Osteoinductal GmbH., Muenchen, Germany). The clinical parameters that were measured and recorded included (Plaque index PLI, Gingival index (GI), Gingival recession(GR) , Bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographical width & depth of the bony defect. These parameters were recorded before treatment (base line) & six months after the treatment. Results: The results after treatment revealed a highly significant reduction in all of the parameters except the PLI in both study & control groups compared to baseline (p < 0.001). The clinical results were indicated that the study group showed significant reductions of PPD and CAL mean values more than improvements obtained by the control group with significant difference (p < 0.05). Conclusions: An excellent postoperative improvement in clinical parameters was noticed in the study group more than control group and the differences were significant. Thus the present study has revealed that the treatment modality of OFD + a combination of granules comprise of (30% Hydroxyapatite HAp + 70% β-Tricalcium Phosphate) mixed with oily Calcium Hydroxide suspension is successful, predictable and more beneficial than (open flap debridement) (OFD) alone in the treatment of deep intrabony periodontal defects


Article
Gingival and alveolar ridge tumor-like overgrowth lesions

Authors: Salwan Y.H. Bede
Pages: 110-114
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Tumor-like overgrowth lesions of the oral mucosa are pathological growths that project above the normal contour of the oral surface. A practical classification can be made according to the site of origin, the etiology and the histological appearance. The aim of this article is to evaluate and analyze patients with gingival and alveolar ridge tumor-like overgrowth lesions in terms of surgical treatment, diagnosis and outcome. Materials and Methods: Patients complaining of these lesions were treated by surgical excision under local or general anesthesia; the excised lesions were submitted for histopathological examination, during the follow up period the patients were examined for complications and recurrence. Results: Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequently encountered lesion, followed by peripheral giant cell granuloma, fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma and neurofibroma. Complications were minimal and recurrence occurred in one patient. Conclusion: Gingival and alveolar ridge overgrowths are common being mostly reactive rather than neoplastic in nature, global recurrence rate was 2.1%.


Article
The relationship among bite force with facial dimensions and dental arches widths in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I skeletal and dental relations

Authors: Abeer B. Mahmoud
Pages: 115-120
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship among the bite force with facial dimensions and dental arches in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I skeletal and dental relations. Materials and methods: Forty dental students (20 males and 20 females) were selected under certain criteria. For those individuals, dental impressions, frontal facial photographs and maximum bite force at molar and incisor regions were taken. The dental arches widths and facial dimensions were measured using the AutoCAD program 2007, while the bite force was determined using special device. Descriptive statistics for the measured variables were performed and gender difference was determined using independent sample t-test, while the relation among bite force and facial dimensions and dental arches widths was determined by Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: The results indicated that bite force, facial dimensions and dental arches widths were higher in males than females with a non-significant genders difference for the bite force and upper inter-canine width, while with a high significant genders difference for the other measurements. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed non-significant correlation among the bite force and facial dimensions and dental arches widths. Conclusion: This study proved that there was no relationship among the bite force with facial dimensions and dental arches widths


Article
Periodontal health status in relation to physicochemical characteristics of saliva among pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women in Baghdad city-Iraq

Authors: Alhan A.Qasim
Pages: 121-124
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Menopause can bring oral health problems and also associated with significant adverse changes in the orofacial complex. After menopause, women become more susceptible to periodontal disease due to deficiency of estrogen hormone. Current study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health status in relation to salivary constituent including pH, flow rate and some elements (Magnesium, Calcium and inorganic phosphorus) of pre and post-menopause women. Materials and Methods: Periodontal health status of 52 women aged 48-50 years old (26 pre-menopause and 26 post-menopause) were examined including (gingival index, plaque index, calculus index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level). Salivary sample was collected for two women groups, pH and flow rate was recorded, and also biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elements include (Magnesium, Calcium and inorganic phosphorus). Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Salivary pH and flow rate of post-menopause women were found significantly lower than those of pre-menopause women, where as the mean of gingival index, probing pocket depth and attachment level indices significantly higher in post-menopause women. The level of salivary magnesium ion was significantly higher in pre-menopause women; also the level of calcium and inorganic phosphorus was lower in post-menopause women with non-significant difference. Conclusions: This study has shown that the importance of preventive dentistry increases with aging in women


Article
Oral health status in relation to selected salivary elements among a group of gasoline stations workers

Authors: Ammar F. Hamza Al-Saeed --- Ahlam T. Mohammed
Pages: 125-129
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Gasoline constituents and its derivatives had many hazardous effects on the general health of humans. Thus, gasoline stations workers may be affected by different types of related diseases.This study was conducted to assess selected salivary elements and their relation with dental caries, oral hygiene status and periodontal diseases among gasoline stations workers in comparison with individuals have no regular exposure to gasoline. Materials and methods: The study group consists of thirty male subjects with an age range (33-39) years who worked in different gasoline stations in different areas of Baghdad city and thirty persons that matching in age and gender and not exposed to gasoline were selected as a control group. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity through the application of D1-4 MFS index of (Manji et al). Plaque index of Silness and Loe and calculus index of Ramfjord were used for recording oral hygiene status. Periodontal diseases were evaluated by using the gingival index of Loe and Silness and periodontal pocket depth of Carranza. Stimulated salivary samples were collected and chemically analyzed to determine the concentration of salivary calcium, phosphorous, iron, copper and lead ions. Results: Caries experience (DMFS) was higher among the study group compared with the control group with significant difference (P<0.05) for DS and highly significant difference (P<0.01) for D2. The mean values of plaque, calculus and gingival indices were significantly higher (P<0.01) among the study group than the control group and the mean value of periodontal pocket depth was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the study group. The levels of salivary calcium and phosphorous were lower among the study group compared with the control group with no significant difference between them; whereas iron, copper and lead levels were higher among the study group than the control group with highly significant differences (P<0.01) for both copper and lead. Conclusion: Dental caries and periodontal diseases revealed higher percentage of occurrence among the study group and salivary elements were found to have little effects on the oral health status. Therefore, special oral health preventive and educational programs are needed for them


Article
Caries experience and salivary physicochemical characteristics among overweight intermediate school females aged 13-15 years in Babylon – Iraq

Authors: Aseel I. Mohammed --- Ban S. Diab
Pages: 130-133
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Obesity is a serious public health concern that has reached epidemic proportions; the prevalence, as well as the severity of obesity in adolescents is increasing at an alarming rate. A close relationship was found between weight status and dental caries. Thus this research aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries among overweight adolescent females in relation to physicochemical characteristics of stimulated whole saliva in comparison with normal weight adolescent females. Materials and methods: The total sample involved for nutritional status assessment is composed of 2678 females aged 13-15 years. This was performed using Body Mass Index specific for age and gender according to CDC growth chart (2000). The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was by using Decay, Missing, Filled surface index (DMFs); and according to the criteria of Manji et al (1989). Salivary samples were collected from 30 overweight females and their control under standardized conditions and then analyzed for measuring salivary flow rate and viscosity, in addition to estimation essential elements (zinc, copper, calcium, iron, and total protein). Results: The caries experience among the overweight females was lower than that among the normal weight with non significant difference. Salivary analysis demonstrated that the salivary flow rate was non significantly higher among overweight females. The viscosity of saliva was having an equal value among both groups. The data analysis of salivary elements found that the zinc and copper concentrations were highly significant higher among the overweight females than that among the normal weight. The opposite result found concerning salivary calcium level with also highly significant difference; while the iron and total protein were non significantly lower among the overweight females. DMFs and its grades correlated negatively weak with salivary flow rate among overweight females; while concerning salivary viscosity, the correlation was direct weak with DMFs. Salivary copper, calcium and total protein showed an inverse correlation with dental caries. Conclusion: The results of the current research revealed that overweight affect the caries experience. Several of salivary factors that found to be higher among the overweight females might play a role in protection of teeth from dental caries


Article
Root resorption and anti-dentine antibody level in serum and saliva of well-controlled type Ι diabetic patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

Authors: Ayam A. H. Taha --- Esra H. Al- Hashemy
Pages: 134-141
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Diabetic mellitus type Ι is a metabolic disorder of diverse etiological factors, characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from an absolute deficiency of insulin affected childhood and adolescent. Some of these patients seek an orthodontic care .The orthodontist who is treating these medically compromised patients should have a working knowledge of the multitude of medically complex problems. This information will support and enable for delivery of high standards of dental care in general and orthodontic care in particular. The aim of this study was to analyze serum IgG levels and salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) levels in human dentine extract (HDE) before (T0) and 6 months after (T6) orthodontic treatment and to correlate anti-HDE autoantibodies to root resorption in well-controlled type Ι diabetic patients. Materials and methods: Sixty individuals, who were attending to Al-Mustansiriya National Diabetes Center from April to October, 2012 and classified as well- controlled type Ι diabetic patients (HbA1c <8.5), were participating in this study .The mean age of the whole samples was (15±1 SD ) years, thirty three of them(18 males and 15 females) were not wearing orthodontic appliance and were selected as the controls, while twenty seven of them (12 males and 15 females) were wearing orthodontic appliance . Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors , unstimulated saliva and serum samples were obtained of all patients before(T0) and 6 months after(T6) orthodontic treatment. Anti-dentine antibody (Ab) levels were determined by mean of enzyme linked immune sorbant assay (ELISA) technique. At T6, root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption), grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Chi square test and T- test were used to assess the association between qualitative and quantitative results respectively ,while paired t- test was used to analyze the results before(T0) and 6 months after(T6) orthodontic treatment. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: There was statistical significant difference in the level of (anti- dentine Ab) in saliva between the two study groups at T0 and T6, its level was higher in the wearing group comparing with non wearing group, while it didn’t differ in serum. In the wearing group, the level of anti -dentine antibody in serum and saliva significantly decreased at T6 comparing with its level at T0. High level of the (anti -dentin Ab) shown in serum and saliva in grade 1 root resorption (R1) comparing with grade 0 root resorption (R0) at T0 and also at T6. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the anti -dentin antibody plays an important role in the detection of root resorption during orthodontic treatment in well- controlled diabetic patients type Ι and its level is different according to the grade of root resorption in both saliva and serum


Article
Gender differences, facial profile and treatment need of malocclusion for a sample of Al-Muthanna governorate students aged 15 years

Authors: Hayder S. Al-Atabi
Pages: 142-148
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Survey of the occlusion in population groups usually include in their objections the academic assessment of occlusal feature, the planning resources for public health treatment programmers, the comparison of different population and the screening of groups for orthodontic treatment. Likewise a thorough investigation of the occurrence of malocclusions among school–students would be of major importance in the planning of orthodontic treatment in the public dental health services. For this purpose it is necessary to have detailed information on the prevalence of individual malocclusion among boys and girls at different ages distributed regionally, and moreover, an analysis of the need for orthodontic treatment in the different school classes. Materials and methods: This study was conducted from 20th October 2011 to 9th May 2013 on (3424 ) students (1712 males and 1712 females); from which 62 students (1.8%) were excluded because of incomplete information (no molar relation can be attended) giving a valid sample of 3362 (1681 males and 1681 females) aged (15) years old were studied with respect to facial profile ,sagittal occlusion according to Angle's classification, overjet, overbite, anterior crossbite , posterior crossbite, scissorsbite, rotation and displacement spacing and crowding. Results: The normal profile were presented in (73.76%) students (74%) males and (73.53%) females. Convex profiles were presented (20.34%) students (20.46%) males and (20.23%) females. A concave profile were presented in (5.9%) students (5.54%) males and (6.24%) females), The malocclusion were presented (73.05%) students (73.46%) males and (72.64%) females, According to the Dental health component of index of the orthodontic treatment subjects with no need for treatment were about 44.11% , the subjects who need little treatment were about 26.82%, 13.06% of the subjects who need moderate treatment, 10.03% great treatment need and about 5.98% very greatly treatment need. Conclusions: Orthodontic treatment need according to IOTN shows that there was no significant difference between males and females in the malocclusion, Facial profile and treatment need


Article
The relation between facial prognathism and cervical posture in skeletal class I Iraqi adult sample

Authors: Hayder J. Attar --- Jinan Aliwee --- Ali M. Hameed
Pages: 149-152
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Biologic mechanisms of the form-function interaction are one of important component of orthodontic diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to search for the statistical associations between natural postural and craniofacial morphologic variables of the head. Materials and methods: The sample comprised natural head posture (NHP) cephalograms of 90 subjects, aged 18 to 25 years. Interpretation of the facial structure was made by using both intracranial and the extra-cranial reference lines in AutoCAD computer program. Results The measures of anteroposterior maxillary position, SNA showed a low negative correlations with the anterior cranial base angulation to true vertical (SN.Ver) and with the cranio-cervical position of the head (SN.OPT),(SN.CVT) The measures of anteroposterior mandibular position, SNB and SNPog, both showed moderate correlations with the anterior cranial base angulation to true vertical (SN.Ver) and with the cranio-cervical position of the head (SN.OPT),(SN.CVT) . Conclusion Regarding the correlations between the variables indicating the degree of facial prognathism in the NHP, and the postural variables of the cervical column, it can be argued that in subjects with forward cervical inclination, a relative decrease in facial prognathism is expected


Article
Prediction the widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars from the widths of maxillary incisors and first molars (Iraqi study)

Authors: Mohammed Nahidh
Pages: 153-157
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This study aimed to use the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary incisors and first molars as predictors to the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars. Materials and methods: The sample included 110 Iraqi Arab subjects with an age ranged between 17-25 years and class I skeletal and dental relations. The crown widths of maxillary teeth and mandibular canines and premolars were measured at the largest mesio-distal dimension on the study casts using digital electronic caliper with 0.01 mm sensitivity. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the relation between the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary incisors and first molars and the combined mesio-distal crowns widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars. Regression analysis was used to determine the equations that predict the widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars. Paired sample t-test was used to compare between the actual and predicted mesio-distal crown widths. Results and Conclusions: The findings showed a non-significant difference between the predicted and actual mesiodistal crown widths; hence the combined mesio-distal widths of maxillary incisors and first molars can be used as predictors for the combined mesio-distal widths of maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars


Article
Antibacterial effect of cardamom and black tea aqueous extract on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine (in vitro study)

Authors: Nebal Th. Shaker
Pages: 158-164
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Antimicrobial agents have been considered as having potential for the prevention of dental caries. This study aimed to test the effect of different concentrations of cardamom and black tea extracts on the sensitivity and growth of salivary mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) in vitro. Materials and methods: In this study. Mutans streptococci were isolated from saliva of 34 healthy people (aged between 22-40yrs). The bacteria was isolated, purifiedand diagnosed according to morphologicalcharacteristic and biochemical tests. Aqueous extracts of cardamom and black tea were prepared. Different concentrations of extracts were prepared and estimated in gm/ 100ml deionized water. The agar diffusion technique was used to determine the antibacterial activity of cardamom and tea extracts in which the inhibition of bacteria growth by different concentrations of extracts was measured by diameter of inhibition zone in millimeter. The viable count was measured in different concentrations for both types of extracts on comparison to chlorhexidine 0.2%. Results: The result showed that the mutans streptococci is more sensitive to tea extract than cardamom one, where the mean value of diameter of inhibition zone was higher by tea extract than cardamom type in all concentrations and chlorohexidine0.2% is more effective than both extracts. For viable count no statistical significant difference between two extract types at concentration of 40% but there are a high statistical significant difference for other concentrations, where the chlorhexidine is moreeffective than tea type and the last one is more effective than cardamom type with p value 0.05 . Conclusions: Cardamom and black tea have antibacterial effect against Mutans streptococci; the accused factor of dental caries.


Article
The multi-detector computed tomographical analysis of bone density in impacted maxillary canines

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Maxillary canines are important aesthetically and functionally, but impacted canines are more difficult and time consuming to treat, the aim of this study is to investigate with multi-detector computed tomography the correlation between the bone density and the upper canine impaction. Material and method: A sample of Unilaterally impacted maxillary canines from 24 patients (19 female, 5 male) who were referred to accurately localize the impacted canines at al- Karkh general hospital were evaluated by a volumetric 3-d images by the multi-detector computed tomography to accurately measure the bone density of the maxillary cortical palate of the maxillary impacted canine side and compare it with the other side of the normally erupted canine. Results: The statistical descriptive analysis showed that the ratio of the maxillary canine impaction was higher in females than in males, also the it revealed that the mean bone density of the cortical bone was greater in the maxillary impacted canine side (affected side) than in the control side (the side of the normally erupted canine), the Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed a significant difference in the mean bone density between the affected side and the control side. Conclusions: The increased bone density of the maxillary cortical plate could be an obstructive factor that cause maxillary canine impaction


Article
Assessment of the esthetic smile in a sample of Iraqi population

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the esthetic smile in sample of Iraqi adults and to assess the gender differences. Materials and Methods: 100 persons (50malesand 50 females had class I normal dental and skeletal selected for this study.Clinical examination and digital photograph with posed smile were performed for each individual. Six linear soft tissue parameters in each photograph using AutoCAD program 2011. Five visual and four quantitative evaluations of the smile were studied for eachsubject. The smile arch and index, buccal corridor spaces (BCSs) were studied.Descriptive statistics of the measurements were calculated. Independent student’s ttestswere used to evaluate the gender differences. Statistics: Descriptive statistics and Standard error of each measurement was calculated. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the measurements of male and female subjects. Chi square used for visual measurements. Results and conclusion: The average smile, parallelism of the upper incisal curve with the inner curvature of the lower lip, 1:1 ratio of the widths of nose and upper cuspid were higher in females than males while in smile curve arch line without touching the lower lip the opposed and 2nd premolars are the most common display in both groups.Females showed higher than five smile index indicate a constant well balanced smile in females than in males, Females showed a well-balanced expression with posed smile, A medium buccal corridor in both females and males

Keywords

Smile --- esthetics


Article
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the extracellular matrix of osseointegrated and diseased implants

Authors: Ghada I. Al-Duboni
Pages: 176-182
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Recently with improvement of dental implantology science, osseointegrated implants show a considerable durability, however; failures are not completely avoidable. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression is disturbed in many pathological conditions such as peri-implantitis and periodontitis. This study was carried out to investigate the tissue expression of MMP-2 in the extracellular matrix of osseointegrated and diseased implants. Subjects and methods: Gingival biopsies were collected from six patients having osseointegrated or working implants and twenty with diseased or non osseointegrated implants and (6) controls having no implants. In situ hybridization technique was used to analyze the changes in immunoreactivity of ECM-controlling MMP-2. Results: The findings of the present study indicate that the expression of MMP2 was significantly elevated in failed implants versus healthy implants (P<0.01). In addition, MMP-2 was detected in peri-implant sites with ongoing bone loss, cavitations and inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: The in situ hybridization technique, showed clear evidence that MMP-2, which is involved in the process of osseointegration and bone remodeling, increase greatly in the presence of bone destruction, cavitations, severe inflammation and fibrous tissue formation. The data link titanium- induced bone remodeling to changes in expression and distribution of MMP-2.

Table of content: volume: issue: