Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2013 volume:25 issue:4

Article
Evaluation of the stress concentration of different incisal ridge preparations of porcelain veneers (Finite element analysis)

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Background: Porcelain veneers are under a great deal of stress which may lead to clinical failure as fracture or dettachment. This study examined whether different finishing lines and lingual shoulder preparations in the incisal area of the maxillary central incisor affect the bond of the porcelain veneers. Materials and methods: A two- dimensional finite element model was made. Location and magnitude of maximum Von Mises stresses were calculated in porcelain veneer. Six types of preparations were drawn as:incisal overlap of 0.5mm, 1mm and 1.5mm depth and lingual shoulder, and incisal overlap of 0.5mm, 1mm and 1.5mm depth without shoulder preparation. Results: Stress formation is maximum in the incisal edge region. All the lingual shoulder preparations presented better stress distribution than the non shoulder preparations Conclusion: Stress is distributed more evenly when the tested preparation possesses a good thickness of porcelain and the more the surface area with incisal overlap the less possibility of bond failure


Article
The effect of smear layer on push-out bond strength to dentin of Bioceramic sealer (In vitro study)

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Background: Sealers should demonstrate adhesive properties to dentin, decreasing the chance of endodontic treatment failure. Increased adhesive properties to dentin may lead to greater strength of the restored tooth, which may provide greater resistance to tooth fracture and clinical longevity of an endodontically treated tooth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of Bioceramic iRoot SP sealer, AH plus sealer and Apexit plus sealer in absence or presence of smear layer using push out bond strength test. Materials and Methods: Sixty straight single roots of the mandibular premolars were selected for this study. All canals were instrumented using ProTaper rotary instruments to achieve tapered canal walls, instrumentation was done with copious irrigation of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Roots were randomly divided into three groups according to the type of sealer used (twenty teeth for each group): Group A: Apexit plus + gutta percha, Group B: AH plus sealer + gutta percha, Group C: iRoot SP sealer + gutta percha .Then groups were subdivided according to types of final irrigation into two subgroups. Groups (A1, B1, and C1) were irrigated with 5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl for 1 minute while Groups (A2, B2, and C2), the smear layer was removed with 5 ml of 17% EDTA for 1 minute. All groups were rinsed with distilled water and then obturated with cold lateral condensation technique, the roots then stored in moist environment at 37°C for one week. The roots were embedded in clear acrylic resin and three horizontal sections were prepared at a thickness of 1 mm ±0.1 in the apical, middle and coronal parts of each root. The test specimens were subjected to the push-out test method using a Universal Test Machine that carried 1-mm, 0.5- mm and 0.3-mm plungers for coronal, middle and apical specimens, respectively. The loading speed was 0.5 mm/ min. The computer showed the higher bond force before dislodgment of the filling material. These forces were divided by the surface area to obtain the bond strength in MPa. Results: The results showed that the bond strengths of iRoot SP and AH Plus were significantly higher than those of Apexit plus, but there was no significant difference between the bond strength of iRoot SP and AH Plus.In terms of root segments, the bond strengths in the middle specimens and the apical specimens were higher compared with the bond strengths in the coronal specimens. Conclusion: The presence or absence of smear layer did not significantly affect the bond strength of Bioceramic filling materials


Article
Evaluation of fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth restored by milled zirconia post and core with different post and core systems (An in vitro comparative study)

Authors: Huda Musaa'd Lafta --- Adel Farhan Ibraheem
Pages: 12-16
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Background: Restoration of root canal treated teeth with a permanent restoration affect in the success of endodontically treated teeth. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate and compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth restored by using custom made zirconium posts and cores, prefabricated carbon fiber, glass fiber and zirconium ceramic posts. Materials and method: Forty intact human mandibular second premolars were collected for this study and were divided into five groups. Each group contains 8 specimens: Group1: Teeth restored with Carbon Fiber Posts; Group2: Teeth restored with Glass Fiber Posts; Group3: Teeth restored with Zirconium Ceramic prefabricated Posts; Group4: Teeth restored with Zirconium Posts and Cores (copy milling); Group5: (Control Group).For groups 1, 2, 3, and 4; crowns were removed horizontally at the level of cement-enamel junction. Endodontic therapy was then done for all specimens in these groups using step-back technique.These specimens received standardized posts preparation (10mm depth), and then mounted in acrylic resin blocks. Panavia F 2.0 dual cure resin cement was used for cementation. The core build up was done with composite (Filtek P60). The specimens were then stored in saline and were subjected to compressive loads parallel to their long axes using universal testing machine (WP 300) until failure. Results: Data obtained were analyzed by one-way analysis of varianceand student t-test. The results showed that zirconium posts and cores possessed the highest significant differences followed by glass fiber posts, carbon fiber posts, and prefabricated ceramic zirconium posts. There were no significant differences between glass fiber, carbon fiber, and control group. The specimens were examined to determine the root fracture patterns and locations. Conclusion: In the present study the fiber post treated teeth showed significantly more desirable fracture patterns compared to those restored with zircon posts


Article
Evaluation of tissue displacement in posterior palatal seal area with different impression techniques with varying palatal forms

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Background: This study was designed to measure the displacement pattern of posterior palatal seal (pps) area in different forms of the palate and with different impression techniques. Materials and method: This study was used to measure the displacement pattern of (pps)in different palatal shapes by using different impression materials Korrecta wax No.4,Green compound and design of House for pps for each palatal forms by using a 3D Scanner of CAD/CAM and measuring the distance between 2 points in pps area by using Caural Threw. Result: The results show highly significant differences between these techniques and the control group (impression with light body) Conclusion: The physiological impression technique of pps with Korecta wax no.4 and design of House for each palatal forms give less displacement than the physiological impression with green compound


Article
Inhibition of bacterial growth around gutta percha cones by different antimicrobial solutions using antibiotic sensitivity test (An in vitro study)

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Background: Decontamination of gutta percha cones was important factor for success of root canal treatment. The aim of the present in vitro study was to identify and to compare the antimicrobial effect of following disinfection solutions: 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Iodine, tetracycline hydrochloride solution, EDTA & formocresol mixed with zinc oxide eugenol, on E faecalis, E coli and Candida albicans using sensitivity test Materials and Methods: Three types of microorganisms were isolated from infected root canals (E faecalis, E coli and Candida albicans) and cultured on Mueller Hinton agar petri-dishes. Disinfection of gutta percha cones done by immersion in six disinfection solutions (six groups), the groups are: distill water (used as control group), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Iodine, tetracycline hydrochloride solution, EDTA & formocresol mixed with Zinc oxide eugenol. The immersion times were 5 min. and the incubation was aerobically at 37 °C for 24 hr. for bacterial species and at 28°C for 48 hr. for candida albicans. After incubation, zones of inhibition (no growth of bacteria) were examined around the gutta percha cones & diameters of the zones were measured with a boley gauge. The means of inhibition zones for each group were measures and statistically analyzed among groups using ANOVA and LSD tests at 0.05 significance level. Results: There is highly significant differences (P=0.000) among all the tested groups. 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate showed the maximum antibacterial efficacy (broader zones of inhibition) against E faecalis. Compound of formocresol + Zinc oxide eugenol showed the maximum antibacterial efficacy against Candida albicans, and E coli. The minimum antibacterial efficacy against Candida albicans occurred with tetracycline group, while against E faecalis and E coli occurred with EDTA group Conclusion: All the tested materials had antibacterial efficacy against Candida albicans, E faecalis and E coli; but chlorhexidine gluconate and compound of formocresol & Zinc oxide eugenol, are more effective agents for a rapid disinfection of gutta-percha cones in five minutes


Article
The effect of addition of untreated and oxygen plasma treated polypropylene fibers on some properties of heat cured acrylic resin

Authors: Waffaa I. Mohammed --- Intisar J. Ismail
Pages: 33-38
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Background: The polymethyl methacrylate is the most reliable material for the construction of complete and partial dentures, despite satisfying esthetic demand itsuffered from having unsatisfactory properties like impact strength and transverse strength. This study was designed to improve the impact strength and transverse strength of heat cure acrylic resin by adding untreated and oxygen plasma treated polypropylene fibers and investigate the effect of this additive on some properties of acrylic resin materials. Materials and methods: Untreated and oxygen plasma treated polypropylene fibers was added to PMMA powder by weight 2.5 %. Specimens were constructed and divided into 5 groups according to the using tests; each group was subdivided in to 3 subgroups. The tests conducted were impact strength, transverse strength, surface hardness, surface roughness, water sorption and solubility. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant differences (LSD). Results: After incorporation of untreated and oxygen plasma treated polypropylene fibers there was a highly significant increase in impact strength and surface hardness; while there was a non significant difference in transverse strength. Also the value of water sorption increase significantly but with the limit of ADA specification. Conclusion:Within the limit of this study it can be concluded that the reinforcement with polypropylene fibers effective method to increase fracture resistance of denture base; while reinforcement with oxygen plasma treated polypropylene fibers further increase fracture resistance


Article
Cephalometric analysis of craniofacial deformity of β- thalassemic major by using computed tomography

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Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia resulting from defects in hemoglobin production. β- thalassemia caused by decrease in the production of β- globin chains affect multiple organs and is associated with cranio-orofacial deformity which include prominent cheek bones and protrusive premaxilla with depression of the nasal bridge often referred to as “rodent or chip-munk face” with small mandible and Cl.II skeletal relationship. This study aimed to investigate cephalometric craniofacial parameters (skeletal) of β- thalassemic major patients by using computed tomography and to compare findings with a group of healthy patients in the same age group. Subject, Materials and Method: The study included (40) patients with β- thalassemic major (20 female and 20 male) with age 8-15years compared with (40) healthy controls (20 female and 20 male) with the same age, who admitted to spiral computed tomography scan unit in X-ray institute in AL-KARKH general hospital to have computed tomography scan for the brain, paranasal and for orthodontic purpose from October 2011 to June 2012. Cephalometric analysis of the selected four skeletal linear measurements and four skeletal angular measurements, by using direct analysis with software programs in a computer which is part of the computed tomography machine. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between thalassemic males and females in all selected skeletal linear and angular measurements, Thalassemic patients have a highly significant large ANB angle and cl II skeletal relationship, significant larger gonial angle, Mandibular base length (Me-Go) is significantly shorter, Retrognathic mandible (SNB) is significantly decreased, highly significant shorter in total anterior facial height (N-Me) and total posterior facial height (S-Go), and also the Ramus height is highly significant decreased. Conclusion: In thalassemic patients, the skeletal morphology is recognizable and mandible is retrognathism and they have skeletal cl. II pattern and Computed tomography is useful tool for assessment of the cranio facial measurement.


Article
Digital panoramic estimation of chronological age among Iraqi adult population in relation to morphological variables of canine teeth

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Background: Age determination of skeletal remains is apart of many medico-legal as well as anthropological examination. Many anatomical structures have been studied, but the teeth and their measurements seem to be the most reliable method since teeth represent the most durable and resilient part of the skeleton. This study was undertaken for estimating the chronological age among Iraqi adult subjects based on various morphological variables of canine teeth using digital panoramic radiograph. Material and methods: The sample in the current study consisted of 240 Iraqi patients attending to the dental radiological clinic at College of dentistry/ Babylon University taking panoramic radiographs for different diagnostic purposes, the study sample included both sexes with age ranged 20-60 years old, the following measurements of maxillary right canine have been taken with the aid of computer program (2008): Maximum tooth length, root length measured from midpoint of cemento-enamel junction to the root apex, pulp length, root width at cemento-enamel junction, root width at mid-root level, root width at mid-point between cemento-enamel junction and mid-root level, pulp width at cemento-enamel junction, pulp width at mid-root level, pulp width at mid-point between cementoenamel junction and mid-root level, tooth area, pulp area. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13. Results: The result of the current study showed that from the various parameters measured, the differences between real age and estimated age of subjects were not statistically significant except for root length and pulp area which show significant difference between real age and estimated age with p-value 0.004 and 0.002 respectively. Conclusion: Age of the subjects can be estimated using regression equations including root length and pulp area for the examined tooth


Article
Incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma of head and neck in Baghdad city

Authors: Ahlam H. Majeed --- Muna S. Merza
Pages: 49-51
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Background: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), formerly called Hodgkin's diseases is an uncommon form of lymphoma. The incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma shows marked heterogeneity with respect to age, gender, race, geographic area, social class and histological subtype. This study was carried out in an attempt to evaluate the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma of head and neck in Baghdad city. Materials and Methods: The diagnosed cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma of head and neck region in Baghdad city between (1990-1999) were collected and analyzed according to age, gender, site and the histopathological subtypes of the tumor. Results: Out of (702) cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma of ten years between (1990-1999),(362 ) of them were occurred in the head and neck region including (202) males and (160) females. The remaining (340) cases were occurred in other lymph nodes of the body. Conclusion: This study revealed that predominant histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's lymphoma is the mixed cellularity type that showed more predominance in male especially among young age groups and low incidence with advancing age


Article
Postoperative assessment of dental implants by using multi-slice computed tomography

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Background: Implantology is a fast growing area in dentistry. One of the most common issues encountered in dental implantation procedures is the lack of adequate preoperative planning. Conventional radiography may not be able to assess the true regional three-dimensional anatomical presentation. Multi Slice Computed Tomography provides data in 3-dimentional format offering information on craniofacial anatomy for diagnosis; this technology enables the virtual placement of implant in a 3-Dimensional model of the patient jaw (dental planning). Patients, Material and Methods: The sample consisted of (72) Iraqi patients indicated for dental implant (34 male and 38 female), age range between (20-70) years old. They were examined during a time period started from December 2012 to April 2013. All the patients who subjected to implant treatment depending on the pre-operative panoramic radiograph were referred Al-Kharkh General hospital, spiral CT scan Department, for postsurgical assessment evaluate the angulation of fixture in relation to the angulation of bone in coronal and sagittal sections by using Multi-Detector Computed Tomography. Results: The present study showed that the angulation of implant affected by age, sector, and tooth position in the same jaw, and not affected by gender. Conclusion: Multi-Slice Computed Tomography provides a great understanding about bone angulation, it necessary as a diagnostic tool for treatment planning pre and post-operatively


Article
Effectiveness of prophylactic agents in prevention of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy

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Background: Oral mucositis is regarded as one of the major complications of radiation therapy especially in patients with head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glutamine in preventing or minimizing the development of mucositis of the oral cavity. Subjects and methods: Forty-six participants were randomly selected amongst those who were planned to receive radiation therapy for head and neck region cancers. They were randomly divided into two groups of 23 subjects, one group received glutamine and the second group received a placebo. Results: Glutamine had a statistically significant effect in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of oral mucositis in the treated patients compared to patients in the control group. Gender and age had no effect in the development or severity of oral mucositis in the studied patients. Conclusions: It can be concluded that glutamine can be used effectively to prevent or minimize oral mucositis amongst cancer patients who receive radiation therapy.


Article
Craniometric asymmetry assessment in class I and class II skeletal relationship patients using helical computed tomography sample aged between 18-35 years

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Background: Asymmetry assessment is an important component of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Several studies attempted to find the relationship between craniometric asymmetry and skeletal jaws relationship and many authors found some extent of asymmetry in individuals with normal jaws relationship. The use of Computed tomography (CT) allows for the assessment of asymmetry on a dimensionally accurate volumetric image, aim of the study is to determine if there are differences in craniometric asymmetry between patient with skeletal class I and patients with skeletal class II relationship using Helical CT scan. Materials and Methods: Ninety individuals with clinically symmetrical faces were imaged with Helical CT scan, and aging 18-35 years, divided into two groups, class Ι group consisted of 31 individuals and class ΙΙ group consisted of 59individuals. Anatomical landmarks were defined and reference planes were established to determine the variance of the landmarks using a coordinate plane system. Sagittal radiographs were used to determine the amount of the ANB angle. Asymmetry was analyzed by calculating the linear measurements and asymmetry indices of the anatomical landmarks by using coronal and axial radiographs in both classes. Results: Clinically symmetrical faces demonstrated a computed tomographic significant asymmetry with the vertical dimensions being significantly larger than the bilateral dimensions and the amount of asymmetry was more at the level of the mandible and less at the maxillary area. Conclusions: The craniometric structures in terms of size and shape were larger in males than in females. The amount of asymmetry was independent on gender and skeletal jaws relationship and age


Article
Evaluation of the effect of ER: YAG laser on apical microleakage (in vitro study)

Authors: Anas F. Mahdee --- Ali H. Abbas --- Salah A. Issmaeel
Pages: 66-71
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Background: Apicoectomy and retrograde filling is indicated when conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or failed to achieve apical seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ER: YAG laser on apical microleakage. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted single-rooted teeth were used in this study. The roots were divided into six groups. Group 1: apicoectomy by fissure bur, and apical cavities prepared by round bur, then cavities were filled with MTA. Group 2: the roots preparations and fillings were the same as group 1, then the apical areas were treated by Er:YAG Laser. Group 3: apicoectomy by fissure bur, and apical cavities prepared by ultrasound retrotip and cavities were filled with MTA. Group 4: the roots preparations and fillings were the same as group 3, then the apical areas were treated by Er:YAG Laser. Group 5: the roots obturation with gutta percha, then the apices were resected using Er:YAG Laser. Group 6: the roots apices were resected with Er:YAG Laser, then the canals were obturates with gutta percha. Apical microleakage was measured by methylene blue dye penetration technique. Results: Significant difference between the groups. Group 1 shows the best apical seal, while group 5 shows the worse apical sealing ability. Conclusion: Apicoectomy by bur is better than apicoectomy by laser, and apical cavity prepared by bur is better than prepared by US. The use of ER: YAG laser in apicoectomy is preferred to be done before obturation of the root canal with gutta percha


Article
Effect of the examination stress on periodontal health status and salivary IL-1β among Iraqi dental students

Authors: Athraa A. Mahmood --- Leka'a M. Ibrahim
Pages: 72-78
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Background: Periodontal diseases (PD) are common chronic inflammatory diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms colonizing the gingival area and inducing local and systemic elevations of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in tissue destruction by a destructive inflammatory process. Stress was considered as one of the important risk factors that cause many inflammatory diseases including PD. The purpose of this study wasto determines and compares clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI and BOP), stress level and salivary IL-1β level among dental students before, during and after mid-year exam, also to find the correlation among stress, IL-1β and clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and methods: The sample was consisted of 24 dental students; 12 male and 12 female aged (21-23) years, theywere examined in this follow up study at three main periods; first period at least one month before mid-year exam (Period I), second period during mid-year exam (Period II) and third period at least one month after mid-year exam (Period III). DASS-21 was used to measure stress level in all periods. Saliva samples were collected to determine the salivary IL-1β level by ELISA. Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded at four sites per tooth. Results: The means of all clinical periodontal parameters were higher in the period II than in the periods I and III with highly significant differencesat (P ≤ 0.01). As well as, the means concentrations of salivary IL-1β were higher in the period II than in the periods I and III with highly significant differencesat (P ≤ 0.01). Also, by using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, stress shows highly significant strong correlation with IL-1β and clinical periodontal parametersat (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study provided strong evidence of association between examination stress and PD, where dental students during mid-year exam have higher levels of stress, clinical periodontal parameters and salivary IL-1β as compared with before and after mid-year exam periods


Article
Local drug delivery systems for treating periodontal diseases (A review of literature)

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In this review of literature, the light will be concentrated on the local drugs delivery systems for treating the periodontal diseases. Principles, types, advantages and indications of each type will be discussed in this paper

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Article
Caries experience in relation to salivary physicochemical and immunological changes among asthmatic patients in Mosul city / Iraq

Authors: Mohammed S. Younus --- Ahlam T. Mohammed
Pages: 86-90
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Background: Asthma is a pulmonary disorder characterized by reversible stenosis of the peripheral bronchi. This disease could affect the oral health; as a result asthmatic patients may have a higher risk of developing dental diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the caries experience and salivary elements among asthmatic patients using Ventoline inhaler. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 30 male asthmatic patients with an age range 20-24years (under Ventoline inhaler). The control group includes 30 subjects matching with study group in age and gender. Plaque and DMFS index were used for recording caries experience. Stimulated salivary samples were collected and then salivary flow rate, S-IgA and salivary elements concentrations (Ca, Na, K and PO4) were determined. Results: The mean value of dental caries (DMFS) and plaque index (Pl I) were found to be higher among study group compared to control group with statistically significant difference for Pl I (P<0.05), while not significant difference was observed for DMFS (P>0.05). The mean value of salivary flow rate, Ca, PO4 , Na and K ions concentrations were found to be lower among study group compared to the control group with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05), except for Ca and K ions the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). S-IgA in the study group was higher than the control group and the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: Individuals with asthma have a higher caries prevalence, worse oral cleanliness and lower salivary elements compared to the control group, so a special preventive programs need to be designed for those patients


Article
Dissolution of inorganic phosphorous ion from human enamel treated with different concentration of Siwak aqueous extract in comparison with sodium fluoride

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Background: The use of Miswak, chewing sticks (salvadorapersica) can be traced back to Babylonians some 7000 years ago. It is commonly used throughout the world especially for the purpose of oral hygiene. Muslims are using as the religious view. Current study aimed to test the ability of aqueous siwak extract to increase the resistance of enamel surface against acid dissolution compared to sodium fluoride. Materials and Method: Twenty maxillary first premolars were treated with the selected solutions included two aqueous siwak extract concentration(5%,10%) and sodium fluoride(0.05%)as control positive for 2 minutes once daily for 20days interval, de ionized water was used as control negative. The concentration of the dissolved phosphorus ion was measured in etching solution of 2N HCL by flam atomic absorption spectrometer. Result: 10% aqueous siwak extract test solution was registered the lesser release of phosphorusion from etched enamel surface, then 5% aqueous siwak extract followed by sodium fluoride 0.05%. No significant difference between two aqueous siwak extract concentration, while a significant difference was found between mentioned agents and sodium fluoride. De ionized water was recorded a highly significant difference with all test solutions. Conclusion: Aqueous siwak extract effective in increasing the resistance of enamel surface for acid dissolution and should be use not only for the religious view but also for the benefit of its effects produced


Article
The effects of unilateral premature loss of maxillary primary molars on the dental arch dimensions

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Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of changes in the horizontal and vertical maxillary arch dimensions measurements following the premature loss of primary molars. Materials and methods: The sample consist of (50) children with unilateral prematurely extracted either first or second primary molars at the mixed dentition stage. Results and Conclusions: Results shows that there was an increase in the vertical incisor to canine distance (A) with both premature loss of first & second primary molars due to distal movement of primary canines and at the same time there were a significant loss of space in the extraction space with premature loss of second primary molar due to a mesial movement of maxillary first permanent molars which at the same time tip lingually and this is clear obvious from the decrease in the inter-molars distances horizontally.


Article
Oral health status, dental knowledge and behaviors among children and adolescents (8-15) years old in the cities of Baghdad and Thamar

Authors: Eman K. Chaloob ايمان جلوب
Pages: 100-103
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Background: Investigating dental health knowledge among children is important. Knowing what behaviors are right in relation to dental health does not guarantee that children will practice those behaviors. However, lack of knowledge and misconceptions about dental health may lead to behaviors that are harmful to teeth and gum. Baseline data on knowledge levels are required to determine which particular areas of dental health education are in need of improvement for high-risk children living in different geographical areas. This research was conducted to study the oral health status, dental knowledge and behavior in relation to two different cities, among children in Baghdad and Thamar (republic of Yemen) governorate. Materials and Methods: The sample collected was composed of two geographically different groups, first group from Baghdad city: composed of 144 children and adolescents and the second group collected from the city of Thamar (republic of Yemen) composed of 108 of an age range 8-15 years old children. Dental plaque and Gingival health condition was assessed by using plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964),and gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963), Ramfjord index teeth were examined to represent the whole dentition. Oral examination was performed by a single examiner using mouth mirror and dental explorer for each child. Ten questions were fabricated to evaluate the dental health knowledge and behavior of the two groups. Results: This study was recorded that the age group 12-15 years old the significant difference was found in relation to gingival health condition, the dental Knowledge and behaviors was the highly significant difference was found between Baghdad and Thamar group. As well as highly scores of dental knowledge and behavior was significantly related to the dental plaque for both Baghdad and Thamar group. Conclusion: The difference in the geographical location could affect on oral hygiene, dental health knowledge and behavior of the children and adolescent


Article
Effect of small cardamom extracts on Mutans streptococci and Candida Albicans in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate and de-ionized water (In vivo study)

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Background: Small cardamom or green cardamom is the dried fruit of the tall perennial herbaceous plant, Elettaria cardamomum Maton belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The major use of small cardamom on world wide is for domestic culinary purpose and in medicine. This study was conducted to test the effect of small cardamom extracts on Mutans streptococci and Candida Albicans in comparison to 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and de-ionized water in vivo. Materials and Methods: Mutans streptococci and Candid Albicans were isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic and biochemical test. In this experiments, the effect of control agents and small cardamom extracts as a mouth rinses was tested on the saliva of group of volunteers to determine the level of Mutans streptococci and Candida Albicans in vivo. Also the salivary flow rate and pH were measured in vivo. Result: 10 % aqueous cardamom extracts had a highly significant antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci after 15 min after rinsing and following times. 30 % aqueous cardamom extracts had a significant antifungal activity in vivo against Candida albican after 30 min after rinsing and following times. But still CHX is more effective than the other agents in reduction the counts of mutans streptococci and Candida Albicans. CHX 0.2% mouth rinse had the highest stimulation of salivary flow rates and pH followed by hot water cardamom mouth rinse 30% followed by cold cardamom mouth rinse 10% then de-ionized water mouth rinse. Conclusion: Cardamom extracts were effective against Mutans streptococci and Candida Albicans, but still less than CHX


Article
The role of maxillary canines in forensic odontology

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Background: This study aimed to determine the gender of a sample of Iraqi adults utilizing the mesio-distal width of maxillary canines, inter-canine width and standard maxillary canine index, and to determine the percentage of dimorphism as an aid in forensic odontology. Materials and methods: The sample included 200 sets of study models belong to 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) with an age ranged between 17-23 years. The mesio-distal crown dimension was measured manually, from the contact points for the maxillary canines (both sides), in addition to the inter-canine width using digital vernier. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the measurements for both genders; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender difference, percentage of dimorphism was obtained and discriminant function statistics were used for gender identification in addition to the percentages of gender identification accuracy. Results: Generally, the mesio-distal width of the maxillary canine and the inter-canine width were larger in males than females with a high significant difference. The accuracy of genders determination using standard maxillary canine index was 44% for males, 74% for females and 59% for the combined sample, while it was 70% for males, 76% for females and 73% for the combined sample using discriminant function statistics depending upon the canines, intercanine widths and maxillary canine index. The percentages of dimorphism were 6.13% for the canine mesio-distal width and 4.66% for the inter-canine width. Conclusions: Maxillary canines can be used in genders identification as an aid for forensic odontology


Article
The effect of orthodontic relapse on the proliferation of fibroblast and epithelial rests of Malassez in periodontal ligament of rat molars (A histopathological study)

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Background: Relapse of previously moved teeth, is major clinical problem in orthodontics with respect to the goals of successful treatment. This study investigated the effect of orthodontic relapse on the proliferation of fibroblast and epithelial rests of Malassez cells in periodontal ligament of rat molars. Materials and Methods: Sixteen ten-week- old male Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups composed of four animals each: Group I received no orthodontic force (control). In both Group II and Group III, uniform standardized expansive springs were used for moving the maxillary first molars buccally for periods of one and three weeks respectively. The spring initially generated an average expansive force of 20 g on each side. In Group IV the springs were left for three weeks, until the maxillary first molars moved buccally, after that the springs were removed and the animals were scarified after three weeks of relapse tooth movement. After the humanly scarification of animals, each maxilla in all groups was dissected into two halves each half including the three maxillary molars and processed for histological examination. The number of both fibroblast and ERM cells in each cluster was counted in the PDL of the pressure side of the mesio-buccal roots of the maxillary right and left first molars in all groups and the surface areas of the ERM clusters were also measured in all groups. Results: The number of fibroblast was significantly increased at the end of active movement (Group III) and significantly very highly increased during the relapse period (Group IV). Regarding the ERM cells there were statistically significant increase in both the number of cells in each ERM cluster and the surface areas of the ERM clusters in Group III and highly significant increase in Group IV, while Group II showed no significant differences regarding all measurements. Conclusions: It was concluded that fibroblast and ERM cells may play an important role during orthodontic relapse


Article
Effect of orthodontic tooth movement on salivary levels of Interleukin-1beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Creactive protein

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Background: Orthodontic force is considered to stimulate cells in the periodontium to release many mediators such as cytokines which play a responsible role for periodontal and alveolar bone remodeling, bone resorption and new bone deposition. Aim of this study was carried out to estimate changes of the (interleukin-one beta, tumor necrosis factor – alpha and C-reactive protein) levels in unstimulated whole saliva during the leveling stage of orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients (12 males and 18 females) with ages ranges (19- 23) years. Each sample had Class I and Class II malocclusion dental classification and required bilateral extraction of their maxillary first premolars, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructions before and during the period of study, one month later fixed orthodontic appliance were placed in the upper arch by using 0.014 nickel titanium arch wire. The unstimulated whole saliva was taken from each sample immediately before placement of the appliance (baseline), and at (after1hour, after one week and after two week) following placement of the fixed orthodontic appliance. In addition the plaque index and gingival index were recorded during the interval periods of this study to assess oral cleanliness. The interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factoralpha were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while the C-reactive protein was determined by latex agglutination. Results: The results of the present study found the mean value of both salivary (interleukin-one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) were highest at (after1hour) followed by at (after one week) then at (after two week) than the baseline with highly statistical significant differences (P< 0.01) among males, females and total samples, in addition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females (P>0.05). While the mean values of C-reactive protein were higher at (after 1hour) only with highly significant differences (P< 0.01) among females and total samples while only significant difference (P<0.05) for males, in addition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females. Regarding the correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha), there were positive correlation between them at all periods of study. Moreover there were positive correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) and salivary Creactive protein. On the other hand there were no association between the salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha and C-reactive protein) and clinical parameter (plaque index and gingival index). Conclusion: From this clinical study we conclude that orthodontic force induces increasing the levels of (interleukin – one beta, tumor necrosis factor -alpha, C-reactive protein) in unstimulated whole saliva during orthodontic tooth movement.


Article
Salivary cortisol among low birth weight 5 years old kindergarten children in relation to dental caries (comparative study)

Authors: Rihab A. Ali --- Ban S. Diab
Pages: 126-133
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Background: Birth weight is a powerful predictor of infant growth and survival. Evidence now shows that children born with low birth weight face an increased risk of chronic diseases and have many health problems including oral health. The aims of this study were to assess the salivary flow rate, viscosity, and salivary cortisol among low birth weight kindergarten children aged 5 years old in Hilla centre, in relation to dental caries and compares them with the normal birth weight children of the same age and gender. Materials and methods: The total sample involved 80 children (40 low birth weights and 40 normal birth weights) aged 5 years old. The diagnosis and recording of severity of dental caries was recorded through the application of d1-4mfs index according to the criteria described by Mühlemann (1976). The stimulated saliva was collected from the total sample under standardized conditions and then analyzed for measuring salivary flow rate and viscosity, in addition to estimation of salivary cortisol by special cortizol kit using VIDAS® Cortisol S. Results: The mean rank of dmfs, ds, ms and fs were found to be higher among low birth weight than normal birth weight groups, with a statistically significant difference for dmfs, ds (P<0.05), highly significant difference for ms (P<0.01) and non significant difference for fs (P>0.05). Concerning the ds grade, data analysis showed a significant difference only for d1 grade (P<0.05). Salivary analysis demonstrated that the mean rank of salivary flow rate was found to be lower among the low birth weight than the normal birth weight groups with non significant difference (P>0.05). The viscosity of saliva was found to be highly significantly higher among low birth weight than normal birth weight groups (P<0.01). Concerning salivary cortisol, data analysis showed that the mean rank was higher among low birth weight than normal birth weight groups. However, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of the current research revealed that low birth weight status affect oral health conditions


Article
Photogrammetric analysis of facial soft tissue profile of Iraqi adults sample with Class II div.1 and Class III malocclusion: (A comparative study)

Authors: Salam R. Abd-Alwhab --- Dhiaa J. Nasir
Pages: 134-144
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Background: The purposes of this study were to determine the photogrammetric soft tissue facial profile measurements for Iraqi adults sample with class II div.1 and class III malocclusion using standardized photographic techniques and to verify the existence of possible gender differences. Materials & methods: Seventy five Iraqi adult subjects, 50 class II div.1 malocclusion (24 males and 26 females), 25 class III malocclusion (14 males and 11 females), with an age range from 18-25 years. Each individual was subjected to clinical examination and digital standardized right side photographic records were taken in the natural head position. The photographs were analyzed using AutoCAD program 2007 to measure the distances and angles used in the Soft Tissue Photogrammetric Analysis. Descriptive statistics was obtained for (29) measured variables for both genders and independent- samples t-test was performed to evaluate the genders difference. Results &conclusions: The results indicated that: males had greater facial heights and lengths as well as greater prominences of facial dimensions in class II div.1 and class III malocclusion. The mean values of all angular variables were higher in females than males in the class II div.1 exceptin the following angular measurements: vertical nasal angle,angle of the nasal dorsum,cervicomental angle andangle of the lower facial third,with larger male dimensions in all linear measurements of the nasal, lips, chin area and facial analysis except upper facial third.Independent ttestshowed statistically significant gender differences in the vertical nasal angle, nasal angle, nasofrontal angle; angle of the nasal dorsum; nasolabial angle, cervicomental angle, lower facial third, facial depth subnasal depth, nasal prominence, length of upper lip, length of lower lip of pogonion and height of chin,while in the class III malocclusionThe mean values of all angular variables were higher in males than females except in the following: nasofrontal angle, nasal angle,nasolabial angle,mentolabial angleandangle of the middle facial third with larger male dimensions in all linear measurements of the facial, lips, chin area and nose analysisexcept the height of nasal tip, nasofrontal angle, nasal angle, nasolabial angle, angle of total convexity, lower facial third, upper lip, upper lip, prominence of lower lip, prominence of chin and height of chin. Independent t-test showed statistically significant gender differences


Article
Beta angle in a sample of Iraqi adults with Class I skeletal and dental relations and its correlation with other craniofacial measurements

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Background: This study aimed to determine the value of Beta angle for a sample of Iraqi adults with class I skeletal and dental relations and to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism and to find out the relation between this angle and other craniofacial measurements. Materials and Methods: Sixty dental students (23 males and 37 females) with an age ranged between 20-31 years old and having class I skeletal and dental relations were chosen for this study. Each student was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD 2007 computer program to measure the angular and linear variables. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the measurements for both genders and total sample; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender difference and Pearson's correlation coefficient test used to detect the relation between the Beta angle and other measurements. Results and Conclusions: The value of Beta angle in this study was 32.63°± 2.57°. When the Beta angle is less than 27°, the case is class II and when it is more than 38°, the case is class III. There is no genders difference regarding the Beta angle and this angle correlated significantly and positively with the mandibular length and articular angle and negatively with ANB and saddle angles


Article
Soft tissue facial profile analysis of adult Iraqis with different classes of malocclusion

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Background: Complete analysis of facial profile should also include an evaluation of soft tissue morphology. Materials and Method:The sample consisted of 90 Iraqi adults (45 males and 45 females) aged 18-25 years from Baghdad city divided into 3 groups according to the ANB angle with 30 subjects in each group (15 males and 15 females) for class I, II and III. Lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject and 8 angular and 5 linear measurements were identified and determined, t-test, ANOVA and LSD test were used to compare between both genders and between different classes. Results:Showed that females had greater angular measurements and smaller linear measurements with more lip prominence than males in all classes, there was more convex facial profile with more prominent forehead, more prominent tip of the nose with increased facial heights and more prominent lips in class II subjects than in class I and IIIsubjects. Conclusion: There is wide variation in soft tissue facial profile among different classes of malocclusion and careful determination of the components of soft tissue facial profile is very important in the diagnosis and treatment planning


Article
Effect of small cardamom extracts on Mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate and de-ionized water (In vitro study)

Authors: Ghada A. Ibrahim --- Wesal A. Al – Obaidi
Pages: 160-163
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Background: Herbs are being widely explored to discover alternatives to synthetic antibacterial agents.Small Cardamom often referred to as queen of spices because of its very pleasant aroma and taste, have a history as old as human race. Most people use cardamom as a spice and are largely unaware of its numerous health benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of water and alcoholic cardamom extracts on sensitivities, growth, and adherence of Mutans streptococci in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this study, saliva was collected from ten volunteers (College students 18-22 years). Agar well technique was used to study the sensitivities of Mutans streptococci to different concentrations of small cardamom extracts and other control agents, also the effects of small cardamom extracts on viable counts, adherence of Mutans streptococci were studied Results: According to agar well diffusion methods, both cardamom extracts were effective in inhibition of Mutans streptococci, but still weaker than chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%. Alcoholic extracts showed higher zone of inhibition compared to the same concentration of water with high significance differences (P<0.01). The effects of 10%, 15%, and 20% of both water and alcohol extracts of small cardamom were tested on the viability counts of Mutans streptococci in vitro. Highly significant reduction in the counts of bacteria was reported of both cardamom extracts and CHX in comparison to control without agents after 24 hr. Both cardamom extracts less effective than CHX. All the concentration of water and alcohol cardamom mouth washes tested was not effective in prevention the adherence of bacteria on teeth surface in vitro, while CHX was effective in prevention the adherence of bacteria. Conclusion: Cardamom extracts were effective against Mutans streptococci, but still less than CHX


Article
Clinical and radiographical evaluation of pulpotomy in primary molars treated with Pulpotec (PD), Formocresol and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA)

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Background: Pulpotomy is an accepted treatment for the management of cariously exposed pulps in symptom free primary molars to achieve one of the most important goals for Pedodontists, which is the retention of the pulpally involved deciduous teeth healthy until the time of normal exfoliation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative success of pulpotec, formocresol and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in cariously exposed primary molar teeth, using clinical and radiographical examinations. Materials and methods: Thirty nine children with 45 primary molars requiring pulpotomy were selected in this study, 15 teeth treated by each type of pulpotomy medicament. Clinical and radiographical follow up for the patients was performed after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months respectively. Results: After six months, the clinical success rate of the Pulpotec group was (93.3%), formocresol group was (73.3%) and (100%) for the MTA group, although the success rate of the formocresol group was the least comparing to the other two groups, it was statistically not significant (P= 0.05). The highest and lowest radio graphical success rates after six months, were encountered in the MTA (100%) and formocresol (66.7%) groups respectively, which showed a significant difference (P=0.04). The radiographical success rate of the pulpotec group was (86.7%). Conclusion: This study suggests that Pulpotec and MTA can be used as a replacement for formocresol as a pulpotomy medicament in primary molar teeth


Article
The prevalence of Candida spp. in the saliva of controlled and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type II patients

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Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 has been known for many years as the most common endocrine metabolic disorder that affect the oral cavity and cause many oral diseases including candidiasis. In this study, the incidence of Candida spp. in the saliva of controlled and uncontrolled diabetic patients were determined and compared with non diabetic group. Material and method: The sample consists of 200 subjects: 100 diabetic patients [57 (28.5%) uncontrolled diabetes, 43 (21.5%) controlled diabetes] and 100 (50%) non diabetic groups. Saliva samples was obtained from the subjects and cultured on selective media using appropriate microbiological method to observe the presence of Candida spp. Results: The results revealed a significant association (p < 0.001) between diabetic patients and the presence of Candida spp. using statistical analysis. The odds ratio of the presence of Candida spp. in the controlled and uncontrolled diabetic patients were 0.539 (95% CI= 0.193, 1.508).The odds ratio of the presence of Candida spp. in the uncontrolled and controlled diabetic patients were 17.433 (95% CI= 7.298, 41.642) and 9.40 (95% CI = 4.068, 21.686), respectively, compared to non diabetic group. A significant association was found between the Presence of Candida spp. and the following variables: Groups (p < 0.000), Gender (p < 0.000), Smoking (p < 0.000), Antibiotics (p < 0.000), oral mouthwash (p < 0.000) Edentulous (p < 0.000) and Denture wearing (p < 0.000). Conclusion: Candida spp. population significantly increased in the oral flora of diabetic patients compared with non diabetic group

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